Calbindin 2 (CALB2) regulates 5-fluorouracil sensitivity in colorectal cancer by modulating the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.
ABSTRACT: The role of the calcium binding protein, Calbindin 2 (CALB2), in regulating the response of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) was investigated. Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that CALB2 mRNA and protein expression were down-regulated in p53 wild-type and p53 null isogenic HCT116 CRC cell lines following 48 h and 72 h 5-FU treatment. Moreover, 5-FU-induced apoptosis was significantly reduced in HCT116 and LS174T CRC cell lines in which CALB2 expression had been silenced. Further investigation revealed that CALB2 translocated to the mitochondria following 5-FU treatment and that 5-FU-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??(m)) was abrogated in CALB2-silenced cells. Furthermore, CALB2 silencing decreased 5-FU-induced cytochrome c and smac release from the mitochondria and also decreased 5-FU-induced activation of caspases 9 and 3/7. Of note, co-silencing of XIAP overcame 5-FU resistance in CALB2-silenced cells. Collectively, these results suggest that following 5-FU treatment in CRC cell lines, CALB2 is involved in apoptosis induction through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. This indicates that CALB2 may be an important mediator of 5-FU-induced cell death. Moreover, down-regulation of CALB2 in response to 5-FU may represent an intrinsic mechanism of resistance to this anti-cancer drug.
Project description:Only 10%-20% of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients observe effective responses to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) based chemo-treatment. We used real-time PCR array and Western blot analysis to examine the expression alteration of acetyltransferases and deacetylases in 5-FU resistant CRC cell lines as compared to their respective parental CRC cell lines. Unlike other acetyltransferases and deacetylases, we found that the expression of acetyltransferase P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) is consistently decreased in three 5-FU resistant CRC cell lines. Similarly, knockdown of PCAF in HCT116 CRC parental cell line also increases the resistance to 5-FU and attenuates 5-FU-induced apoptosis. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that increased binding of trimethylated histone H3K27 in the promoter region of PCAF attenuated its transcription in 5-FU resistant HCT116/5-FU cells. Decreased PCAF impairs the acetylation of p53 and attenuates the p53-dependent transcription of p21, which results in the increased cyclin D1 and phosphorylation of Retinoblastoma 1. Conversely, overexpression of PCAF in CRC cell lines increases p21 and their susceptibility to 5-FU in vitro and in vivo. However, knockdown of p21 abolishes the beneficial effects of PCAF overexpression on increasing the sensitivity of HCT116/5-FU cells to 5-FU. Also, the reduced intensity of PCAF immunostaining was observed in the precancerous lesion, and microarray data from the public database further demonstrated the association between PCAF down-regulation and poor survival outcome. Our data suggest that PCAF-mediated p53 acetylation is an essential regulatory mechanism for increasing the susceptibility of CRC to 5-FU.
