HSSB1 rapidly binds at the sites of DNA double-strand breaks and is required for the efficient recruitment of the MRN complex.
ABSTRACT: hSSB1 is a newly discovered single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein that is essential for efficient DNA double-strand break signalling through ATM. However, the mechanism by which hSSB1 functions to allow efficient signalling is unknown. Here, we show that hSSB1 is recruited rapidly to sites of double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) in all interphase cells (G1, S and G2) independently of, CtIP, MDC1 and the MRN complex (Rad50, Mre11, NBS1). However expansion of hSSB1 from the DSB site requires the function of MRN. Strikingly, silencing of hSSB1 prevents foci formation as well as recruitment of MRN to sites of DSBs and leads to a subsequent defect in resection of DSBs as evident by defective RPA and ssDNA generation. Our data suggests that hSSB1 functions upstream of MRN to promote its recruitment at DSBs and is required for efficient resection of DSBs. These findings, together with previous work establish essential roles of hSSB1 in controlling ATM activation and activity, and subsequent DSB resection and homologous recombination (HR).
Project description:hSSB1 is a recently discovered single-stranded DNA binding protein that is essential for efficient repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by the homologous recombination pathway. hSSB1 is required for the efficient recruitment of the MRN complex to sites of DSBs and for the efficient initiation of ATM dependent signalling. Here we explore the interplay between hSSB1 and MRN. We demonstrate that hSSB1 binds directly to NBS1, a component of the MRN complex, in a DNA damage independent manner. Consistent with the direct interaction, we observe that hSSB1 greatly stimulates the endo-nuclease activity of the MRN complex, a process that requires the C-terminal tail of hSSB1. Interestingly, analysis of two point mutations in NBS1, associated with Nijmegen breakage syndrome, revealed weaker binding to hSSB1, suggesting a possible disease mechanism.
Project description:The multifunctional Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) protein complex recruits ATM/Tel1 checkpoint kinase and CtIP/Ctp1 homologous recombination (HR) repair factor to double-strand breaks (DSBs). HR repair commences with the 5'-to-3' resection of DNA ends, generating 3' single-strand DNA (ssDNA) overhangs that bind Replication Protein A (RPA) complex, followed by Rad51 recombinase. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex is critical for DSB resection, although the enigmatic ssDNA endonuclease activity of Mre11 and the DNA-end processing factor Sae2 (CtIP/Ctp1 ortholog) are largely unnecessary unless the resection activities of Exo1 and Sgs1-Dna2 are also eliminated. Mre11 nuclease activity and Ctp1/CtIP are essential for DSB repair in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and mammals. To investigate DNA end resection in Schizo. pombe, we adapted an assay that directly measures ssDNA formation at a defined DSB. We found that Mre11 and Ctp1 are essential for the efficient initiation of resection, consistent with their equally crucial roles in DSB repair. Exo1 is largely responsible for extended resection up to 3.1 kb from a DSB, with an activity dependent on Rqh1 (Sgs1) DNA helicase having a minor role. Despite its critical function in DSB repair, Mre11 nuclease activity is not required for resection in fission yeast. However, Mre11 nuclease and Ctp1 are required to disassociate the MRN complex and the Ku70-Ku80 nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) complex from DSBs, which is required for efficient RPA localization. Eliminating Ku makes Mre11 nuclease activity dispensable for MRN disassociation and RPA localization, while improving repair of a one-ended DSB formed by replication fork collapse. From these data we propose that release of the MRN complex and Ku from DNA ends by Mre11 nuclease activity and Ctp1 is a critical step required to expose ssDNA for RPA localization and ensuing HR repair.
Project description:DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) can be processed by the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex, which is essential to promote ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) activation. However, the molecular mechanisms linking MRN activity to ATM are not fully understood. Here, using Xenopus laevis egg extract we show that MRN-dependent processing of DSBs leads to the accumulation of short single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides (ssDNA oligos). The MRN complex isolated from the extract containing DSBs is bound to ssDNA oligos and stimulates ATM activity. Elimination of ssDNA oligos results in rapid extinction of ATM activity. Significantly, ssDNA oligos can be isolated from human cells damaged with ionizing radiation and injection of small synthetic ssDNA oligos into undamaged cells also induces ATM activation. These results suggest that MRN-dependent generation of ssDNA oligos, which constitute a unique signal of ongoing DSB repair not encountered in normal DNA metabolism, stimulates ATM activity.
