Many putative endocrine disruptors inhibit prostaglandin synthesis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Prostaglandins (PGs) play key roles in development and maintenance of homeostasis of the adult body. Despite these important roles, it remains unclear whether the PG pathway is a target for endocrine disruption. However, several known endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) share a high degree of structural similarity with mild analgesics. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Using cell-based transfection and transduction experiments, mass spectrometry, and organotypic assays together with molecular modeling, we investigated whether inhibition of the PG pathway by known EDCs could be a novel point of endocrine disruption. RESULTS: We found that many known EDCs inhibit the PG pathway in a mouse Sertoli cell line and in human primary mast cells. The EDCs also reduced PG synthesis in ex vivo rat testis, and this reduction was correlated with a reduced testosterone production. The inhibition of PG synthesis occurred without involvement of canonical PG receptors or the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which have previously been described as targets of EDCs. Instead, our results suggest that the compounds may bind directly into the active site of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, thereby obstructing the conversion of arachidonic acid to PG precursors without interfering with the expression of the COX enzymes. A common feature of the PG inhibitory EDCs is the presence of aromatic groups that may stabilize binding in the hydrophobic active site of the COX enzymes. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest a hitherto unknown mode of action by EDCs through inhibition of the PG pathway and suggest new avenues to investigate effects of EDCs on reproductive and immunological disorders that have become increasingly common in recent decades.
Project description:A finely tuned balance between estrogens and androgens controls reproductive functions, and the last step of steroidogenesis plays a key role in maintaining that balance. Environmental toxicants are a serious health concern, and numerous studies have been devoted to studying the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The effects of EDCs on steroidogenic enzymes may influence steroid secretion and thus lead to reproductive toxicity. To predict hormonal balance disruption on the basis of data on aromatase activity and mRNA level modulation obtained in vitro on granulosa cells, we developed a mathematical model for the last gonadal steps of the sex steroid synthesis pathway. The model can simulate the ovarian synthesis and secretion of estrone, estradiol, androstenedione, and testosterone, and their response to endocrine disruption. The model is able to predict ovarian sex steroid concentrations under normal estrous cycle in female rat, and ovarian estradiol concentrations in adult female rats exposed to atrazine, bisphenol A, metabolites of methoxychlor or vinclozolin, and letrozole.
Project description:Endocrine disruptors (EDCs) have been associated with the increased incidence of metabolic disorders. In this work, we conducted a systematic review of the literature in order to identify the current knowledge of the interactions between EDCs in food, the gut microbiota, and metabolic disorders in order to shed light on this complex triad. Exposure to EDCs induces a series of changes including microbial dysbiosis and the induction of xenobiotic pathways and associated genes, enzymes, and metabolites involved in EDC metabolism. The products and by-products released following the microbial metabolism of EDCs can be taken up by the host; therefore, changes in the composition of the microbiota and in the production of microbial metabolites could have a major impact on host metabolism and the development of diseases. The remediation of EDC-induced changes in the gut microbiota might represent an alternative course for the treatment and prevention of metabolic diseases.
Project description:Type 2 diabetes prevalence is increasing dramatically across the globe, imposing a tremendous toll on individuals and healthcare systems. Reversing these trends requires comprehensive approaches to address both classical and emerging diabetes risk factors. Recently, environmental toxicants acting as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have emerged as novel metabolic disease risk factors. EDCs implicated in diabetes pathogenesis include various inorganic and organic molecules of both natural and synthetic origin, including arsenic, bisphenol A, phthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides. Indeed, evidence implicates EDC exposures across the lifespan in metabolic dysfunction; moreover, specific developmental windows exhibit enhanced sensitivity to EDC-induced metabolic disruption, with potential impacts across generations. Importantly, differential exposures to diabetogenic EDCs likely also contribute to racial/ethnic and economic disparities. Despite these emerging links, clinical practice guidelines fail to address this underappreciated diabetes risk factor. Comprehensive approaches to stem the tide of diabetes must include efforts to address its environmental drivers.
