B-MYB positively regulates serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein (STRAP) activity through direct interaction.
ABSTRACT: Serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein (STRAP) functions as a regulator of both TGF-? and p53 signaling. However, the regulatory mechanism of STRAP activity is not understood. In this study, we report that B-MYB is a new STRAP-interacting protein, and that an amino-terminal DNA-binding domain and an area (amino acids 373-468) between the acidic and conserved regions of B-MYB mediate the B-MYB·STRAP interaction. Functionally, B-MYB enhances STRAP-mediated inhibition of TGF-? signaling pathways, such as apoptosis and growth inhibition, by modulating complex formation between the TGF-? receptor and SMAD3 or SMAD7. Furthermore, coexpression of B-MYB results in a dose-dependent increase in STRAP-mediated stimulation of p53-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest via direct interaction. Confocal microscopy showed that B-MYB prevents the normal translocation of SMAD3 in response to TGF-?1 and stimulates p53 nuclear translocation. These results suggest that B-MYB acts as a positive regulator of STRAP.
Project description:Serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein (STRAP) functions as a regulator of both TGF-? and p53 signaling that participates in the regulation of cell proliferation and cell death in response to various stresses. Here, we demonstrate that STRAP acetylation plays an important role in p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. STRAP is acetylated at lysines 147, 148, and 156 by the acetyltransferases CREB-binding protein (CBP) and that the acetylation is reversed by the deacetylase sirtuin7 (SIRT7). Hypo- or hyperacetylation mutations of STRAP at lysines 147, 148, and 156 (3KR or 3KQ) influence its activation and stabilization of p53. Moreover, following 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment, STRAP is mobilized from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and promotes STRAP acetylation. Our finding on the regulation of STRAP links p53 with SIRT7 influencing p53 activity and stability.
Project description:Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer cells. Strap (stress-responsive activator of p300) is a novel TPR motif OB-fold protein that contributes to p53 transcriptional activation. We show here that, in addition to its established transcriptional role, Strap is localised at mitochondria where one of its key interaction partners is ATP synthase. Significantly, the interaction between Strap and ATP synthase downregulates mitochondrial ATP production. Under glucose-limiting conditions, cancer cells are sensitised by mitochondrial Strap to apoptosis, which is rescued by supplementing cells with an extracellular source of ATP. Furthermore, Strap augments the apoptotic effects of mitochondrial p53. These findings define Strap as a dual regulator of cellular reprogramming: first as a nuclear transcription cofactor and second in the direct regulation of mitochondrial respiration.
Project description:Activation of p53 target genes for tumor suppression depends on the stress-specific regulation of transcriptional coactivator complexes. Strap (stress-responsive activator of p300) is activated upon DNA damage by ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and Chk2 kinases and is a key regulator of the p53 response. In addition to antagonizing Mdm2, Strap facilitates the recruitment of p53 coactivators, including JMY and p300. Strap is a predicted TPR-repeat protein, but shows only limited sequence identity with any protein of known structure. To address this and to elucidate the molecular mechanism of Strap activity we determined the crystal structure of the full-length protein at 2.05 Å resolution. The structure of Strap reveals an atypical six tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) protein that also contains an unexpected oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB)-fold domain. This previously unseen domain organization provides an extended superhelical scaffold allowing for protein-protein as well as protein-DNA interaction. We show that both of the TPR and OB-fold domains localize to the chromatin of p53 target genes and exhibit intrinsic regulatory activity necessary for the Strap-dependent p53 response.
