Dose escalation of lenalidomide in relapsed or refractory acute leukemias.
ABSTRACT: Lenalidomide is effective in myeloma and low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes with deletion 5q. We report results of a phase I dose-escalation trial of lenalidomide in relapsed or refractory acute leukemia.Thirty-one adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and four adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were enrolled. Lenalidomide was given orally at escalating doses of 25 to 75 mg daily on days 1 through 21 of 28-day cycles to determine the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), as well as to provide pharmacokinetic and preliminary efficacy data.Patients had a median age of 63 years (range, 22 to 79 years) and a median of two prior therapies (range, one to four therapies). The DLT was fatigue; 50 mg/d was the MTD. Infectious complications were frequent. Plasma lenalidomide concentration increased proportionally with dose. In AML, five (16%) of 31 patients achieved complete remission (CR); three of three patients with cytogenetic abnormalities achieved cytogenetic CR (none with deletion 5q). Response duration ranged from 5.6 to 14 months. All responses occurred in AML with low presenting WBC count. No patient with ALL responded. Two of four patients who received lenalidomide as initial therapy for AML relapse after allogeneic transplantation achieved durable CR after development of cutaneous graft-versus-host disease, without donor leukocyte infusion.Lenalidomide was safely escalated to 50 mg daily for 21 days, every 4 weeks, and was active with relatively low toxicity in patients with relapsed/refractory AML. Remissions achieved after transplantation suggest a possible immunomodulatory effect of lenalidomide, and results provide enthusiasm for further studies in AML, either alone or in combination with conventional agents or other immunotherapies.
Project description:Patients with relapsed AML have a poor prognosis and limited responses to standard chemotherapy. Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug that may modulate anti-tumor immunity. We performed a study to evaluate the safety and tolerability of lenalidomide with mitoxantrone, etoposide and cytarabine (MEC) in relapsed/refractory AML. Adult patients with relapsed/refractory AML were eligible for this phase I dose-escalation study. We enrolled 35 patients using a "3?+?3" design, with a 10 patient expansion cohort at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Lenalidomide was initially given days 1-14 and MEC days 4-8; due to delayed count recovery, the protocol was amended to administer lenalidomide days 1-10. The dose of lenalidomide was then escalated starting at 5 mg/d (5-10-25-50). The primary objective was tolerability and MTD determination, with secondary outcomes including overall survival (OS). The MTD of lenalidomide combined with MEC was 50 mg/d days 1-10. Among the 35 enrolled patients, 12 achieved complete remission (CR) (34%, 90%CI 21-50%); 30-day mortality was 6% and 60-day mortality 13%. The median OS for all patients was 11.5 months. Among 17 patients treated at the MTD, 7 attained CR (41%); the median OS was not reached while 12-month OS was 61%. Following therapy with MEC and lenalidomide, patient CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells demonstrated increased inflammatory responses to autologous tumor lysate. The combination of MEC and lenalidomide is tolerable with an RP2D of lenalidomide 50 mg/d days 1-10, yielding encouraging response rates. Further studies are planned to explore the potential immunomodulatory effect of lenalidomide and MEC.
Project description:Patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have poor outcomes and hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the only curative treatment. New targeted therapies improved survival in select patients with specific mutations, however management of patients without these molecular alterations is an unmet need. We conducted a phase one study of lenalidomide in combination with cytarabine/idarubicin salvage chemotherapy in patients with R/R AML and high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes. A total of 33 patients were enrolled in the study (30 AML, 3 MDS), and treated at three dose levels with 3 + 3 design. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was seen in eight patients, including four hematologic DLTs. The most commonly observed non-hematologic serious adverse events were febrile neutropenia, rash, sepsis and renal injury. Dose level -1, consisting of 25?mg/d lenalidomide D1-21, 1 g/m<sup>2</sup> cytarabine D5-8, and 8 mg/m<sup>2</sup> idarubicin D5-7 was determined to be the maximum tolerated dose. Note, 15/33 (45%) of patients were able to receive pre-planned 21?days of lenalidomide. Overall, 18 patients achieved complete remission (CR) (n = 14) or CR with incomplete count recovery (CRi) (n = 4) with total CR/CRi rate of 56%. The 1-year and 2-year overall survival (OS) were 24% and 10%, respectively. Among responders, 10/18 underwent allogeneic HCT and had a 1-year OS of 40%. There was no molecular pattern associated with response. These data demonstrate that the combination had clinical activity in R/R AML. This regimen should be further investigated for patients who relapsed after HCT, and as a bridge therapy to HCT. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01132586).
