Use of optical mapping to sort uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains into distinct subgroups.
ABSTRACT: Optical maps were generated for 33 uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates. For individual genomes, the NcoI restriction fragments aligned into a unique chromosome map for each individual isolate, which was then compared with the in silico restriction maps of all of the sequenced E. coli and Shigella strains. All of the UPEC isolates clustered separately from the Shigella strains as well as the laboratory and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli strains. Moreover, the individual strains appeared to cluster into distinct subgroups based on the dendrogram analyses. Phylogenetic grouping of these 33 strains showed that 32/33 were the B2 subgroup and 1/33 was subgroup A. To further characterize the similarities and differences among the 33 isolates, pathogenicity island (PAI), haemolysin and virulence gene comparisons were performed. A strong correlation was observed between individual subgroups and virulence factor genes as well as haemolysis activity. Furthermore, there was considerable conservation of sequenced-strain PAIs in the specific subgroups. Strains with different antibiotic-resistance patterns also appeared to sort into separate subgroups. Thus, the optical maps distinguished the UPEC strains from other E. coli strains and further subdivided the strains into distinct subgroups. This optical mapping procedure holds promise as an alternative way to subgroup all E. coli strains, including those involved in infections outside of the intestinal tract and epidemic strains with distinct patterns of antibiotic resistance.
Project description:Modern comparative genomics has been established, in part, by the sequencing and annotation of a broad range of microbial species. To gain further insights, new sequencing efforts are now dealing with the variety of strains or isolates that gives a species definition and range; however, this number vastly outstrips our ability to sequence them. Given the availability of a large number of microbial species, new whole genome approaches must be developed to fully leverage this information at the level of strain diversity that maximize discovery. Here, we describe how optical mapping, a single-molecule system, was used to identify and annotate chromosomal alterations between bacterial strains represented by several species. Since whole-genome optical maps are ordered restriction maps, sequenced strains of Shigella flexneri serotype 2a (2457T and 301), Yersinia pestis (CO 92 and KIM), and Escherichia coli were aligned as maps to identify regions of homology and to further characterize them as possible insertions, deletions, inversions, or translocations. Importantly, an unsequenced Shigella flexneri strain (serotype Y strain AMC[328Y]) was optically mapped and aligned with two sequenced ones to reveal one novel locus implicated in serotype conversion and several other loci containing insertion sequence elements or phage-related gene insertions. Our results suggest that genomic rearrangements and chromosomal breakpoints are readily identified and annotated against a prototypic sequenced strain by using the tools of optical mapping.
Project description:Hybrid Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains of multilocus sequence type 141 (ST141) cause both urinary tract infections and diarrhea in humans and are phylogenetically positioned between STEC and UPEC strains. We used comparative genomic analysis of 85 temporally and spatially diverse ST141 E. coli strains, including 14 STEC/UPEC hybrids, collected in Germany (n?=?13) and the United States (n?=?1) to reconstruct their molecular evolution. Whole-genome sequencing data showed that 89% of the ST141 E. coli strains either were STEC/UPEC hybrids or contained a mixture of virulence genes from other pathotypes. Core genome analysis and ancestral reconstruction revealed that the ST141 E. coli strains clustered into two lineages that evolved from a common ancestor in the mid-19th century. The STEC/UPEC hybrid emerged ?100?years ago by acquiring an stx prophage, which integrated into previously unknown insertion site between rcsB and rcsD, followed by the insertion of a pathogenicity island (PAI) similar to PAI II of UPEC strain 536 (PAI II536-like). The two variants of PAI II536-like were associated with tRNA genes leuX and pheU, respectively. Finally, microevolution within PAI II536-like and acquisition of the enterohemorrhagic E. coli plasmid were observed. Our data suggest that intestinal pathogenic E. coli (IPEC)/extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) hybrids are widespread and that selection pressure within the ST141 E. coli population led to the emergence of the STEC/UPEC hybrid as a clinically important subgroup. We hypothesize that ST141 E. coli strains serve as a melting pot for pathogroup conversion between IPEC and ExPEC, contrasting the classical theory of pathogen emergence from nonpathogens and corroborating our recent phenomenon of heteropathogenicity among pathogenic E. coli strains.
Project description:To detect genetic defects that might have caused loss of flagella in Shigella boydii and Shigella sonnei, the region III flagellar (fli) operons were cloned from certain strains and analyzed with reference to the restriction maps and genetic maps of Escherichia coli fli operons. S. boydii NCTC9733 (strain C5 in this paper) had the 988-bp internal deletion in the fliF gene that encodes a large substructural protein of the basal body. Two strains (C1 and C8) had deletions of the entire fliF operon, and the remaining three (C3, C4, and C9) differed in the size of the restriction fragments carrying the fliF and fliL operons. Loss of flagella in S. boydii appears to originate in some defect in the fliF operon. S. sonnei IID969 lacked the fliD gene and, in place of it, carried two IS600 elements as inverted repeats. Genes downstream from fliD were not detected in the cloned fragment despite its large size but did appear elsewhere in the chromosome. The fliD gene encodes a cap protein of the flagellar filament, and its deletion results in overexpression of class 3 operons by the increased amount of FliA (sigmaF) caused by the excess export of the anti-sigma factor FlgM. Three other strains also had the fliD deletion, and two of them had another deletion in the fliF-fliG-fliH region. The fliD deletion might be the primary cause of loss of flagella in S. sonnei. The lack of FliF or FliD in each subgroup is discussed in connection with the maintenance of virulence and bacterial growth. We also discuss the process of loss of flagella in relation to transposition of IS elements and alterations of the noncoding region, which were found to be common to at least three subgroups.