Project description:Anthropogenic contaminants in water can impose risks to reproductive health. Most of these compounds are known to be endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). EDCs can impact the endocrine system and subsequently impair the development and fertility of non-human animals and humans. The source of chemical contamination in water is diverse, originating from byproducts formed during water disinfection processes, release from industry and livestock activity, or therapeutic drugs released into sewage. This review discusses the occurrence of EDCs in water such as disinfection byproducts, fluorinated compounds, bisphenol A, phthalates, pesticides, and estrogens, and it outlines their adverse reproductive effects in non-human animals and humans.
Project description:Ubiquitous exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has caused serious concerns about the ability of these chemicals to affect neurodevelopment, among others. Since endocrine disruption (ED)-induced developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) is hardly covered by the chemical testing tools that are currently in regulatory use, the Horizon 2020 research and innovation action ENDpoiNTs has been launched to fill the scientific and methodological gaps related to the assessment of this type of chemical toxicity. The ENDpoiNTs project will generate new knowledge about ED-induced DNT and aims to develop and improve in vitro, in vivo, and in silico models pertaining to ED-linked DNT outcomes for chemical testing. This will be achieved by establishing correlative and causal links between known and novel neurodevelopmental endpoints and endocrine pathways through integration of molecular, cellular, and organismal data from in vitro and in vivo models. Based on this knowledge, the project aims to provide adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for ED-induced DNT and to develop and integrate new testing tools with high relevance for human health into European and international regulatory frameworks.
Project description:Incidence rates of lymphoma are usually higher in men than in women, and oestrogens may protect against lymphoma.We evaluated occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) among 2457 controls and 2178 incident lymphoma cases and subtypes from the European Epilymph study.Over 30 years of exposure to EDCs compared to no exposure was associated with a 24% increased risk of mature B-cell neoplasms (P-trend=0.02). Associations were observed among men, but not women.Prolonged occupational exposure to endocrine disruptors seems to be moderately associated with some lymphoma subtypes.
Project description:Laboratory and human studies raise concerns about endocrine disruption and asthma resulting from exposure to chemicals in consumer products. Limited labeling or testing information is available to evaluate products as exposure sources.We analytically quantified endocrine disruptors and asthma-related chemicals in a range of cosmetics, personal care products, cleaners, sunscreens, and vinyl products. We also evaluated whether product labels provide information that can be used to select products without these chemicals.We selected 213 commercial products representing 50 product types. We tested 42 composited samples of high-market-share products, and we tested 43 alternative products identified using criteria expected to minimize target compounds. Analytes included parabens, phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, ethanolamines, alkylphenols, fragrances, glycol ethers, cyclosiloxanes, and ultraviolet (UV) filters.We detected 55 compounds, indicating a wide range of exposures from common products. Vinyl products contained > 10% bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and could be an important source of DEHP in homes. In other products, the highest concentrations and numbers of detects were in the fragranced products (e.g., perfume, air fresheners, and dryer sheets) and in sunscreens. Some products that did not contain the well-known endocrine-disrupting phthalates contained other less-studied phthalates (dicyclohexyl phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, and di-n-propyl phthalate; also endocrine-disrupting compounds), suggesting a substitution. Many detected chemicals were not listed on product labels.Common products contain complex mixtures of EDCs and asthma-related compounds. Toxicological studies of these mixtures are needed to understand their biological activity. Regarding epidemiology, our findings raise concern about potential confounding from co-occurring chemicals and misclassification due to variability in product composition. Consumers should be able to avoid some target chemicals-synthetic fragrances, BPA, and regulated active ingredients-using purchasing criteria. More complete product labeling would enable consumers to avoid the rest of the target chemicals.
