Observations on intelligence and behavior in 15 patients with Legius syndrome.
ABSTRACT: Legius syndrome is a RAS-MAPK syndrome characterized by pigmentary findings similar to neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), but without tumor complications. Learning difficulties and behavioral problems have been reported to be associated with Legius syndrome, but have not been studied systematically. We investigated intelligence and behavior in 15 patients with Legius syndrome and 7 unaffected family members. We report a mean full-scale IQ of 101.57 in patients with Legius syndrome, which does not differ from the control group. We find a significantly lower Performance IQ in children with Legius syndrome compared to their unaffected family members. Few behavioral problems are present as assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) questionnaire. Our observations suggest that, akin to the milder somatic phenotype, the cognitive phenotype in Legius syndrome is less severe than that of NF1.
Project description:Legius syndrome (LS) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by germline loss-of-function mutations in the sprouty-related, EVH1 domain containing 1 (SPRED1) gene. The phenotype of LS is multiple café au lait macules (CALM) with other commonly reported manifestations, including intertriginous freckling, lipomas, macrocephaly, and learning disabilities including ADHD and developmental delays. Since the earliest signs of LS and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) syndrome are pigmentary findings, the two are indistinguishable and individuals with LS may meet the National Institutes of Health diagnostic criteria for NF1 syndrome. However, individuals are not known to have an increased risk for developing tumors (compared with NF1 patients). It is therefore important to fully characterize the phenotype differences between NF1 and LS because the prognoses of these two disorders differ greatly. We have developed a mutation database that characterizes the known variants in the SPRED1 gene in an effort to facilitate this process for testing and interpreting results. This database is free to the public and will be updated quarterly.
Project description:Pigmentary manifestations can represent an early clinical sign in children affected by Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Legius syndrome, and other neurocutaneous disorders. The differential molecular diagnosis of these pathologies is a challenge that can now be met by combining next generation sequencing of target genes with concurrent second-level tests, such as multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and RNA analysis. We clinically and genetically investigated 281 patients, almost all pediatric cases, presenting with either NF1 (n = 150), only pigmentary features (café au lait macules with or without freckling; (n = 95), or clinical suspicion of other RASopathies or neurocutaneous disorders (n = 36). The causative variant was identified in 239 out of the 281 patients analyzed (85.1%), while 42 patients remained undiagnosed (14.9%). The NF1 and SPRED1 genes were mutated in 73.3% and 2.8% of cases, respectively. The remaining 8.9% carried mutations in different genes associated with other disorders. We achieved a molecular diagnosis in 69.5% of cases with only pigmentary manifestations, allowing a more appropriate clinical management of these patients. Our findings, together with the increasing availability and sharing of clinical and genetic data, will help to identify further novel genotype-phenotype associations that may have a positive impact on patient follow-up.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>By incorporating major developments in genetics, ophthalmology, dermatology, and neuroimaging, to revise the diagnostic criteria for neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and to establish diagnostic criteria for Legius syndrome (LGSS).<h4>Methods</h4>We used a multistep process, beginning with a Delphi method involving global experts and subsequently involving non-NF experts, patients, and foundations/patient advocacy groups.<h4>Results</h4>We reached consensus on the minimal clinical and genetic criteria for diagnosing and differentiating NF1 and LGSS, which have phenotypic overlap in young patients with pigmentary findings. Criteria for the mosaic forms of these conditions are also recommended.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The revised criteria for NF1 incorporate new clinical features and genetic testing, whereas the criteria for LGSS were created to differentiate the two conditions. It is likely that continued refinement of these new criteria will be necessary as investigators (1) study the diagnostic properties of the revised criteria, (2) reconsider criteria not included in this process, and (3) identify new clinical and other features of these conditions. For this reason, we propose an initiative to update periodically the diagnostic criteria for NF1 and LGSS.
