HDAC6 and Ubp-M BUZ domains recognize specific C-terminal sequences of proteins.
ABSTRACT: The BUZ/Znf-UBP domain is a protein module found in the cytoplasmic deacetylase HDAC6, E3 ubiquitin ligase BRAP2/IMP, and a subfamily of ubiquitin-specific proteases. Although several BUZ domains have been shown to bind ubiquitin with high affinity by recognizing its C-terminal sequence (RLRGG-COOH), it is currently unknown whether the interaction is sequence-specific or whether the BUZ domains are capable of binding to proteins other than ubiquitin. In this work, the BUZ domains of HDAC6 and Ubp-M were subjected to screening against a one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) peptide library that exhibited random peptide sequences with free C-termini. Sequence analysis of the selected binding peptides as well as alanine scanning studies revealed that the BUZ domains require a C-terminal Gly-Gly motif for binding. At the more N-terminal positions, the two BUZ domains have distinct sequence specificities, allowing them to bind to different peptides and/or proteins. A database search of the human proteome on the basis of the BUZ domain specificities identified 11 and 24 potential partner proteins for Ubp-M and HDAC6 BUZ domains, respectively. Peptides corresponding to the C-terminal sequences of four of the predicted binding partners (FBXO11, histone H4, PTOV1, and FAT10) were synthesized and tested for binding to the BUZ domains by fluorescence polarization. All four peptides bound to the HDAC6 BUZ domain with low micromolar K(D) values and less tightly to the Ubp-M BUZ domain. Finally, in vitro pull-down assays showed that the Ubp-M BUZ domain was capable of binding to the histone H3-histone H4 tetramer protein complex. Our results suggest that BUZ domains are sequence-specific protein-binding modules, with each BUZ domain potentially binding to a different subset of proteins.
Project description:The BUZ/Znf-UBP domain is a distinct ubiquitin-binding module found in the cytoplasmic deacetylase HDAC6, the E3 ubiquitin ligase BRAP2/IMP, and a subfamily of deubiquitinating enzymes. Here, we report the solution structure of the BUZ domain of Ubp-M, a ubiquitin-specific protease, and its interaction with ubiquitin. Unlike the BUZ domain from isopeptidase T (isoT) that contains a single zinc finger, the Ubp-M BUZ domain features three zinc-binding sites consisting of 12 residues. These zinc ligands form a pair of cross-braced ring fingers encapsulated within a third zinc finger in the primary structure. In contrast to isoT, which can form an N-terminal loop swapped dimer in the crystal state, the formation of additional zinc fingers in the Ubp-M BUZ domain restricts its N-terminal loop to intra-domain interactions. The ubiquitin-binding site of the Ubp-M BUZ domain is mapped to the highly conserved, concave surface formed by the alpha 3 helix and the central beta-sheet. We further show that this site binds to the C-terminal tail of free ubiquitin, and corresponding peptides display essentially the same binding affinities as full-length ubiquitin does for the Ubp-M BUZ domain. However, modification of the G76(Ub) carboxylate group either by a peptide or isopeptide bond abolishes BUZ-domain interaction. The unique ubiquitin-recognition mode of the BUZ domain family suggests that they may function as "sensors" of free ubiquitin in cells to achieve regulatory roles in many aspects of ubiquitin-dependent processes.
Project description:HDAC6 is a unique cytoplasmic deacetylase capable of interacting with ubiquitin. Using a combination of biophysical, biochemical and biological approaches, we have characterized the ubiquitin-binding domain of HDAC6, named ZnF-UBP, and investigated its biological functions. These studies show that the three Zn ion-containing HDAC6 ZnF-UBP domain presents the highest known affinity for ubiquitin monomers and mediates the ability of HDAC6 to negatively control the cellular polyubiquitin chain turnover. We further show that HDAC6-interacting chaperone, p97/VCP, dissociates the HDAC6-ubiquitin complexes and counteracts the ability of HDAC6 to promote the accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins. We propose that a finely tuned balance of HDAC6 and p97/VCP concentrations determines the fate of ubiquitinated misfolded proteins: p97/VCP would promote protein degradation and ubiquitin turnover, whereas HDAC6 would favour the accumulation of ubiquitinated protein aggregates and inclusion body formation.
