Bidirectional autoregulatory mechanism of metastasis-associated protein 1-alternative reading frame pathway in oncogenesis.
ABSTRACT: Although metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1), a component of the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylation complex, is widely up-regulated in human cancers and correlates with tumor metastasis, its regulatory mechanism and related signaling pathways remain unknown. Here, we report a previously unrecognized bidirectional autoregulatory loop between MTA1 and tumor suppressor alternative reading frame (ARF). MTA1 transactivates ARF transcription by recruiting the transcription factor c-Jun onto the ARF promoter in a p53-independent manner. ARF, in turn, negatively regulates MTA1 expression independently of p53 and c-Myc. In this context, ARF interacts with transcription factor specificity protein 1 (SP1) and promotes its proteasomal degradation by enhancing its interaction with proteasome subunit regulatory particle ATPase 6, thereby abrogating the ability of SP1 to stimulate MTA1 transcription. ARF also physically associates with MTA1 and affects its protein stability. Thus, MTA1-mediated activation of ARF and ARF-mediated functional inhibition of MTA1 represent a p53-independent bidirectional autoregulatory mechanism in which these two opposites act in concert to regulate cell homeostasis and oncogenesis, depending on the cellular context and the environment.
Project description:The INK4a/ARF locus encodes two proteins involved in tumor suppression in a manner virtually unique in mammalian cells. Distinct first exons, driven from separate promoters, splice onto a common exon 2 and 3 but utilize different reading frames to produce two completely distinct proteins, both of which play roles in cell cycle control. INK4a, a critical element of the retinoblastoma gene pathway, binds to and inhibits the activities of CDK4 and CDK6, while ARF, a critical element of the p53 pathway, increases the level of functional p53 via interaction with MDM2. Here we clone and characterize the promoter of the human ARF gene and show that it is a CpG island characteristic of a housekeeping gene which contains numerous Sp1 sites. Both ARF and INK4a are coordinately expressed in cells except when their promoter regions become de novo methylated. In one of these situations, ARF transcription could be reactivated by treatment with the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, and the reactivation kinetics of ARF and INK4a were found to differ slightly in a cell line in which both genes were silenced by methylation. The ARF promoter was also found to be highly responsive to E2F1 expression, in keeping with previous results at the RNA level. Lastly, transcription from the ARF promoter was down-regulated by wild-type p53 expression, and the magnitude of the effect correlated with the status of the endogenous p53 gene. This finding points to the existence of an autoregulatory feedback loop between p53, MDM2, and ARF, aimed at keeping p53 levels in check.
Project description:We found that ZBTB2, a POK family transcription factor, is a potent repressor of the ARF-HDM2-p53-p21 pathway important in cell cycle regulation. ZBTB2 repressed transcription of the ARF, p53, and p21 genes, but activated the HDM2 gene. In particular, ZBTB2 repressed transcription of the p21 gene by acting on the two distal p53 binding elements and the proximal Sp1 binding GC-box 5/6 elements. ZBTB2 directly interacted with Sp1 via its POZ domain and zinc fingers, which was important in the repression of transcription activation by Sp1. ZBTB2 and Sp1 competed with each other in binding to the GC-box 5/6 elements and the two p53 binding elements. ZBTB2 directly interacted with p53 via its zinc fingers, inhibiting p53 binding and repressing transcription activation by p53. The POZ domain, required for transcription repression, interacted with corepressors such as BCoR, NCoR, and SMRT. The interactions deacetylated histones Ac-H3 and -H4 at the proximal promoter. Although ectopic ZBTB2 stimulated cell proliferation, knock-down of ZBTB2 expression decreased cell proliferation and DNA synthesis. Overall, our data suggest that ZBTB2 is a potential proto-oncogenic master control gene of the p53 pathway and, in particular, is a potent transcription repressor of the cell cycle arrest gene p21 by inhibiting p53 and Sp1.
Project description:Metastasis tumor antigen 1 (MTA1), a component of the Mi-2·nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase complex, plays a crucial role in gene transcription, but the mechanism involved remains largely unknown. Here, we report that MTA1 is a substrate for small ubiquitin-related modifier 2/3 (SUMO2/3) in vivo. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) proteins enhance SUMOylation of MTA1 and may participate in paralog-selective SUMOylation, whereas sentrin/SUMO-specific protease 1 (SENP1) and 2 may act as deSUMOylation enzymes for MTA1. Moreover, MTA1 contains a functional SUMO-interacting motif (SIM) at its C terminus, and SIM is required for the efficient SUMOylation of MTA1. SUMO conjugation on Lys-509, which is located within the SUMO consensus site, together with SIM synergistically regulates the co-repressor activity of MTA1 on PS2 transcription, probably by recruiting HDAC2 onto the PS2 promoter. Interestingly, MTA1 may up-regulate the expression of SUMO2 via interaction with RNA polymerase II and SP1 at the SUMO2 promoter. These findings not only provide novel mechanistic insights into the regulation of the transcriptional repressor function of MTA1 by SUMOylation and SIM but also uncover a potential function of MTA1 in modulating the SUMOylation pathway.