Project description:Constitutional heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the SPRED1 gene cause a phenotype known as Legius syndrome, which consists of symptoms of multiple café-au-lait macules, axillary freckling, learning disabilities, and macrocephaly. Legius syndrome resembles a mild neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) phenotype. It has been demonstrated that SPRED1 functions as a negative regulator of the Ras-ERK pathway and interacts with neurofibromin, the NF1 gene product. However, the molecular details of this interaction and the effects of the mutations identified in Legius syndrome and NF1 on this interaction have not yet been investigated. In this study, using a yeast two-hybrid system and an immunoprecipitation assay in HEK293 cells, we found that the SPRED1 EVH1 domain interacts with the N-terminal 16 amino acids and the C-terminal 20 amino acids of the GTPase-activating protein (GAP)-related domain (GRD) of neurofibromin, which form two crossing α-helix coils outside the GAP domain. These regions have been shown to be dispensable for GAP activity and are not present in p120(GAP). Several mutations in these N- and C-terminal regions of the GRD in NF1 patients and pathogenic missense mutations in the EVH1 domain of SPRED1 in Legius syndrome reduced the binding affinity between the EVH1 domain and the GRD. EVH1 domain mutations with reduced binding to the GRD also disrupted the ERK suppression activity of SPRED1. These data clearly demonstrate that SPRED1 inhibits the Ras-ERK pathway by recruiting neurofibromin to Ras through the EVH1-GRD interaction, and this study also provides molecular basis for the pathogenic mutations of NF1 and Legius syndrome.
Project description:Legius syndrome presents as an autosomal dominant condition characterized by café-au-lait macules with or without freckling and sometimes a Noonan-like appearance and/or learning difficulties. It is caused by germline loss-of-function SPRED1 mutations and is a member of the RAS-MAPK pathway syndromes. Most mutations result in a truncated protein and only a few inactivating missense mutations have been reported. Since only a limited number of patients has been reported up until now, the full clinical and mutational spectrum is still unknown. We report mutation data and clinical details in fourteen new families with Legius syndrome. Six novel germline mutations are described. The Trp31Cys mutation is a new pathogenic SPRED1 missense mutation. Clinical details in the 14 families confirmed the absence of neurofibromas, and Lisch nodules, and the absence of a high prevalence of central nervous system tumors. We report white matter T2 hyperintensities on brain MRI scans in 2 patients and a potential association between postaxial polydactyly and Legius syndrome.
Project description:Café-au-lait macules are frequently seen in Ras-MAPK pathway disorders and are a cardinal feature of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Most NF1 individuals develop age-related tumorigenic manifestations (e.g., neurofibromas), although individuals with a specific 3-bp deletion in exon 22 of NF1 (c.2970_2972delAAT) have an attenuated phenotype with primarily pigmentary manifestations. Previous reports identify this deletion c.2970_2972delAAT in exon 17 of NF1 using NF Consortium nomenclature. For this report, we elected to use standard NCBI nomenclature, which places this identical deletion within exon 22. SPRED1 mutations cause Legius syndrome, which clinically overlaps with this attenuated NF1 phenotype. In an unselected cohort of 50 individuals who fulfilled NIH clinical diagnostic criteria from an NF Clinic and did not have SPRED1 mutations, we sequenced NF1 exon 22 in order to identify children and adolescents with multiple café-au-lait spots who could be projected to have lower likelihood to develop tumors. Two individuals with NF1 exon 22 mutations were identified: an 11-year-old boy with the c.2970_2972delAAT in-frame deletion and a 4-year-old boy with c.2866dupA. The father of the second patient had an attenuated form of NF1 and showed 24% germline mosaicism of the c.2866dupA mutation in whole blood. These individuals emphasize the need for mutation analysis in some individuals with the clinical diagnosis of NF1 who lack the tumorigenic or classic skeletal abnormalities of NF1. Specifically, with the identification of Legius syndrome, the need to recognize the attenuated phenotype of NF1 mosaicism and confirmation by mutation analysis is increasingly important for appropriate medical management and family counseling.
Project description:The SPRED1 gene encodes a protein involved in the Ras/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signaling pathway. Mutations in SPRED1 have been reported to cause Legius Syndrome, a rare developmental disorder that shares some clinical features with Neurofibromatosis-1. Direct sequencing was used to define SPRED1 mutations. We present two previously undescribed mutations: a frameshift mutation causing a stop codon, which was identified in an Italian family (p.Ile60Tyrfs*18) and a missense variation, which was identified in one sporadic Italian case (p.Pro422Arg). Our results led us to hypothesize that these modifications may contribute to the Legius Syndrome phenotype. Further studies will be needed to determine the roles of these mutations in the mechanisms of Legius Syndrome.
