Celecoxib extends C. elegans lifespan via inhibition of insulin-like signaling but not cyclooxygenase-2 activity.
ABSTRACT: One goal of aging research is to develop interventions that combat age-related illnesses and slow aging. Although numerous mutations have been shown to achieve this in various model organisms, only a handful of chemicals have been identified to slow aging. Here, we report that celecoxib, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug widely used to treat pain and inflammation, extends Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan and delays the age-associated physiological changes, such as motor activity decline. Celecoxib also delays the progression of age-related proteotoxicity as well as tumor growth in C. elegans. Celecoxib was originally developed as a potent cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor. However, the result from a structural-activity analysis demonstrated that the antiaging effect of celecoxib might be independent of its COX-2 inhibitory activity, as analogs of celecoxib that lack COX-2 inhibitory activity produce a similar effect on lifespan. Furthermore, we found that celecoxib acts directly on 3'-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1, a component of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling cascade to increase lifespan.
Project description:Carnosol, a phenolic diterpene, is one of the main constituents of Rosmarinus. It is known to possess a range of bioactivities, including antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. Nevertheless, the antiaging effects of carnosol have received little attention. This study first indicated that carnosol increased the healthspan of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). First, compared with the control condition, carnosol treatment effectively decreased ROS accumulation under normal or oxidative stress condition, significantly increased several key antioxidant enzyme activities, and significantly decreased MDA content. Second, carnosol effectively prolonged lifespan under normal and stress conditions and slowed aging-related declines, including mobility, age pigmentation, and neurodegenerative disease, but had no effect on fertility and fat deposition. Finally, carnosol-mediated longevity required the upregulated expression of sod-3, sod-5, hsf-1, hsp-16.1, and hsp-16.2 and was dependent on the hsf-1 gene. Increased DAF-16 translocation was observed, but daf-16 was independent of the effects on lifespan induced by carnosol. These results suggested that carnosol might serve as a good source of natural antioxidants, and in particular, carnosol could be explored as a potential dietary supplement to slow aging.
Project description:DAF-16 target genes are employed as reporters of the insulin/IGF-1 like signal pathway (IIS), and this is notably true when Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is used to study the action of anti-aging compounds on IIS activity. However, some of these genes may not be specific to DAF-16, even if their expression levels are altered when DAF-16 is activated. Celecoxib was reported to extend the lifespan of C. elegans through activation of DAF-16. Our results confirmed the function of celecoxib on aging; however, we found that the expression of ins-7, a DAF-16 target gene, was abnormally regulated by celecoxib. ins-7 plays an important role in regulating aging, and its expression is suppressed in C. elegans when DAF-16 is activated. However, we found that celecoxib upregulated the expression of ins-7 in contrast to its role in DAF-16 activation. Our subsequent analysis indicated that the expression level of ins-7 in C. elegans was negatively regulated by DAF-16 activity. Additionally, its expression was also positively regulated by DAF-16-independent mechanisms, at least following external pharmacological intervention. Our study suggests that ins-7 is not a specific target gene of DAF-16, and should not be chosen as a reporter for IIS activity. This conclusion is important in the study of INSs on aging in C. elegans, especially under the circumstance of drug intervention.
Project description:Most age-related diseases and aging itself are associated with chronic inflammation. Thus pharmacological inhibition of inflammatory processes may be effective antiaging strategy. In this study we demonstrated that treatment of Drosophila melanogaster with 10 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs: CAY10404, aspirin, APHS, SC-560, NS-398, SC-58125, valeroyl salicylate, trans-resveratrol, valdecoxib, licofelone) leads to extension of lifespan, delays age-dependent decline of locomotor activity and increases stress resistance. The effect of the lifespan increase was associated with decrease of fecundity. Depending on the concentration, NSAIDs demonstrated both anti- and pro-oxidant properties in Drosophila tissues. However, we failed to identify clear correlation between antioxidant properties of NSAIDs and their pro-longevity effects. The lifespan extending effects of APHS, SC-58125, valeroyl salicylate, trans-resveratrol, valdecoxib, and licofelone were more pronounced in males, valdecoxib and aspirin - in females. We demonstrated that lifespan extension effect of NSAIDs was abolished in flies with defective genes involved in Pkh2-ypk1-lem3-tat2 pathway.