Project description:Transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?)/Smad3 signaling plays a role in tissue fibrosis. We report here that Erbb4-IR is a novel long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) responsible for TGF-?/Smad3-mediated renal fibrosis and is a specific therapeutic target for chronic kidney disease. Erbb4-IR was induced by TGF-?1 via a Smad3-dependent mechanism and was highly upregulated in the fibrotic kidney of mouse unilateral ureteral obstructive nephropathy (UUO). Silencing Erbb4-IR blocked TGF-?1-induced collagen I and alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) expressions in vitro and effectively attenuated renal fibrosis in the UUO kidney by blocking TGF-?/Smad3 signaling. Mechanistic studies revealed that Smad7, a downstream negative regulator of TGF-?/Smad signaling, is a target gene of Erbb4-IR because a binding site of Erbb4-IR was found on the 3' UTR of Smad7 gene. Mutation of this binding site prevented the suppressive effect of Erbb4-IR on the Smad7 reporter activity; in contrast, overexpression of Erbb4-IR largely inhibited Smad7 but increased collagen I and ?-SMA transcriptions. Thus, kidney-specific silencing of Erbb4-IR upregulated renal Smad7 and thus blocked TGF-?/Smad3-mediated renal fibrosis in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, the present study identified that Erbb4-IR is a novel lncRNA responsible for TGF-?/Smad3-mediated renal fibrosis by downregulating Smad7. Targeting Erbb4-IR may represent a precise therapeutic strategy for progressive renal fibrosis.
Project description:Transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) has been identified as one of the most important fibrogenic cytokines associated with Peyronie's disease (PD). The mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 7 (SMAD7) is an inhibitory Smad protein that blocks TGF-? signaling pathway. The aim of this study was to examine the anti-fibrotic effect of the SMAD7 gene in primary fibroblasts derived from human PD plaques. PD fibroblasts were pretreated with the SMAD7 gene and then stimulated with TGF-?1. Treated fibroblasts were used for Western blotting, fluorescent immunocytochemistry, hydroxyproline determination, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling assays. Overexpression of the SMAD7 gene inhibited TGF-?1-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of SMAD2 and SMAD3, transdifferentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, and quashed TGF-?1-induced production of extracellular matrix protein and hydroxyproline. Overexpression of the SMAD7 gene decreased the expression of cyclin D1 (a positive cell cycle regulator) and induced the expression of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1, which is known to terminate Smad-mediated transcription, in PD fibroblasts. These findings suggest that the blocking of the TGF-? pathway by use of SMAD7 may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of PD.
Project description:We recently reported that hydrogen peroxide-inducible clone-5 (Hic-5, also named androgen receptor-associated protein 55) can bind to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-signaling regulator Smad3, thereby inhibiting certain Smad3-dependent TGF-beta responses. We now show that Hic-5 can also control TGF-beta responses through an alternative mechanism involving Smad7, a key negative regulator of TGF-beta signaling. Hic-5 binds directly to Smad7. This interaction requires the LIM3 domain of Hic-5, and enhances TGF-beta signaling through causing loss of Smad7 protein but not mRNA. Enforced expression of Hic-5 reverses the ability of Smad7 to suppress TGF-beta-induced phosphorylation of Smads 2 and 3 and activation of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 promoter (in NRP-154 and PC3 prostate carcinoma and WPMY-1 prostate myofibroblast cell lines). Lentiviral-mediated small-hairpin RNA silencing of endogenous Hic-5 reduced TGF-beta responses in PC3 and WPMY-1 cells. Further work suggests that the level of Smad7 is modulated by its physical interaction with Hic-5 and targeted to a degradation pathway not likely to be proteasomal. Our findings support that Hic-5 functions as a cell-type-specific activator of TGF-beta signaling through its ability to physically interact with and neutralize Smad7.