Project description:Legius syndrome, caused by SPRED1 mutations, has phenotypic overlap with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) without tumorigenic manifestations. Patients fulfilling the National Institutes of Health (NIH) diagnostic criteria for NF1 were enrolled at the University of Utah NF Clinic, and SPRED1 mutation analysis was performed to identify the frequency of Legius syndrome within an NF1 clinic population. SPRED1 sequencing was performed on 151 individuals with the clinical diagnosis of NF1, and 2 individuals (1.3%) were found to have novel SPRED1 mutations, p.R18X and p.Q194X. The phenotypes for the 2 individuals with SPRED1 mutations included altered pigmentation without tumorigenesis. A specific SPRED1 haplotype allele was identified in 27 individuals. The frequency of SPRED1 mutations in patients meeting diagnostic criteria for NF1 in a hospital-based clinic is 1% to 2%. The likelihood an individual is harboring a SPRED1 mutation increases with age if multiple, nonpigmentary NF1 findings are absent. Legius syndrome patients may benefit from altered medical surveillance.
Project description:Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disease with complete penetrance but high variable expressivity. NF1 is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the NF1 gene, a negative regulator of the RAS-MAPK pathway. The NF1 gene has one of the highest mutation rates in human disorders, which may explain the outbreak of independent de novo variants in the same family. Here, we report the co-occurrence of pathogenic variants in the NF1 and SPRED1 genes in six families with NF1 and Legius syndrome, using next-generation sequencing. In five of these families, we observed the co-occurrence of two independent NF1 variants. All NF1 variants were classified as pathogenic, according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG-AMP) guidelines. In the sixth family, one sibling inherited a complete deletion of the NF1 gene from her mother and carried a variant of unknown significance in the SPRED1 gene. This variant was also present in her brother, who was diagnosed with Legius syndrome, a differential diagnosis of NF1. This work illustrates the complexity of molecular diagnosis in a not-so-rare genetic disease.
Project description:The detection rate for identifying the underlying mutation in neurocutaneous syndromes is affected by the sensitivity of the mutation test and the heterogeneity of the disease based on the diagnostic criteria. Neurofibromatosis type (NF1) has been defined for 29years by the National Institutes for Health (NIH) criteria which include ?6 Café au Lait macules (CAL) as a defining criterion. The discovery of SPRED1 as a cause of Legius syndrome which is manifested by CAL, freckling and learning difficulties has introduced substantial heterogeneity to the NIH criteria.We have defined the sensitivity of comprehensive RNA analysis on blood of presumed NF1 patients meeting NIH criteria with at least one nonpigmentary criterion and determined the proportion of children with ?6 CAL and no family history that has an NF1 or SPRED1 genetic variant. RNA analysis was carried out from 04/2009-12/2015 on 361 NF1 patients.A presumed causative NF1 mutation was found in 166/171 (97.08%-95% CI 94.56-99.6%) of familial cases and 182/190 (95.8%-95% CI 92.93-98.65%) sporadic de novo cases. Two of thirteen (15%) mutation negative individuals had dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNET) compared to 2/348 (0.6%) with an NF1 variant (p=0.007). No SPRED1 variants were found in the thirteen individuals with no NF1 variant. Of seventy-one individuals with ?6 CAL and no non-pigmentary criterion aged 0-20years, 47 (66.2%) had an NF1 variant six (8.5%) a SPRED1 variant and 18 (25.3%) no disease causing variant. Using the 95.8% detection rate the likelihood of a child with ?6 CAL having constitutional NF1 drops from 2/3 to 1/9 after negative RNA analysis.RNA analysis in individuals with presumed NF1 has high sensitivity and includes a small subset with DNET without an NF1 variant. Furthermore negative analysis for NF1/SPRED1 provides strong reassurance to children with ?6 CAL that they are unlikely to have NF1.