Project description:The evolutionary relationships of 46 Shigella strains representing each of the serotypes belonging to the four traditional Shigella species (subgroups), Dysenteriae, Flexneri, Boydii, and Sonnei, were determined by sequencing of eight housekeeping genes in four regions of the chromosome. Analysis revealed a very similar evolutionary pattern for each region. Three clusters of strains were identified, each including strains from different subgroups. Cluster 1 contains the majority of Boydii and Dysenteriae strains (B1-4, B6, B8, B10, B14, and B18; and D3-7, D9, and D11-13) plus Flexneri 6 and 6A. Cluster 2 contains seven Boydii strains (B5, B7, B9, B11, B15, B16, and B17) and Dysenteriae 2. Cluster 3 contains one Boydii strain (B12) and the Flexneri serotypes 1-5 strains. Sonnei and three Dysenteriae strains (D1, D8, and D10) are outside of the three main clusters but, nonetheless, are clearly within Escherichia coli. Boydii 13 was found to be distantly related to E. coli. Shigella strains, like the other pathogenic forms of E. coli, do not have a single evolutionary origin, indicating convergent evolution of Shigella phenotypic properties. We estimate the three main Shigella clusters to have evolved within the last 35,000 to 270,000 years, suggesting that shigellosis was one of the early infectious diseases of humans.
Project description:Shigella ssp. and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are the most common etiological agents of diarrheal diseases in malnourished children under five years of age in developing countries. The ever-growing issue of antibiotic resistance and the potential negative impact of antibiotic use on infant commensal microbiota are significant challenges to current therapeutic approaches. Bacteriophages (or phages) represent an alternative treatment that can be used to treat specific bacterial infections. In the present study, we screened water samples from both environmental and industrial sources for phages capable of infecting E. coli laboratory strains within our collection. Nineteen phages were isolatedand tested for their ability to infect strains within the ECOR collection and E. coli O157:H7 ?stx. Furthermore, since coliphages have been reported to cross-infect certain Shigella spp., we also evaluated the ability of the nineteen phages to infect a representative Shigella sonnei strain from our collection. Based on having distinct (although overlapping in some cases) host ranges, ten phage isolates were selected for genome sequence and morphological characterization. Together, these ten selected phages were shown to infect most of the ECOR library, with 61 of the 72 strains infected by at least one phage from our collection. Genome analysis of the ten phages allowed classification into five previously described genetic subgroups plus one previously underrepresented subgroup.
Project description:Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) are of significant health concern. The emergence of drug resistant E. coli with high virulence potential is alarming. Lack of sufficient data on transmission dynamics, virulence spectrum and antimicrobial resistance of certain pathogens such as the uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) from countries with high infection burden, such as India, hinders the infection control and management efforts. In this study, we extensively genotyped and phenotyped a collection of 150 UPEC obtained from patients belonging to a semi-urban, industrialized setting near Pune, India. The isolates representing different clinical categories were analyzed in comparison with 50 commensal E. coli isolates from India as well as 50 ExPEC strains from Germany. Virulent strains were identified based on hemolysis, haemagglutination, cell surface hydrophobicity, serum bactericidal activity as well as with the help of O serotyping. We generated antimicrobial resistance profiles for all the clinical isolates and carried out phylogenetic analysis based on repetitive extragenic palindromic (rep)-PCR. E. coli from urinary tract infection cases expressed higher percentages of type I (45%) and P fimbriae (40%) when compared to fecal isolates (25% and 8% respectively). Hemolytic group comprised of 60% of UPEC and only 2% of E. coli from feces. Additionally, we found that serum resistance and cell surface hydrophobicity were not significantly (p = 0.16/p = 0.51) associated with UPEC from clinical cases. Moreover, clinical isolates exhibited highest resistance against amoxicillin (67.3%) and least against nitrofurantoin (57.3%). We also observed that 31.3% of UPEC were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers belonging to serotype O25, of which four were also positive for O25b subgroup that is linked to B2-O25b-ST131-CTX-M-15 virulent/multiresistant type. Furthermore, isolates from India and Germany (as well as global sources) were found to be genetically distinct with no evidence to espouse expansion of E. coli from India to the west or vice-versa.