Project description:Purpose: In testis the effects of exposure to mixtures of Endocrine disruptors compounds (EDCs) upon expression of miRNAs were not addressed. Objective: To identify the expression profiles of the 'miRNome' in mice testis chronic exposed to a defined mixture of five EDCs. Methods: Pregnant mice from 0.5 post-coital day were exposed in the drinking water to a mixture containing 0.3 mg/Kg-bw/day of each phthalate (DEHP, DBP, BBP), plus 0.05 mg/Kg-bw/day of each alkylphenol (NP, OP) until adulthood of male mouse (60 days old). We characterized the 'miRNome' by next generation sequence (NGS). Results: In mouse testis exposed to EDCs mixture we detected by NGS 2 up-regulated and 8 down-regulated miRNAs along to 36 isomiRs differentially expressed; these results were validated by RT-qPCR. and functional analysis showed deregulation of testicular hormonal status, spermatogenesis disruption and germ cells apoptosis. Conclusions: Here we provide the first association between deregulation of miRNAs, isomiRs, with histopathological and hormonal alterations in adult mice testis exposed to mixture of EDCs. Overall design: Testis snc-RNA profiles of 60-day old mice of control (mice drank water only with the dose of vehicles equivalents diluted) and exposed to EDCs mixture were generated by deep sequency using MiSeq-Illumina sequencer
Project description:Humans are environmentally exposed not only to single endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) but to mixtures that affect their reproductive health. In reproductive tissues, microRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as key targets of EDCs. Here, we analysed changes in the testis "miRNome" (and their biogenesis mechanism) in chronically exposed adult mice to a cocktail of five EDCs containing 0.3?mg/kg-body weight (BW)/day of each phthalate (DEHP, DBP, BBP) and 0.05?mg/kg-BW/day of each alkylphenol (NP, OP), from conception to adulthood. The testis "miRNome" was characterised using next-generation sequencing (NGS). Expression levels of genes involved in miRNA biogenesis were measured by RT-qPCR, as well as several physiological and cytological parameters. We found two up-regulated, and eight down-regulated miRNAs and thirty-six differentially expressed isomiRs along with an over-expression of Drosha, Adar and Zcchc11. A significant decrease of intratesticular estradiol but not testosterone was detected. Functional analysis showed altered spermatogenesis, germ cell apoptosis and negative correlation of miR-18a-5p with Nr1h2 involved in the deregulation of the steroidogenesis pathway. Here, we present the first association between miRNA/isomiRs deregulation, their mechanisms of biogenesis and histopathological and hormonal alterations in testes of adult mice exposed to a mixture of low-dose EDCs, which can play a role in male infertility.
Project description:CONTEXT:Early pregnancy exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may contribute to poor birth outcomes through oxidative stress (OS)-mediated disruption of the maternal and fetal milieu. Most studies have investigated the effect of single EDC exposures on OS. OBJECTIVE:Assess the association of uniquely weighted mixtures of early pregnancy exposures with the maternal and neonatal OS markers. DESIGN:Prospective analysis of mother-infant dyads. SETTING:University hospital. PARTICIPANTS:56 mother-infant dyads. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The association of OS markers (nitrotyrosine, dityrosine, chlorotyrosine) in maternal first trimester and term, and cord blood plasma with maternal first trimester exposure levels of each of 41 toxicants (trace elements, metals, phenols, and phthalates) from 56 subjects was analyzed using Spearman correlations and linear regression. The association of OS markers with inflammatory cytokines and birth outcomes were analyzed by Spearman correlation and linear regression analysis, respectively. Weighted mixtures of early pregnancy exposures were created by principal component analysis and offspring sex-dependent and independent associations with oxidative stress markers were assessed. RESULTS:(1) An inverse relationship between levels of maternal/cord OS markers and individual EDCs was evident. In contrast, when assessed as EDC mixtures, both direct and inverse associations were evident in a sex-specific manner; (2) the maternal term OS marker, nitrotyrosine, was inversely associated with gestational age, and (3) both direct and inverse associations were evident between the 3 OS markers and individual cytokines. CONCLUSIONS:Provides proof of concept that effects of exposures on OS varies when assessed as EDC mixtures versus individually.