Project description:Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) is a phytoestrogen and rich in food flaxseed, sunflower seeds, and sesame seeds. Among the beneficial pharmacological activities of SDG on health, many are age related, such as anticancer, antidiabetes, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects. Thus, we investigated if SDG had an effect on antiaging in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Our results showed that SDG could extend the lifespan of C. elegans by up to 22.0%, delay age-related decline of body movement, reduce the lethality of heat and oxidative stress, alleviate dopamine neurodegeneration induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), and decrease the toxicity of A? protein in C. elegans. SDG could increase the expression of the downstream genes of DAF-16, DAF-12, NHR-80, and HSF-1 at mRNA level. SDG could not extend the lifespan of mutants from genes daf-16, hsf-1, nhr-80, daf-12, glp-1, eat-2, and aak-2. The above results suggested that SDG might enhance the stress resistance, delay the progression of aging-related diseases, and extend the lifespan of C. elegans via DAF-16 and HSF-1.
Project description:Previous evidence has revealed that increase in intracellular levels of calcium promotes cellular senescence. However, whether calcium channel blockers (CCBs) can slow aging and extend lifespan is still unknown. In this study, we showed that verapamil, an L-type calcium channel blocker, extended the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) lifespan and delayed senescence in human lung fibroblasts. Verapamil treatment also improved healthspan in C. elegans as reflected by several age-related physiological parameters, including locomotion, thrashing, age-associated vulval integrity, and osmotic stress resistance. We also found that verapamil acted on the ?1 subunit of an L-type calcium channel in C. elegans. Moreover, verapamil extended worm lifespan by inhibiting calcineurin activity. Furthermore, verapamil significantly promoted autophagy as reflected by the expression levels of LGG-1/LC3 and the mRNA levels of autophagy-related genes. In addition, verapamil could not further induce autophagy when tax-6, calcineurin gene, was knocked down, indicating that verapamil-induced lifespan extension is mediated via promoting autophagy processes downstream of calcineurin. In summary, our study provided mechanistic insights into the anti-aging effect of verapamil in C. elegans.
Project description:Phosphatidylcholine is one of the major phospholipids comprising cellular membrane and is known to have several health-promoting activities, including the improvement of brain function and liver repair. In this paper, we examine the in vivo effect of dietary supplementation with phosphatidylcholine on the response to environmental stressors and aging in C. elegans. Treatment with phosphatidylcholine significantly increased the survival of worms under oxidative stress conditions. However, there was no significant difference in response to stresses caused by heat shock or ultraviolet irradiation. Oxidative stress is believed to be one of the major causal factors of aging. Then, we examined the effect of phosphatidylcholine on lifespan and age-related physiological changes. Phosphatidylcholine showed a lifespan-extending effect and a reduction in fertility, possibly as a tradeoff for long lifespan. Age-related decline of motility was also significantly delayed by supplementation with phosphatidylcholine. Interestingly, the expressions of well-known longevity-assuring genes, hsp-16.2 and sod-3, were significantly upregulated by dietary intervention with phosphatidylcholine. DAF-16, a transcription factor modulating stress response genes, was accumulated in the nucleus by phosphatidylcholine treatment. Increase of the ROS level with phosphatidylcholine suggests that the antioxidant and lifespan-extending effects are due to the hormetic effect of phosphatidylcholine. Phosphatidylcholine also showed a protective effect against amyloid beta-induced toxicity in Alzheimer's disease model animals. Experiments with long-lived mutants revealed that the lifespan-extending effect of phosphatidylcholine specifically overlapped with that of reduced insulin/IGF-1-like signaling and required DAF-16. These findings showed the antioxidant and antiaging activities of phosphatidylcholine for the first time in vivo. Further studies focusing on the identification of underlying cellular mechanisms involved in the antiaging effect will increase the possibility of using phosphatidylcholine for the development of antiaging therapeutics.