Project description:hSSB1 (human single strand DNA-binding protein 1) has been shown to participate in homologous recombination (HR)-dependent repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-mediated checkpoint pathways. Here we present evidence that hSSB2, a homolog of hSSB1, plays a role similar to hSSB1 in DNA damage-response pathways. This was evidenced by findings that hSSB2-depleted cells resemble hSSB1-depleted cells in hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging reagents, reduced efficiency in HR-dependent repair of DSBs, and defective ATM-dependent phosphorylation. Notably, hSSB1 and hSSB2 form separate complexes with two identical proteins, INTS3 and hSSBIP1 (C9ORF80). Cells depleted of INTS3 and hSSBIP1 also exhibited hypersensitivity to DNA damage reagents, chromosomal instability, and reduced ATM-dependent phosphorylation. hSSBIP1 was rapidly recruited to laser-induced DSBs, a feature also similar to that reported for hSSB1. Depletion of INTS3 decreased the stability of hSSB1 and hSSBIP1, suggesting that INTS3 may provide a scaffold to allow proper assembly of the hSSB complexes. Thus, our data demonstrate that hSSB1 and hSSB2 form two separate complexes with similar structures, and both are required for efficient HR-dependent repair of DSBs and ATM-dependent signaling pathways.
Project description:Chromosomal DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are potentially lethal DNA lesions that pose a significant threat to genome stability and therefore need to be repaired to preserve genome integrity. Eukaryotic cells possess two main mechanisms for repairing DSBs: non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). HR requires that the 5' terminated strands at both DNA ends are nucleolytically degraded by a concerted action of nucleases in a process termed DNA-end resection. This degradation leads to the formation of 3'-ended single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) ends that are essential to use homologous DNA sequences for repair. The evolutionarily conserved Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2/NBS1 complex (MRX/MRN) has enzymatic and structural activities to initiate DSB resection and to maintain the DSB ends tethered to each other for their repair. Furthermore, it is required to recruit and activate the protein kinase Tel1/ATM, which plays a key role in DSB signaling. All these functions depend on ATP-regulated DNA binding and nucleolytic activities of the complex. Several structures have been obtained in recent years for Mre11 and Rad50 subunits from archaea, and a few from the bacterial and eukaryotic orthologs. Nevertheless, the mechanism of activation of this protein complex is yet to be fully elucidated. In this review, we focused on recent biophysical and structural insights on the MRX complex and their interplay.
Project description:The role of Mre11 phosphorylation in the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is not well understood. Here, we show that phosphorylation of Mre11 at SQ/TQ motifs by PIKKs (PI3 Kinase-related Kinases) induces MRN (Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1) complex dissociation from chromatin by reducing Mre11 affinity for DNA. Whereas phosphorylation of Mre11 at these residues is not required for DSB-induced ATM (Ataxia-Telangiectasia mutated) activation, abrogation of Mre11 dephosphorylation impairs ATM signaling. Our study provides a functional characterization of the DNA damage-induced Mre11 phosphorylation, and suggests that MRN inactivation participates in the down-regulation of damage signaling during checkpoint recovery following DSB repair.
Project description:The Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex has a central function in facilitating activation of the ATM protein kinase at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). However, several other factors are also required in human cells for efficient signalling through MRN and ATM, including the tumour suppressor proteins p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) and BRCA1. In this study, we investigate the functions of these mediator proteins in ATM activation and find that the presence of 53BP1 and BRCA1 can amplify the effects of MRN when interactions between MRN and ATM are compromised. This effect is dependent on a direct interaction between MRN and the tandem breast cancer carboxy-terminal (BRCT) repeats in 53BP1, and is accompanied by hyper-phosphorylation of both Nbs1 and 53BP1. We also find that the BRCT domains of 53BP1 affect the overall structure of 53BP1 multimers and that this structure is important for promoting ATM phosphorylation of substrates as well as for the repair of DNA DSBs in mammalian cells.
