Tissue specific expression and cDNA structure of a human transcript encoding a nucleic acid binding [oligo(dC)] protein related to the pre-mRNA binding protein K.
ABSTRACT: In human cells at least 20 different proteins or groups of proteins have been identified that are associated with hnRNAs. These proteins (designated A1-U) are highly abundant in the nucleus. In this study, we present the sequence of a novel cDNA clone, sub2.3, isolated from a human lymphocyte cDNA library. The predicted amino acid sequence shows homology to repeated domains in the human hnRNA binding protein K (hnRNP K), which are believed to be of functional importance. hnRNP K is among the major oligo(rC/dC) binding proteins in vertebrate cells and we show here that the protein product of sub2.3 also binds to oligo(dC). This is shown by a novel approach where we demonstrated specific binding of in vitro translated sub2.3 protein to biotinylated oligo(dC) which was immobilized on magnetic streptavidin-coated Dynabeads. Moreover we found that the sub2.3 transcript is expressed in a tissue dependent manner with the highest expression observed in several lymphoid tissues and skeletal muscle. The gene was also abundantly expressed in several lymphoid cell lines and the hepatoma cell line HepG2 while a low expression was observed in the HL60 myeloid cell line and in the HeLa cervical carcinoma cell line. In conclusion, this study presents the cDNA sequence of a novel transcript which shows tissue specific expression and encodes a protein with oligo(dC) binding specificity in vitro.
Project description:Many hnRNP proteins and snRNPs interact with hnRNA in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and affect the fate of hnRNA and its processing into mRNA. There are at least 20 abundant proteins in vertebrate cell hnRNP complexes and their structure and arrangement on specific hnRNAs is likely to be important for the processing of pre-mRNAs. hnRNP I, a basic protein of ca. 58,000 daltons by SDS-PAGE, is one of the abundant hnRNA-binding proteins. Monoclonal antibodies to hnRNP I were produced and full length cDNA clones for hnRNP I were isolated and sequenced. The sequence of hnRNP I (59,632 daltons and pI 9.86) demonstrates that it is identical to the previously described polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) and shows that it is highly related to hnRNP L. The sequences of these two proteins, I and L, define a new family of hnRNP proteins within the large superfamily of the RNP consensus RNA-binding proteins. Here we describe experiments which reveal new and unique properties on the association of hnRNP I/PTB with hnRNP complexes and on its cellular localization. Micrococcal nuclease digestions show that hnRNP I, along with hnRNP S and P, is released from hnRNP complexes by nuclease digestion more readily than most other hnRNP proteins. This nuclease hypersensitivity suggests that hnRNP I is bound to hnRNA regions that are particularly exposed in the complexes. Immunofluorescence microscopy shows that hnRNP I is found in the nucleoplasm but in addition high concentrations are detected in a discrete perinucleolar structure. Thus, the PTB is one of the major proteins that bind pre-mRNAs; it is bound to nuclease-hypersensitive regions of the hnRNA-protein complexes and shows a novel pattern of nuclear localization.
Project description:To better understand the role(s) of hnRNP proteins in the process of mRNA formation, we have identified and characterized the major nuclear proteins that interact with hnRNAs in Drosophila melanogaster. cDNA clones of several D. melanogaster hnRNP proteins have been isolated and sequenced, and the genes encoding these proteins have been mapped cytologically on polytene chromosomes. These include the hnRNP proteins hrp36, hrp40, and hrp48, which together account for the major proteins of hnRNP complexes in D. melanogaster (Matunis et al., 1992, accompanying paper). All of the proteins described here contain two amino-terminal RNP consensus sequence RNA-binding domains and a carboxyl-terminal glycine-rich domain. We refer to this configuration, which is also found in the hnRNP A/B proteins of vertebrates, as 2 x RBD-Gly. The sequences of the D. melanogaster hnRNP proteins help define both highly conserved and variable amino acids within each RBD and support the suggestion that each RBD in multiple RBD-containing proteins has been conserved independently and has a different function. Although 2 x RBD-Gly proteins from evolutionarily distant organisms are conserved in their general structure, we find a surprising diversity among the members of this family of proteins. A mAb to the hrp40 proteins crossreacts with the human A/B and G hnRNP proteins and detects immunologically related proteins in divergent organisms from yeast to man. These data establish 2 x RBD-Gly as a prevalent hnRNP protein structure across eukaryotes. This information about the composition of hnRNP complexes and about the structure of hnRNA-binding proteins will facilitate studies of the functions of these proteins.