Project description:Chemoresistance is the main cause of treatment failure in advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). However, molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain to be elucidated. In a previous work we identified low levels of PKM2 as a putative oxaliplatin-resistance marker in HT29 CRC cell lines and also in patients. In order to assess how PKM2 influences oxaliplatin response in CRC cells, we silenced PKM2 using specific siRNAs in HT29, SW480 and HCT116 cells. MTT test demonstrated that PKM2 silencing induced resistance in HT29 and SW480 cells and sensitivity in HCT116 cells. Same experiments in isogenic HCT116 p53 null cells and double silencing of p53 and PKM2 in HT29 cells failed to show an influence of p53. By using trypan blue stain and FITC-Annexin V/PI tests we detected that PKM2 knockdown was associated with an increase in cell viability but not with a decrease in apoptosis activation in HT29 cells. Fluorescence microscopy revealed PKM2 nuclear translocation in response to oxaliplatin in HCT116 and HT29 cells but not in OXA-resistant HTOXAR3 cells. Finally, by using a qPCR Array we demonstrated that oxaliplatin and PKM2 silencing altered cell death gene expression patterns including those of BMF, which was significantly increased in HT29 cells in response to oxaliplatin, in a dose and time-dependent manner, but not in siPKM2-HT29 and HTOXAR3 cells. BMF gene silencing in HT29 cells lead to a decrease in oxaliplatin-induced cell death. In conclusion, our data report new non-glycolytic roles of PKM2 in response to genotoxic damage and proposes BMF as a possible target gene of PKM2 to be involved in oxaliplatin response and resistance in CRC cells.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) has become a predominant cancer and accounts for approximately 10% of cancer-related mortality. Drug resistance still remains a priority mortality factor for patients due to no available therapeutic alternatives. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms how eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G (EIF3G) resensitized 5-Fu-resistant human CRC cells (HCT116/5-Fu) to 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu).Multiple cellular and molecular biology experiments were performed in the present study, such as CCK-8, western blotting and flow cytometry.We found that EIF3G is highly expressed at RNA and protein levels in HCT116/5-Fu cells compared with HCT116 cells using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. In addition, silencing EIF3G enhanced 5-Fu-induced apoptosis in HCT116/5-Fu cells. Moreover, EIF3G silencing decreased the activity of the drug-related proteins MDR1 and MRP levels in HCT116/5-Fu cells. Finally, the xenograft tumor model further confirmed that EIF3G resensitized HCT116/5-Fu tumors to 5-Fu. We observed that EIF3G silencing followed by 5-Fu administration had a synergistic interaction effect on HCT116/5-Fu in vitro and in vivo.These findings demonstrate that EIF3G is a targetable regulator of chemoresistance in CRC, and inhibiting EIF3G in combination with 5-Fu might be a potential therapeutic strategy for colon cancer.
Project description:Our previous studies indicated that tumor invasion and 5-flurouracil (5-FU) resistance in colorectal cancer (CRC) was more affected by cytoplasmic localization of expressed Nrf2 (cNrf2) than by nuclear localization (nNrf2), indicating a need for novel antitumor agents to overcome 5-FU resistance and improve outcomes in patients with CRC. In the present study, 20 nitrogen-substituted anthra[1,2-c][1,2,5] thiadiazole-6,11-dione derivatives were collected to verify the compound most able to suppress cell growth in nuclear location sequence (NLS)-mutated Nrf2-transfected shNrf2-HCT116 stable clones that have high cNrf2 expression. The MTT assay indicated that these high-cNrf2-expressing shNrf2-HCT116 stable clones exhibited the lowest percentage survival when treated with RV-59 than with the other 19 compounds. As expected, the high-cNrf2-expressing cells also showed a higher value for the inhibitory concentration of 50% cell survival (IC50) for 5-FU when compared with Nrf2-knockdown HCT116 stable clones (17.74 ?M vs. 5.34 ?M). Interestingly, a lower RV-59 IC50 value was seen in the high-cNrf2-expressing stable clones than in the Nrf2-knockdown stable clones (3.55 ?M vs. 16.81 ?M). A similar low RV-59 IC50 value was observed in high-cNrf2-expressing NLS-mutated Nrf2-transfected shNrf2-HCT116 stable clones and p53 null (-/-) HCT116 cells (4.2 ?M vs. 4.4 ?M), whereas the IC50 value was 17.6 ?M in normal colon FHC epithelial cells. Colony-forming assays confirmed that RV-59 treatment inhibited colony formation in NLS-mutated Nrf2-transfected shNrf2-HCT116 stable clones and in p53-/- HCT116 cells. Annexin-V/PI staining showed an involvement of apoptosis in the inhibitory effect of RV-59 on cell viability. A nude mouse xenograft tumor model showed that RV-59 efficiently suppressed tumor growth induced by transplanted NLS-mutated Nrf2-transfected shNrf2-HCT116 stable clones without affecting the body weight of the nude mice over the 37 day experimental period. These results strongly suggest that RV-59 may be a novel antitumor agent for suppression of 5-FU resistance and may have therapeutic potential for improving outcomes in patients with cNrf2-expressing tumors.