Project description:Resection is an early step in homology-directed recombinational repair (HDRR) of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Resection enables strand invasion as well as reannealing following DNA synthesis across a DSB to assure efficient HDRR. While resection of only one end could result in genome instability, it has not been feasible to address events at both ends of a DSB, or to distinguish 1- versus 2-end resections at random, radiation-induced "dirty" DSBs or even enzyme-induced "clean" DSBs. Previously, we quantitatively addressed resection and the role of Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 complex (MRX) at random DSBs in circular chromosomes within budding yeast based on reduced pulsed-field gel electrophoretic mobility ("PFGE-shift"). Here, we extend PFGE analysis to a second dimension and demonstrate unique patterns associated with 0-, 1-, and 2-end resections at DSBs, providing opportunities to examine coincidence of resection. In G2-arrested WT, ?rad51 and ?rad52 cells deficient in late stages of HDRR, resection occurs at both ends of ?-DSBs. However, for radiation-induced and I-SceI-induced DSBs, 1-end resections predominate in MRX (MRN) null mutants with or without Ku70. Surprisingly, Sae2 (Ctp1/CtIP) and Mre11 nuclease-deficient mutants have similar responses, although there is less impact on repair. Thus, we provide direct molecular characterization of coincident resection at random, radiation-induced DSBs and show that rapid and coincident initiation of resection at ?-DSBs requires MRX, Sae2 protein, and Mre11 nuclease. Structural features of MRX complex are consistent with coincident resection being due to an ability to interact with both DSB ends to directly coordinate resection. Interestingly, coincident resection at clean I-SceI-induced breaks is much less dependent on Mre11 nuclease or Sae2, contrary to a strong dependence on MRX complex, suggesting different roles for these functions at "dirty" and clean DSB ends. These approaches apply to resection at other DSBs. Given evolutionary conservation, the observations are relevant to DNA repair in human cells.
Project description:Human single-strand (ss) DNA binding proteins 1 (hSSB1) has been shown to participate in DNA damage response and maintenance of genome stability by regulating the initiation of ATM-dependent signaling. ATM phosphorylates hSSB1 and prevents hSSB1 from ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation. However, the E3 ligase that targets hSSB1 for destruction is still unknown. Here, we report that hSSB1 is the bona fide substrate for an Fbxl5-containing SCF (Skp1-Cul1-F box) E3 ligase. Fbxl5 interacts with and targets hSSB1 for ubiquitination and degradation, which could be prevented by ATM-mediated hSSB1 T117 phosphorylation. Furthermore, cells overexpression of Fbxl5 abrogated the cellular response to DSBs, including activation of ATM and phosphorylation of ATM targets and exhibited increased radiosensitivity, chemosensitivity and defective checkpoint activation after genotoxic stress stimuli. Moreover, the protein levels of hSSB1 and Fbxl5 showed an inverse correlation in lung cancer cells lines and clinical lung cancer samples. Therefore, Fbxl5 may negatively modulate hSSB1 to regulate DNA damage response, implicating Fbxl5 as a novel, promising therapeutic target for lung cancers.
Project description:Tel1/ATM and Mec1/ATR checkpoint kinases are activated by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Mec1/ATR recruitment to DSBs requires the formation of RPA-coated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which arises from 5'-3' nucleolytic degradation (resection) of DNA ends. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mec1 regulates resection of the DSB ends. The lack of Mec1 accelerates resection and reduces the loading to DSBs of the checkpoint protein Rad9, which is known to inhibit ssDNA generation. Extensive resection is instead inhibited by the Mec1-ad mutant variant that increases the recruitment near the DSB of Rad9, which in turn blocks DSB resection by both Rad53-dependent and Rad53-independent mechanisms. The mec1-ad resection defect leads to prolonged persistence at DSBs of the MRX complex that causes unscheduled Tel1 activation, which in turn impairs checkpoint switch off. Thus, Mec1 regulates the generation of ssDNA at DSBs, and this control is important to coordinate Mec1 and Tel1 signaling activities at these breaks.