Project description:The equations that have been used previously to analyse the rate of decay of hnRNA implicitly assume that nascent hnRNAs are degraded stochastically. This assumption is inconsistent with electron-microscopic studies of transcription cited here, which show that nascent hnRNAs are not degraded during transcription, implying that hnRNA degradation occurs only after termination of transcription and release of the hnRNA from chromatin. Equations are derived describing the accumulation of radioactivity hnRNA during continuous labelling assuming that nascent hnRNAs are stable and that hnRNAs decay with first-order kinetics only after completion of transcription. The effects of the transient stability of nascent hnRNAs on the kinetics of hnRNA turnover can become important when the half-life of the hnRNA is shorter than the time to transcribe an hnRNA from the point of initiation to the point of termination. These equations should prove useful in studies of hnRNA turnover that require a precise description of the labelling kinetics of nascent and completed subpopulations of hnRNA.
Project description:In this study, we test the hypothesis that there are differential splicing patterns between the expressed oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) genes in the rat supraoptic nucleus (SON). We quantify the low abundance, intron-containing heteronuclear RNAs (hnRNAs) and the higher abundance mRNAs in the SON using two-step, quantitative SYBR Green real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and external standard curves constructed using synthetic 90 nt sense-strand oligonucleotides. The levels of OT and VP mRNA in the SON were found to be similar, approximately 10(8) copies/SON pair, whereas the copy numbers of VP hnRNAs containing intron 1 or 2 and the OT hnRNA containing intron 1 are much lower, i.e., approximately 10(2)-10(3) copies/rat SON pair. However, the estimated copy number of the intron 2-containing OT hnRNA is much larger, approximately 10(6) copies/SON pair. The relative distributions of all the OT and VP RNA species were invariant and independent of the physiological status of the rats (e.g., osmotically stimulated or lactating rats). Using intron-specific riboprobes against hnRNAs, we demonstrate by fluorescence in situ hybridization strong signals of OT hnRNA containing intron 2 predominantly in the cytoplasm, in contrast to the localization of the VP hnRNA found only in the nuclei. Taken together, these data support the view that the splicing patterns between OT and VP gene transcripts are different and show that there is a selective cytoplasmic retention of OT intron 2.
Project description:AUF1 (A+U-rich RNA binding factor) participates in the rapid decay of mRNAs in the cytoplasm. It is sometimes called heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) D0; however, evidence for its characterization as an hnRNP protein has been scarce. S1 proteins A-D are those selectively extracted at pH 4.9 from isolated nuclei pretreated with either RNase A or DNase I. In the present study we identified S1 ('first supernatant') proteins B2, C1 and D1 with p45, p40 and p37 AUF1s respectively, by microsequencing and product analysis of transfected cDNAs. We found, further, that more than 96% of the S1 proteins occurred in the nucleus, and localized largely in RNase-sensitive structures. B2 was confined in the nucleus and C1 directly bound to heterogeneous nuclear RNAs (hnRNAs). These B2 and C1 proteins formed hnRNP structures responsible for the 33 S, and, to lesser extent, the 40 S particles, which were liberated upon mild nucleolytic cleavage. On the other hand, D1 and the remainder of C1 were associated with nuclease-hypersensitive sites of hnRNAs, and comprised the major cytoplasmic AUF1s that may be involved in mRNA decay. Two-dimensional immunoblotting resolved each S1 isoform into up to six spots or more, and suggested that the previous uncertain relationship of hnRNP D0 and hnRNP D is resolved in terms of charge differences and differential splicing arising from one gene. The present results thus indicate that S1 proteins B2, C1 and D1 are identical with AUF1 proteins, but largely occur as hnRNP proteins in the nucleus. That hnRNP D0 is indeed an hnRNP protein was verified.
Project description:Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) comprise a family of RNA-binding proteins. The complexity and diversity associated with the hnRNPs render them multifunctional, involved not only in processing heterogeneous nuclear RNAs (hnRNAs) into mature mRNAs, but also acting as trans-factors in regulating gene expression. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 (hnRNP E1), a subgroup of hnRNPs, is a KH-triple repeat containing RNA-binding protein. It is encoded by an intronless gene arising from hnRNP E2 through a retrotransposition event. hnRNP E1 is ubiquitously expressed and functions in regulating major steps of gene expression, including pre-mRNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Given its wide-ranging functions in the nucleus and cytoplasm and interaction with multiple proteins, we propose a post-transcriptional regulon model that explains hnRNP E1's widespread functional diversity.