Project description:Lenalidomide and panobinostat have shown single-agent efficacy of 14% to 50% and 27% to 58%, respectively, in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). This phase I/II study was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, and efficacy of lenalidomide combined with panobinostat in relapsed/refractory HL.In the phase I trial, previously treated patients with classical or lymphocyte-predominant HL received escalating doses of lenalidomide on days 1 to 21 and panobinostat 3 times a week (TIW) every 28 days. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined during cycle 1. When the MTD was determined, a phase II study was conducted to determine overall response (OR).Twenty-four patients enrolled; 11 in the phase I and 13 in phase II portions. No DLTs were observed but 2 patients who received 25 mg lenalidomide and 20 mg panobinostat experienced neutropenia and thrombocytopenia > 14 days in cycle 2, leading to selection of 25 mg lenalidomide on days 1 to 21 and 15 mg panobinostat TIW for the phase II dose. In all 24 patients, Grade 3 to 4 toxicities consisted of neutropenia (58%), thrombocytopenia (42%), lymphopenia (25%), and febrile neutropenia (25%). OR was 16.7% (2 complete response [CR] and 2 partial response). One patient with CR had lymphocyte-predominant HL and received 22 cycles. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 3.8 and 16.4 months, respectively.Although the combination of panobinostat and lenalidomide appears safe in patients with relapsed/refractory HL, the limited efficacy and significant rates of neutropenia and febrile neutropenia observed do not support further evaluation of this combination in HL.
Project description:Lenalidomide is the approved treatment for patients with red blood cell (RBC) transfusion-dependent lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and chromosome 5q deletion (del(5q)). We report the long-term outcomes (median follow-up 3.2 years) in patients treated with lenalidomide in the MDS-003 trial. RBC transfusion independence (TI) ? 8 weeks was achieved in 97 of 148 treated patients (65.5%), with a median response duration of 2.2 years. Partial or complete cytogenetic response was achieved by 63 of 88 evaluable patients (71.6%). Median overall survival (OS) was longer in patients achieving RBC-TI ? 8 weeks (4.3 vs 2.0 years in non-responders; P<0.0001) or cytogenetic response (4.9 vs 3.1 years in non-responders; P=0.010). Time to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) progression was longer in patients achieving RBC-TI ? 8 weeks or any cytogenetic response versus non-responders (P=0.001 and P=0.0002, respectively). In a landmark multivariate analysis, RBC-TI ? 8 weeks was associated with prolonged OS (P<0.001) and a trend toward reduced relative risk of AML progression (P=0.080). Among these lower-risk MDS patients with del(5q), lenalidomide was associated with prolonged RBC-TI and cytogenetic responses, which were linked to improved OS and reduced risk of AML progression.
Project description:Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) frequently fail chemotherapy due to refractory disease, relapse, or toxicity. Among older AML patients (age > 60 years), there are few long-term survivors. Lenalidomide is a candidate for study in AML based on its clinical activity in a related disorder, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), with the 5q- chromosomal abnormality. We report induction of sustained morphologic and cytogenetic complete remission in 2 older AML patients treated with high-dose, single-agent lenalidomide; each patient had trisomy 13 as the sole cytogenetic abnormality. We show for the first time that lenalidomide has clinical activity in this poor-risk cytogenetic subset of AML. The clinical trials described in this paper have been registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov under identifiers NCT00466895 and NCT00546897.
Project description:Older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have limited treatment options and a poor prognosis, thereby warranting novel therapeutic strategies. We evaluated the efficacy of lenalidomide as front-line therapy for older AML patients. In this phase 2 study, patients 60 years of age or older with untreated AML received high-dose (HD) lenalidomide at 50 mg daily for up to 2 28-day cycles. If patients achieved a complete remission (CR)/CR with incomplete blood count recovery (CRi) or did not progress after 2 cycles of HD lenalidomide, they received low-dose lenalidomide (10 mg daily) until disease progression, an unacceptable adverse event, or completion of 12 cycles. Thirty-three AML patients (median age, 71 years) were enrolled with intermediate (55%), unfavorable (39%), or unknown (6%) cytogenetic risk. Overall CR/CRi rate was 30%, and 53% in patients completing HD lenalidomide. The CR/CRi rate was significantly higher in patients presenting with a low (< 1000/?L) circulating blast count (50%, P = .01). The median time to CR/CRi was 30 days, and duration of CR/CRi was 10 months (range, 1- ? 17 months). The most common grades ? 3 toxicities were thrombocytopenia, anemia, infection, and neutropenia. HD lenalidomide has evidence of clinical activity as initial therapy for older AML patients, and further study of lenalidomide in AML and MDS is warranted. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00546897.
Project description:We previously reported that bortezomib indirectly modulates transcription of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT). We designed a phase I study of azacitidine (a direct DNMT inhibitor) plus bortezomib in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to determine safety and tolerability. Twenty-three adults with relapsed/refractory AML received azacitidine 75 mg/m(2) daily on days 1-7. Bortezomib was dose escalated from 0.7 mg/m(2) on days 2 and 5 to 1.3 mg/m(2) on days 2, 5, 9 and 12. The target dose was reached without dose limiting toxicities. Infection and/or febrile neutropenia were frequent. Patients received a median of 2 cycles of therapy (range, 1-12+). Five of 23 patients achieved remission, including two with morphologic and cytogenetic complete response (CR) and three with CR and incomplete count recovery (CRi). Of CR/CRi responders with cytogenetic abnormalities at baseline, three of four achieved cytogenetic CR. The combination of azacitidine and bortezomib was tolerable and active in this cohort of poor-risk previously treated patients with AML.