Project description:Aging research has been very successful at identifying signaling pathways and evolutionarily conserved genes that extend lifespan with the assumption that an increase in lifespan will also increase healthspan. However, it is largely unknown whether we are extending the healthy time of life or simply prolonging a period of frailty with increased incidence of age-associated diseases. Here we use Caenorhabditis elegans, one of the premiere systems for lifespan studies, to determine whether lifespan and healthspan are intrinsically correlated. We conducted multiple cellular and organismal assays on wild type as well as four long-lived mutants (insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1, dietary restriction, protein translation, mitochondrial signaling) in a longitudinal manner to determine the health of the animals as they age. We find that some long-lived mutants performed better than wild type when measured chronologically (number of days). However, all long-lived mutants increased the proportion of time spent in a frail state. Together, these data suggest that lifespan can no longer be the sole parameter of interest and reveal the importance of evaluating multiple healthspan parameters for future studies on antiaging interventions.
Project description:Aging is the major risk factor for many human diseases and degeneration. Thus, clinically effective medicine could delay the process of aging and aging-related diseases are desperately wanted. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), some were claimed to slow down aging. Qingyangshen (Cynanchum otophyllum schneid) is such a TCM. Here, we assayed the longevity effect of compound Otophylloside B (Ot B), a C-21 steroidal glycoside isolated from Qingyangshen, in Caenorhabditis elegans, which is a popular model for aging research. Our results showed that Ot B could modestly extend the lifespan of C. elegans, delay the age-related decline of body movement and improve the stress resistance. Further investigating the molecular mechanism of lifespan extension effect revealed that Ot B could activate the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16. Ot B could not further extend the lifespan of long-lived mutant of insulin/IGF-1-like receptor (daf-2). In addition, Ot B also requires SIR-2.1 and CLK-1 which is an enzyme in ubiquinone synthesis, for lifespan extension.
Project description:Broad aspects of Caenorhabditis elegans life history, including larval developmental timing, arrest at the dauer diapause, and longevity, are regulated by the nuclear receptor DAF-12. Endogenous DAF-12 ligands are 3-keto bile acid-like steroids, called dafachronic acids, which rescue larval defects of hormone-deficient mutants, such as daf-9/cytochrome P450 and daf-36/Rieske oxygenase, and activate DAF-12. Here we examined the effect of dafachronic acid on pathways controlling lifespan. Dafachronic acid supplementation shortened the lifespan of long-lived daf-9 mutants and abolished their stress resistance, indicating that the ligand is "proaging" in response to signals from the dauer pathways. However, the ligand extended the lifespan of germ-line ablated daf-9 and daf-36 mutants, showing that it is "antiaging" in the germ-line longevity pathway. Thus, dafachronic acid regulates C. elegans lifespan according to signaling state. These studies provide key evidence that bile acid-like steroids modulate aging in animals.
Project description:Extending healthy lifespan is an emerging issue in an aging society. This study was designed to identify a dietary method of extending lifespan, promoting renoprotection, and preventing muscle weakness in aged mice, with a focus on the importance of the balance between dietary essential (EAAs) and nonessential amino acids (NEAAs) on the dietary restriction (DR)-induced antiaging effect. Groups of aged mice were fed ad libitum, a simple DR, or a DR with recovering NEAAs or EAAs. Simple DR significantly extended lifespan and ameliorated age-related kidney injury; however, the beneficial effects of DR were canceled by recovering dietary EAA but not NEAA. Simple DR prevented the age-dependent decrease in slow-twitch muscle fiber function but reduced absolute fast-twitch muscle fiber function. DR-induced fast-twitch muscle fiber dysfunction was improved by recovering either dietary NEAAs or EAAs. In the ad libitum-fed and the DR plus EAA groups, the renal content of methionine, an EAA, was significantly higher, accompanied by lower renal production of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), an endogenous antioxidant. Finally, removal of methionine from the dietary EAA supplement diminished the adverse effects of dietary EAA on lifespan and kidney injury in the diet-restricted aged mice, which were accompanied by a recovery in H2 S production capacity and lower oxidative stress. These data imply that a dietary approach could combat kidney aging and prolong lifespan, while preventing muscle weakness, and suggest that renal methionine metabolism and the trans-sulfuration pathway could be therapeutic targets for preventing kidney aging and subsequently promoting healthy aging.