Project description:Small synthetic compounds have been implicated in treatment of human cancers. We have synthesized a small compound, BPR1K0609S1 (hereafter, BP), which inhibits Aurora-A kinase. In the present study, we studied the mechanism of BP suppression of tumorigenesis induced by Aurora-A. Given our previous results that inactivation of p53 accelerates MMTV-Aurora-A-mediated tumorigenesis in vivo, we studied the roles of p53 pathway using the isogenic human colon carcinoma cell lines of HCT116, in which p53, Puma, Bax, p21 or Chk2 is deleted. When these isogenic cell lines are treated with BP for 48 h, accumulation of G2M phase and aneuploidy are commonly observed, and HCT116 p21(-) cells show increase in apoptosis. In xenograft assay, s.c. injection of BP efficiently inhibits tumorigenesis of HCT116 deficient for Chk2 or p21. Re-transplantation of BP-resistant tumors indicates that these resistant cells do not acquire advanced tumor growth. Significantly, 5-FU (5-fluorouracil) treatment further induces apoptosis of BP-resistant HCT116 deficient for Chk2 or Puma. These results demonstrate that p21 deficiency enhances BP-mediated suppression of tumor growth, and that BP and 5-FU can collaborate for tumor regression.
Project description:MultiCellular Tumor Spheroids (MCTS), which mimic the 3-Dimensional (3D) organization of a tumor, are considered as better models than conventional cultures in 2-Dimensions (2D) to study cancer cell biology and to evaluate the response to chemotherapeutic drugs. A real time and quantitative follow-up of MCTS with simple and robust readouts to evaluate drug efficacy is still missing. Here, we evaluate the chemotherapeutic drug 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) response on the growth and integrity of MCTS two days after treatment of MCTS and for three colorectal carcinoma cell lines with different cohesive properties (HT29, HCT116 and SW480). We found different sensitivity to 5-FU for the three CRC cell lines, ranging from high (SW480), intermediate (HCT116) and low (HT29) and the same hierarchy of CRC cell lines sensitivity is conserved in 2D. We also evidence that 5-FU has a strong impact on spheroid cohesion, with the apparition of a number of single detaching cells from the spheroid in a 5-FU dose- and cell line-dependent manner. We propose an innovative methodology for the chemosensitivity evaluation in 3D MCTS that recapitulates and regionalizes the 5-FU-induced changes within MCTS over time. These robust phenotypic read-outs could be easily scalable for high-throughput drug screening that may include different types of cancer cells to take into account tumor heterogeneity and resistance to treatment.
Project description:The MEK5/ERK5 signaling pathway is emerging as an important contributor to colon cancer onset, progression and metastasis; however, its relevance to chemotherapy resistance remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the impact of the MEK5/ERK5 cascade in colon cancer cell sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Increased ERK5 expression was correlated with poor overall survival in colon cancer patients. In colon cancer cells, 5-FU exposure impaired endogenous KRAS/MEK5/ERK5 expression and/or activation. In turn, MEK5 constitutive activation reduced 5-FU-induced cytotoxicity. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we showed that ERK5 inhibition increased caspase-3/7 activity and apoptosis following 5-FU exposure. Mechanistically, this was further associated with increased p53 transcriptional activation of p21 and PUMA. In addition, ERK5 inhibition increased the response of HCT116 p53+/+ cells to 5-FU, but failed to sensitize HCT116 p53-/- cells to the cytotoxic effects of this chemotherapeutic agent, suggesting a p53-dependent axis mediating 5-FU sensitization. Finally, ERK5 inhibition using XMD8-92 was shown to increase the antitumor effects of 5-FU in a murine subcutaneous xenograft model, enhancing apoptosis while markedly reducing tumor growth. Collectively, our results suggest that ERK5-targeted inhibition provides a promising therapeutic approach to overcome resistance to 5-FU-based chemotherapy and improve colon cancer treatment.