Project description:Older acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with a chromosome 5q deletion have poor outcomes with conventional chemotherapy. This phase 2 study explored the safety and efficacy of single-agent lenalidomide in previously untreated older AML patients with del(5q) who declined standard chemotherapy. Patients were treated with lenalidomide 50 mg daily for 28 days as induction therapy and 10 mg daily for 21 days of a 28-day cycle as maintenance until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Among 37 evaluable patients, the median age was 74 years (range, 60-94), 21 (57%) were female, 19 (51%) had prior myelodysplastic syndrome, and 30 (81%) had pretreatment cytogenetic studies evaluated centrally. Six had isolated del(5q), 1 had del(5q) and +8, 23 had complex cytogenetics, and 7 others had del(5q) identified locally. Fourteen patients (38%) completed induction therapy: 7 patients died during induction therapy, 8 had disease progression, 7 had nonfatal adverse events, and 1 entered hospice. Eight patients started maintenance therapy. Five patients (14%) achieved a partial or complete response, 2 with isolated del(5q) and 3 with complex cytogenetics. Relapse-free survival was 5 months (range, 0-19). Median overall survival was 2 months for the entire population. In conclusion, lenalidomide as a single agent has modest activity in older del(5q) AML patients. Southwest Oncology Group Study S0605 is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00352365.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Lenalidomide and bortezomib are active in relapsed and relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM). In preclinical studies, lenalidomide sensitized MM cells to bortezomib and dexamethasone. This phase I, dose-escalation study (ie, NCT00153933) evaluated safety and determined the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of lenalidomide plus bortezomib in patients with relapsed or with relapsed and refractory MM.<h4>Patients and methods</h4>Patients received lenalidomide 5, 10, or 15 mg/d on days 1 through 14 and received bortezomib 1.0 or 1.3 mg/m(2) on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of 21-day cycles. Dexamethasone (20mg or 40 mg on days 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, and 12) was added for progressive disease after two cycles. Primary end points were safety and MTD determination.<h4>Results</h4>Thirty-eight patients were enrolled across six dose cohorts. The MTD was lenalidomide 15 mg/d plus bortezomib 1.0 mg/m(2). Dose-limiting toxicities (n = 1 for each) were grade 3 hyponatremia and herpes zoster reactivation and grade 4 neutropenia. The most common treatment-related, grades 3 to 4 toxicities included reversible neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, and leukopenia. Among 36 response-evaluable patients, 61% (90% CI, 46% to 75%) achieved minimal response or better. Among 18 patients who had dexamethasone added, 83% (90% CI, 62% to 95%) achieved stable disease or better. Median overall survival was 37 months.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Lenalidomide plus bortezomib was well tolerated and showed promising activity with durable responses in patients with relapsed and relapsed/refractory MM, including patients previously treated with lenalidomide, bortezomib, and/or thalidomide. The combination of lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone is being investigated in a phase II study in this setting and in newly diagnosed MM.
Project description:Lenalidomide is the first karyotype-selective therapeutic approved for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) owing to high rates of erythroid and cytogenetic response in patients with chromosome 5q deletion [del(5q)]. Although haploinsufficiency for the RPS14 gene and others encoded within the common deleted region (CDR) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the del(5q) phenotype, the molecular basis of the karyotype specificity of lenalidomide remains unexplained. We focused our analysis on possible haplodeficient enzymatic targets encoded within the CDR that play key roles in cell-cycle regulation. We show that the dual specificity phosphatases, Cdc25C and PP2Acalpha, which are coregulators of the G(2)-M checkpoint, are inhibited by lenalidomide. Gene expression was lower in MDS and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) specimens with del(5q) compared with those with alternate karyotypes. Lenalidomide inhibited phosphatase activity either directly (Cdc25C) or indirectly (PP2A) with corresponding retention of inhibitory phospho-tyrosine residues. Treatment of del(5q) AML cells with lenalidomide induced G(2) arrest and apoptosis, whereas there was no effect in nondel(5q) AML cells. Small interfering RNA (shRNA) suppression of Cdc25C and PP2Acalpha gene expression recapitulated del(5q) susceptibility to lenalidomide with induction of G(2) arrest and apoptosis in both U937 and primary nondel(5q) MDS cells. These data establish a role for allelic haplodeficiency of the lenalidomide inhibitable Cdc25C and PP2Acalpha phosphatases in the selective drug sensitivity of del(5q) MDS.