Project description:Transforming Growth Factor-? (TGF-?) and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) signaling pathways are both independently implicated as key regulators in tumor formation and progression. Here, we report that the tumor-associated overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) desensitizes TGF-? signaling and its cytostatic regulation through specific and persistent Stat3 activation and Smad7 induction in vivo. In human tumor cell lines, reduction of TGF-?-mediated Smad2 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and Smad3 target gene activation were observed when EGFR was overexpressed, but not in cells that expressed EGFR at normal levels. We identified Stat3, which is activated specifically and persistently by overexpressed EGFR, as a key signaling molecule responsible for the reduced TGF-? sensitivity. Stable knockdown of Stat3 using small hairpin RNA(shRNA) in Head and Neck (HN5) and Epidermoid (A431) tumor cell lines resulted in reduced growth compared with control shRNA-transfected cells when grown as subcutaneous tumor xenografts. Furthermore, xenografts with Stat3 knockdown displayed increased Smad3 transcriptional activity, increased Smad2 phosphorylation and decreased Smad7 expression compared with control xenografts in vivo. Consistently, Smad7 mRNA and protein expression was also significantly reduced when EGFR activity was blocked by a specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor, AG1478, or in Stat3 knockdown tumors. Similarly, Smad7 knockdown also resulted in enhanced Smad3 transcriptional activity in vivo. Importantly, there was no uptake of subcutaneous HN5 xenografts with Smad7 knockdown. Taken together, we demonstrate here that targeting Stat3 or Smad7 for knockdown results in resensitization of TGF-?'s cytostatic regulation in vivo. Overall, these results establish EGFR/Stat3/Smad7/TGF-? signaling axis driving tumor growth, which can be targeted therapeutically.
Project description:The p53 cofactor Strap (stress responsive activator of p300) is directly targeted by the DNA damage signalling pathway where phosphorylation by ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) kinase facilitates nuclear accumulation. Here, we show that Strap regulation reflects the coordinated interplay between different DNA damage-activated protein kinases, ATM and Chk2 (Checkpoint kinase 2), where phosphorylation by each kinase provides a distinct functional consequence on the activity of Strap. ATM phosphorylation prompts nuclear accumulation, which we show occurs by impeding nuclear export, whereas Chk2 phosphorylation augments protein stability once Strap has attained a nuclear location. These results highlight the various functional roles undertaken by the DNA damage signalling kinases in Strap control and, more generally, shed light on the pathways that contribute to the regulation of the p53 response.
Project description:The present study demonstrated that murine protein serine/threonine kinase 38 (MPK38) coimmunoprecipitates with Smad proteins (Smad2, -3, -4, and -7) and that this association is mediated by the catalytic kinase domain of MPK38. The association between MPK38 and Smad2, -3, and -4 was significantly increased by TGF-? or ASK1 signals, whereas these signals decreased association of MPK38 with Smad7. MPK38 stimulated TGF-?-induced transcription required for TGF-?-mediated biological functions, such as apoptosis and cell growth arrest, in a kinase-dependent manner. Knockdown of endogenous MPK38 showed an opposite effect, inhibiting TGF-? signaling. MPK38-mediated phosphorylation of Smad proteins (Ser(245) of Smad2, Ser(204) of Smad3, Ser(343) of Smad4, and Thr(96) of Smad7) was also found to be crucial to the positive regulation of TGF-? signaling induced by MPK38. In addition, MPK38 enhanced nuclear translocation of Smad3, as well as redistribution of Smad7 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, in response to TGF-?. Together, these results indicate that MPK38 functions as a stimulator of TGF-? signaling through direct interaction with and phosphorylation of Smad proteins.
Project description:Among the gynaecological cancers, epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has the highest lethality because of the high incidence of tumour progression and metastasis. Exploration of the detailed mechanisms underlying EOC metastasis and the identification of crucial targets is important to better estimate the prognosis and improve the treatment of this disease. The present study aimed to identify the role of miR-520h in the prognosis of patients with EOC, and the mechanisms of its involvement in EOC progression. We showed that miR-520h was upregulated in 116 patients with EOC, especially in those with advanced-stage disease, and high miR-520h expression predicted poor outcome. Furthermore, ectopic expression of miR-520h enhanced EOC cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in vitro and in vivo. miR-520h promoted EOC progression by downregulating Smad7, and subsequently activating the TGF-? signalling pathway. Most importantly, TGF-?1 stimulation increased miR-520h expression in EOC cells by upregulating its transcription factor c-Myb. In conclusion, we described the role of the TGF-?1/c-Myb/miR-520h/Smad7 axis in EOC metastasis, and highlighted the possible use of miR-520h as a prognostic marker for EOC.