Project description:Resistance to 5-Fluoruracil (5-FU) has been linked to elevated expression of the main target, thymidylate synthase (TYMS), which catalyses the de novo pathway for production of deoxythymidine monophosphate. The potent oncogenic forkhead box transcription factor, FOXM1 is is regulated by E2F1 which also controls TYMS. This study reveals a significant role of FOXM1 in 5-FU resistance. Overexpression and knock-down studies of FOXM1 in colon cancer cells suggest the importance of FOXM1 in TYMS regulation. ChIP and global ChIP-seq data also confirms that FOXM1 can also potentially regulate other 5-FU targets, such as TYMS, thymidine kinase 1 (TK-1) and thymidine phosphorylase (TYMP). In human colorectal cancer tissue specimens, a strong correlation of FOXM1 and TYMS staining was observed. Elevated FOXM1 and TYMS expression was also observed in acquired 5-FU resistant colon cancer cells (HCT116 5-FU Res). A synergistic effect was observed following treatment of CRC cells with an inhibitor of FOXM1, thiostrepton, in combination with 5-FU. The combination treatment decreased colony formation and migration, and induced cell cycle arrest, DNA damage, and apoptosis in CRC cell lines. In summary, this research demonstrated that FOXM1 plays a pivotal role in 5-FU resistance at least partially through the regulation of TYMS.
Project description:Most patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) eventually develop resistance to systemic combination therapy. miR-195-5p and miR-497-5p are downregulated in CRC tissues and associated with drug resistance. Sensitization to 5-FU, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan by transfection with miR-195-5p and miR-497-5p mimics was studied using cell viability and clonogenic assays in cell lines HCT116, RKO, DLD-1, and SW480. In addition, proteomic analysis of transfected cells was implemented to identify potential targets. Significantly altered proteins were subjected to STRING (protein-protein interaction networks) database analysis to study the potential mechanisms of drug resistance. Cell viability analysis of transfected cells revealed increased sensitivity to oxaliplatin in microsatellite instable (MSI)/P53 wild-type HCT116 and RKO cells. HCT116 transfected cells formed significantly fewer colonies when treated with oxaliplatin. In sensitized cells, proteomic analysis showed 158 and 202 proteins with significantly altered expression after transfection with miR-195-5p and miR-497-5p mimics respectively, of which CHUK and LUZP1 proved to be coinciding downregulated proteins. Resistance mechanisms of these proteins may be associated with nuclear factor kappa-B signaling and G1 cell-cycle arrest. In conclusion, miR-195-5p and miR-497-5p replacement enhanced sensitivity to oxaliplatin in treatment naïve MSI/P53 wild-type CRC cells. Proteomic analysis revealed potential miRNA targets associated with the cell-cycle which possibly bare a relation with chemotherapy sensitivity.
Project description:Overcoming resistance to chemotherapy is a major challenge in colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment, especially since the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We show that silencing of the prolyl hydroxylase domain protein PHD1, but not PHD2 or PHD3, prevents p53 activation upon chemotherapy in different CRC cell lines, thereby inhibiting DNA repair and favoring cell death. Mechanistically, PHD1 activity reinforces p53 binding to p38? kinase in a hydroxylation-dependent manner. Following p53-p38? interaction and chemotherapeutic damage, p53 can be phosphorylated at serine 15 and thus activated. Active p53 allows nucleotide excision repair by interacting with the DNA helicase XPB, thereby protecting from chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. In accord with this observation, PHD1 knockdown greatly sensitizes CRC to 5-FU in mice. We propose that PHD1 is part of the resistance machinery in CRC, supporting rational drug design of PHD1-specific inhibitors and their use in combination with chemotherapy.