Project description:Deubiquitinase USP20/VDU2 has been demonstrated to play important roles in multiple cellular processes by controlling the life span of substrate proteins including hypoxia-inducible factor HIF1?, and so forth. USP20 contains four distinct structural domains including the N-terminal zinc-finger ubiquitin binding domain (ZnF-UBP), the catalytic domain (USP domain), and two tandem DUSP domains, and none of the structures for these four domains has been solved. Meanwhile, except for the ZnF-UBP domain, the biological functions for USP20's catalytic domain and tandem DUSP domains have been at least partially clarified. Here in this study, we determined the solution structure of USP20 ZnF-UBP domain and investigated its binding properties with mono-ubiquitin and poly-ubiquitin (K48-linked di-ubiquitin) by using NMR and molecular modeling techniques. USP20's ZnF-UBP domain forms a spherically shaped fold consisting of a central ?-sheet with either one ?-helix or two ?-helices packed on each side of the sheet. However, although having formed a canonical core structure essential for ubiquitin recognition, USP20 ZnF-UBP presents weak ubiquitin binding capacity. The structural basis for understanding USP20 ZnF-UBP's ubiquitin binding capacity was revealed by NMR data-driven docking. Although the electrostatic interactions between D264 of USP5 (E87 in USP20 ZnF-UBP) and R74 of ubiquitin are kept, the loss of the extensive interactions formed between ubiquitin's di-glycine motif and the conserved and non-conserved residues of USP20 ZnF-UBP domain (W41, E55, and Y84) causes a significant decrease in its binding affinity to ubiquitin. Our findings indicate that USP20 ZnF-UBP domain might have a physiological role unrelated to its ubiquitin binding capacity.
Project description:The aggresome pathway is activated when proteasomal clearance of misfolded proteins is hindered. Misfolded polyubiquitinated protein aggregates are recruited and transported to the aggresome via the microtubule network by a protein complex consisting of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) and the dynein motor complex. The current model suggests that HDAC6 recognizes protein aggregates by binding directly to polyubiquitinated proteins. Here, we show that there are substantial amounts of unanchored ubiquitin in protein aggregates with solvent-accessible C termini. The ubiquitin-binding domain (ZnF-UBP) of HDAC6 binds exclusively to the unanchored C-terminal diglycine motif of ubiquitin instead of conjugated polyubiquitin. The unanchored ubiquitin C termini in the aggregates are generated in situ by aggregate-associated deubiquitinase ataxin-3. These results provide structural and mechanistic bases for the role of HDAC6 in aggresome formation and further suggest a novel ubiquitin-mediated signaling pathway, where the exposure of ubiquitin C termini within protein aggregates enables HDAC6 recognition and transport to the aggresome.
Project description:Sad1 is an essential splicing factor initially identified in a genetic screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for snRNP assembly defects. Based on sequence homology, Sad1, or USP39 in humans, is predicted to comprise two domains: a zinc finger ubiquitin binding domain (ZnF-UBP) and an inactive ubiquitin-specific protease (iUSP) domain, both of which are well conserved. The role of these domains in splicing and their interaction with ubiquitin are unknown. We first used splicing microarrays to analyze Sad1 function in vivo and found that Sad1 is critical for the splicing of nearly all yeast intron-containing genes. By using in vitro assays, we then showed that it is required for the assembly of the active spliceosome. To gain structural insights into Sad1 function, we determined the crystal structure of the full-length protein at 1.8 Å resolution. In the structure, the iUSP domain forms the characteristic ubiquitin binding pocket, though with an amino acid substitution in the active site that results in complete inactivation of the enzymatic activity of the domain. The ZnF-UBP domain of Sad1 shares high structural similarly to other ZnF-UBPs; however, Sad1's ZnF-UBP does not possess the canonical ubiquitin binding motif. Given the precedents for ZnF-UBP domains to function as activators for their neighboring USP domains, we propose that Sad1's ZnF-UBP acts in a ubiquitin-independent capacity to recruit and/or activate Sad1's iUSP domain to interact with the spliceosome.
Project description:DC-UbP/UBTD2 is a ubiquitin (Ub) domain-containing protein first identified from dendritic cells, and is implicated in ubiquitination pathway. The solution structure and backbone dynamics of the C-terminal Ub-like (UbL) domain were elucidated in our previous work. To further understand the biological function of DC-UbP, we then solved the solution structure of the N-terminal domain of DC-UbP (DC-UbP_N) and studied its Ub binding properties by NMR techniques. The results show that DC-UbP_N holds a novel structural fold and acts as a Ub-binding domain (UBD) but with low affinity. This implies that the DC-UbP protein, composing of a combination of both UbL and UBD domains, might play an important role in regulating protein ubiquitination and delivery of ubiquitinated substrates in eukaryotic cells.