Project description:Virulence genes from different E. coli pathotypes are blended in hybrid strains. E. coli strains with hybrid enteroaggregative/uropathogenic (EAEC/UPEC) genotypes have sporadically emerged causing outbreaks of extraintestinal infections, however their association with routine infections is yet underappreciated. We assessed 258 isolates of E. coli recovered from 86 consecutive cases of extraintestinal infections seeking EAEC and hybrid genotype (EAEC/UPEC) strains. Extensive virulence genotyping was carried out to detect 21 virulence genes, including molecular predictors of EAEC and UPEC strains. Phylogenetic groups and sequence types (STs) were identified, as well as it was performed phylogenetic analyses in order to evaluate whether hybrid EAEC/UPEC strains belonged to intestinal or extraintestinal lineages of E. coli. Adhesion assays were performed to evaluate the biofilm formation by hybrid strains in human urine and cell culture medium (DMEM). Molecular predictors of UPEC were detected in more than 70% of the strains (chuA in 85% and fyuA in 78%). Otherwise, molecular predictors of EAEC (aatA and aggR) were detected in only 3.4% (9/258) of the strains and always along with the UPEC predictor fyuA. Additionally, the pyelonephritis-associated pilus (pap) gene was also detected in all of the hybrid EAEC/UPEC strains. EAEC/UPEC strains were recovered from two cases of community-onset urinary tract infections (UTI) and from a case of bacteremia. Analyses revealed that hybrid EAEC/UPEC strains were phylogenetically positioned in two different clades. Two representative strains, each recovered from UTI and bacteremia, were positioned into a characteristic UPEC clade marked by strains belonging to phylogenetic group D and ST3 (Warwick ST 69). Another hybrid EAEC/UPEC strain was classified as phylogroup A-ST478 and positioned in a commensal clade. Hybrid EAEC/UPEC strains formed biofilms at modest, but perceptible levels either in DMEM or in urine samples. We showed that different lineages of E. coli, at least phylogenetic group A and D, can acquire and gather EAEC and UPEC virulence genes promoting the emergence of hybrid EAEC/UPEC strains.
Project description:Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is responsible for the majority of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) and represents the most common bacterial infection in adults. UPEC utilizes a wide range of virulence factors to colonize the host, including the novel repeat-in-toxin (RTX) protein TosA, which is specifically expressed in the host urinary tract and contributes significantly to the virulence and survival of UPEC. tosA, found in strains within the B2 phylogenetic subgroup of E. coli, serves as a marker for strains that also contain a large number of well-characterized UPEC virulence factors. The presence of tosA in an E. coli isolate predicts successful colonization of the murine model of ascending UTI, regardless of the source of the isolate. Here, a detailed analysis of the function of tosA revealed that this gene is transcriptionally linked to genes encoding a conserved type 1 secretion system similar to other RTX family members. TosA localized to the cell surface and was found to mediate (i) adherence to host cells derived from the upper urinary tract and (ii) survival in disseminated infections and (iii) to enhance lethality during sepsis (as assessed in two different animal models of infection). An experimental vaccine, using purified TosA, protected vaccinated animals against urosepsis. From this work, it was concluded that TosA belongs to a novel group of RTX proteins that mediate adherence and host damage during UTI and urosepsis and could be a novel target for the development of therapeutics to treat ascending UTIs.
Project description:In some patients, Escherichia coli strains establish significant bacteriuria without causing symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI). These asymptomatic-bacteriuria (ABU) strains have been shown to express fewer virulence factors than the uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains that cause severe, symptomatic UTI. Paradoxically, ABU strains carry many typical UPEC virulence genes, and the molecular basis of their low virulence therefore remains unclear. This study examined whether ABU strains might evolve from UPEC by genome loss and virulence gene attenuation. The presence of conserved E. coli K-12 genes was examined using an E. coli K-12 strain MG1655-specific DNA array and the distribution of UPEC virulence-related genes was examined with the E. coli pathoarray. Two groups of strains could be distinguished. Several ABU strains were shown by multilocus sequence typing and by comparative genomic analyses to be related to UPEC but to have smaller genome sizes. There were significant alterations in essential virulence genes, including reductive evolution by point mutations, DNA rearrangements, and deletions. Other strains were unrelated to UPEC and lacked most of the virulence-associated genes. The results suggest that some ABU strains arise from virulent strains by attenuation of virulence genes while others are nonvirulent and resemble commensal strains. We propose that virulence attenuation might constitute a general mechanism for mucosal pathogens to evolve toward commensalism.
Project description:While in transit within and between hosts, uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) encounter multiple stresses, including substantial levels of nitric oxide and reactive nitrogen intermediates. Strains of UPEC become conditioned to high concentrations of acidified sodium nitrite (ASN), a model system used to generate nitrosative stress. We used microarrays to define the expression profile of UPEC that have been conditioned for growth in ASN. Overall design: Separate colonies of the UPEC isolate UTI89 grown on LB agar plates from a -80°C freezer stock were used to start overnight shaking cultures in MES-buffered LB broth (MES-LB, pH 5.0). Each culture was then diluted 1:100 into 7 ml MES-LB with or without 3 mM ASN in loosely capped 20-by-150-mm borosilicate glass tubes and grown with shaking at 37°C. Growth was monitored by optical density until OD600 = 1.5, at which point cultures were spun down, and pellets frozen at -80°C for at least 12 h. RNA was extracted with hot phenol-chloroform and purified by CsCl centrifugation. cDNA was synthesized, fragmented, and labeled for hybridization to Affymetrix GeneChip® E. coli Genome 2.0 Arrays.