Project description:Two single-stranded nucleic acid binding proteins mCBP and mCTBP were identified by means of their binding to a potential recombination hotspot in LTRs of mouse retro-transposons. Both are nuclear proteins of 35 and 55 kDa respectively. mCBP binds preferentially to oligo dC, mCTBP to oligo dCdT. mCBP was purified and its cDNA was isolated and sequenced.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Experimental disruption of the telomere overhang induces a potent DNA damage response and is the target of newly emerging cancer therapeutics. Introduction of T-oligo, an eleven-base oligonucleotide homologous to the 3'-telomeric overhang, mimics telomere disruption and induces DNA damage responses through activation of p53, p73, p95/Nbs1, E2F1, pRb, and other DNA damage response proteins. ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) was once thought to be the primary driver of T-oligo-induced DNA damage responses; however, recent experiments have highlighted other key proteins that may also play a significant role. METHODS: To identify proteins associated with T-oligo, MM-AN cells were treated with biotinylated T-oligo or complementary oligonucleotide, cell lysates were run on SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis), and the protein bands observed after treatment of cells with T-oligo or complementary oligonucleotide were analyzed using mass spectrometry. To study the effect of T-oligo on expression of hnRNP C1/C2 (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C1 and C2) and purine-rich element binding proteins (Pur proteins), cells were treated with T-oligo, and immunoblotting experiments were performed. To determine their role in senescence, cells were treated with shRNA (short hairpin ribonucleic acid) against these proteins, and senescence was studied using the senescence associated beta-galactosidase assay. RESULTS: Using mass spectrometry, RNA-binding hnRNP C1/C2 and DNA-binding Pur proteins were found to associate with T-oligo. hnRNP C1/C2 exhibited increased expression (3.6-12.0-fold) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and in melanoma cells (4.5-5.2-fold), and Pur proteins exhibited increased expression of 2.2-fold in NSCLC and 2.0-fold in melanoma cells after T-oligo treatment. Experimental knockdown of hnRNP C1/C2 and Pur-beta completely abrogated T-oligo induced senescence in both MU melanoma and H358 NSCLC cells. Additionally, knockdown of Pur-beta prevented T-oligo-induced phosphorylation of p53, hypophosphorylation of pRb, and upregulation of E2F1, p21, and p53. CONCLUSION: These novel findings highlight proteins essential to T-oligo's anticancer effects that may be of interest in telomere biology and cancer therapeutics.
Project description:The response to amino acid starvation involves the global decrease of protein synthesis and an increase in the translation of some mRNAs that contain an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). It was previously shown that translation of the mRNA for the arginine/lysine amino acid transporter Cat-1 increases during amino acid starvation via a mechanism that utilizes an IRES in the 5' untranslated region of the Cat-1 mRNA. It is shown here that polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) and an hnRNA binding protein, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L (hnRNP L), promote the efficient translation of Cat-1 mRNA during amino acid starvation. Association of both proteins with Cat-1 mRNA increased during starvation with kinetics that paralleled that of IRES activation, although the levels and subcellular distribution of the proteins were unchanged. The sequence CUUUCU within the Cat-1 IRES was important for PTB binding and for the induction of translation during amino acid starvation. Binding of hnRNP L to the IRES or the Cat-1 mRNA in vivo was independent of PTB binding but was not sufficient to increase IRES activity or Cat-1 mRNA translation during amino acid starvation. In contrast, binding of PTB to the Cat-1 mRNA in vivo required hnRNP L. A wider role of hnRNP L in mRNA translation was suggested by the decrease of global protein synthesis in cells with reduced hnRNP L levels. It is proposed that PTB and hnRNP L are positive regulators of Cat-1 mRNA translation via the IRES under stress conditions that cause a global decrease of protein synthesis.
Project description:Terminal differentiation is associated with repression in the expression of the proliferation potential proteins (P2P) subset of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) proteins. We report here the cloning and characterization of a 5173-bp P2P-related (P2P-R) cDNA that contains a 4214-bp open reading frame. Probes to this cDNA detect a single 8-kb mRNA in multiple murine tissues and in proliferating 3T3T cells, but not in terminally differentiated 3T3T adipocytes. Evidence that this cDNA can encode peptides with domains for hnRNP association was established by showing that such peptides are recognized by two monoclonal antibodies known to detect core hnRNP proteins, and by showing that the C130 monoclonal antibody, produced against a cDNA-derived fusion protein, also selectively detects native P2P hnRNP proteins. In addition, P2P-R cDNA-derived fusion proteins bind single-stranded nucleic acids, and a P2P-R cDNA-derived antisense oligonucleotide selectively represses P2P expression. Because terminal differentiation is associated with modulation in Rb1 function, we assayed if products of this cDNA might interact with Rb1. Evidence that the P2P-R cDNA encodes a protein domain that binds Rb1 was established using a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein to selectively precipitate Rb1 from cellular extracts. Data also show that this binding is reduced by competition with the adenovirus E1a protein, indicating that binding occurs through the "pocket" domain of Rb1. These results establish that the P2P-R cDNA encodes protein domains involved in both hnRNP association and Rb1 binding and complement recent reports that localize Rb1 to sites of RNA processing in the nucleus.