Project description:Ubiquitin is an important cellular signal that targets proteins for degradation or regulates their functions. The previously identified BMSC-UbP protein derived from bone marrow stromal cells contains a ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain at the C terminus that has been implicated in linking cellular processes and the ubiquitin system. Here, we report the solution NMR structure of the UBA domain of human BMSC-UbP protein and its complex with ubiquitin. The structure determination was facilitated by using a solubility-enhancement tag (SET) GB1, immunoglobulin G binding domain 1 of Streptococcal protein G. The results show that BMSC-UbP UBA domain is primarily comprised of three alpha-helices with a hydrophobic patch defined by residues within the C terminus of helix-1, loop-1, and helix-3. The M-G-I motif is similar to the M/L-G-F/Y motifs conserved in most UBA domains. Chemical shift perturbation study revealed that the UBA domain binds with the conserved five-stranded beta-sheet of ubiquitin via hydrophobic interactions with the dissociation constant (KD) of approximately 17 microM. The structural model of BMSC-UbP UBA domain complexed with ubiquitin was constructed by chemical shift mapping combined with the program HADDOCK, which is in agreement with the result from mutagenesis studies. In the complex structure, three residues (Met76, Ile78, and Leu99) of BMSC-UbP UBA form a trident anchoring the domain to the hydrophobic concave surface of ubiquitin defined by residues Leu8, Ile44, His68, and Val70. This complex structure may provide clues for BMSC-UbP functions and structural insights into the UBA domains of other ubiquitin-associated proteins that share high sequence homology with BMSC-UbP UBA domain.
Project description:The ubiquitination levels of protein substrates in eukaryotic cells are delicately orchestrated by various protein cofactors and enzymes. Dendritic cell-derived ubiquitin (Ub)-like protein (DC-UbP), also named as Ub domain-containing protein 2 (UBTD2), is a potential Ub shuttle protein comprised of a Ub-like (UbL) domain and a Ub-binding domain (UBD), but its biological function remains largely unknown. We identified two Ub-related enzymes, the deubiquitinating enzyme USP5 and the Ub-activating enzyme UbE1, as interacting partners of DC-UbP from HEK 293T cells. Biochemical studies revealed that the tandem UBA domains of USP5 and the C-terminal Ub-fold domain (UFD) of UbE1 directly interacted with the C-terminal UbL domain of DC-UbP but on the distinct surfaces. Overexpression of DC-UbP in HEK 293T cells enhanced the association of these two enzymes and thus prompted cellular ubiquitination, whereas knockdown of the protein reduced the cellular ubiquitination level. Together, DC-UbP may integrate the functions of USP5 and UbE1 through interacting with them, and thus reconcile the cellular ubiquitination and deubiquitination processes.
Project description:The ubiquitin-like interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) and its specific E1, E2, and E3 enzymes are transcriptionally induced by type I IFNs. ISG15 conjugates newly synthesized proteins. ISG15 linkage to proteins appears to be an important downstream IFN signaling event that discriminates cellular and pathogenic proteins synthesized during IFN stimulation from existing proteins. This eliminates potentially pathogenic proteins as the cell attempts to return to normal homeostasis after IFN "stressed" conditions. However, the molecular events that occur in this process are not well known. Here, we show that the C-terminal LRLRGG of ISG15 interacts with the binder of ubiquitin zinc finger (BUZ) domain of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6). Because HDAC6 is involved in the autophagic clearance of ubiquitinated aggregates during which SQSTM1/p62 plays a major role as a cargo adapter, we also were able to confirm that p62 binds to ISG15 protein and its conjugated proteins upon forced expression. Both HDAC6 and p62 co-localized with ISG15 in an insoluble fraction of the cytosol, and this co-localization was magnified by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. In addition, ISG15 was degraded via the lysosome. Overexpression of ISG15, which leads to an increased conjugation level of the cellular proteome, enhanced autophagic degradation independently of IFN signaling transduction. These results thus indicate that ISG15 conjugation marks proteins for interaction with HDAC6 and p62 upon forced stressful conditions likely as a step toward autophagic clearance.
Project description:The conjugation of polyubiquitin to target proteins acts as a signal that regulates target stability, localization, and function. Several ubiquitin binding domains have been described, and while much is known about ubiquitin binding to the isolated domains, little is known with regard to how the domains interact with polyubiquitin in the context of full-length proteins. Isopeptidase T (IsoT/USP5) is a deubiquitinating enzyme that is largely responsible for the disassembly of unanchored polyubiquitin in the cell. IsoT has four ubiquitin binding domains: a zinc finger domain (ZnF UBP), which binds the proximal ubiquitin, a UBP domain that forms the active site, and two ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domains whose roles are unknown. Here, we show that the UBA domains are involved in binding two different polyubiquitin isoforms, linear and K48-linked. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we show that IsoT has at least four ubiquitin binding sites for both polyubiquitin isoforms. The thermodynamics of the interactions reveal that the binding is enthalpy-driven. Mutation of the UBA domains suggests that UBA1 and UBA2 domains of IsoT interact with the third and fourth ubiquitins in both polyubiquitin isoforms, respectively. These data suggest that recognition of the polyubiquitin isoforms by IsoT involves considerable conformational mobility in the polyubiquitin ligand, in the enzyme, or in both.