Project description:Aberrant transcriptional repression through chromatin remodeling and histone deacetylation has been postulated as the driving force for tumorigenesis. FBI-1 (formerly called Pokemon) is a member of the POK family of transcriptional repressors. Recently, FBI-1 was characterized as a critical oncogenic factor that specifically represses transcription of the tumor suppressor gene ARF, potentially leading indirectly to p53 inactivation. Our investigations on transcriptional repression of the p53 pathway revealed that FBI-1 represses transcription of ARF, Hdm2 (human analogue of mouse double minute oncogene), and p21CIP1 (hereafter indicated as p21) but not of p53. FBI-1 showed a more potent repressive effect on p21 than on p53. Our data suggested that FBI-1 is a master controller of the ARF-Hdm2-p53-p21 pathway, ultimately impinging on cell cycle arrest factor p21, by inhibiting upstream regulators at the transcriptional and protein levels. FBI-1 acted as a competitive transcriptional repressor of p53 and Sp1 and was shown to bind the proximal Sp1-3 GC-box and the distal p53-responsive elements of p21. Repression involved direct binding competition of FBI-1 with Sp1 and p53. FBI-1 also interacted with corepressors, such as mSin3A, NCoR, and SMRT, thereby deacetylating Ac-H3 and Ac-H4 histones at the promoter. FBI-1 caused cellular transformation, promoted cell cycle proliferation, and significantly increased the number of cells in S phase. FBI-1 is aberrantly overexpressed in many human solid tumors, particularly in adenocarcinomas and squamous carcinomas. The role of FBI-1 as a master controller of the p53 pathway therefore makes it an attractive therapeutic target.
Project description:The development of natural product agents with targeted strategies holds promise for enhanced anticancer therapy with reduced drug-associated side effects. Resveratrol found in red wine, has anticancer activity in various tumor types. We reported earlier on a new molecular target of resveratrol, the metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1), which is a part of nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation (NuRD) co-repressor complex that mediates gene silencing. We identified resveratrol as a regulator of MTA1/NuRD complex and re-activator of p53 acetylation in prostate cancer (PCa). In the current study, we addressed whether resveratrol analogues also possess the ability to inhibit MTA1 and to reverse p53 deacetylation. We demonstrated that pterostilbene (PTER), found in blueberries, had greater increase in MTA1-mediated p53 acetylation, confirming superior potency over resveratrol as dietary epigenetic agent. In orthotopic PCa xenografts, resveratrol and PTER significantly inhibited tumor growth, progression, local invasion and spontaneous metastasis. Furthermore, MTA1-knockdown sensitized cells to these agents resulting in additional reduction of tumor progression and metastasis. The reduction was dependent on MTA1 signaling showing increased p53 acetylation, higher apoptotic index and less angiogenesis in vivo in all xenografts treated with the compounds, and particularly with PTER. Altogether, our results indicate MTA1 as a major contributor in prostate tumor malignant progression, and support the use of strategies targeting MTA1. Our strong pre-clinical data indicate PTER as a potent, selective and pharmacologically safe natural product that may be tested in advanced PCa.
Project description:Expression of metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) gene correlates with the degree of invasion and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Expression of MTA1 is induced by hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx); however, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of MTA1 gene expression. Here, we report that the 5'-flanking region of the human MTA1 promoter contains two CpG islands. Transient expression of HBx in Chang liver cells increased the methylation of the CpG island1 from 18 to 49% when measured by bisulfite-modified direct sequencing. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that HBx recruited DNA methyltransferase 3a (DNMT3a) and DNMT3b to the CpG island1. In silico analysis of CpG island1 predicted the existence of putative p53-binding sequences. p53 was pulled down by a DNA probe encoding the p53-binding sequences but not by the methylated DNA probe. The mouse MTA1 promoter also contains a CpG island encoding a p53-binding sequence of which p53 binding was decreased in the presence of HBx, and the expression of MTA1 and DNMT3 was increased in the liver of HBx-transgenic mice. Comparison of MTA1 and DNMT3a expression in the human normal liver and HCC specimens produced a significant correlation coefficient >0.5 (r=0.5686, P=0.0001) for DNMT3a, and a marginally significant coefficient (r=0.3162, P=0.0103) for DNMT3b. These data show that HBx induces methylation of CpG island in the MTA1 promoter, which interferes with DNA binding of p53 in the specific DNA region. This result may explain the molecular mechanism responsible for the induction of MTA1 gene expression by HBx.
Project description:Although metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1), a component of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex, is a DNA-damage response protein and regulates p53-dependent DNA repair, it remains unknown whether MTA1 also participates in p53-independent DNA damage response. Here, we provide evidence that MTA1 is a p53-independent transcriptional corepressor of p21(WAF1), and the underlying mechanism involves recruitment of MTA1-histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) complexes onto two selective regions of the p21(WAF1) promoter. Accordingly, MTA1 depletion, despite its effect on p53 down-regulation, superinduces p21(WAF1), increases p21(WAF1) binding to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and decreases the nuclear accumulation of PCNA in response to ionizing radiation. In support of a p53-independent role of MTA1 in DNA damage response, we further demonstrate that induced expression of MTA1 in p53-null cells inhibits p21(WAF1) promoter activity and p21(WAF1) binding to PCNA. Consequently, MTA1 expression in p53-null cells results in increased induction of gamma H2AX foci and DNA double strand break repair, and decreased DNA damage sensitivity following ionizing radiation treatment. These findings uncover a new target of MTA1 and the existence of an additional p53-independent role of MTA1 in DNA damage response, at least in part, by modulating the p21(WAF1)-PCNA pathway, and thus, linking two previously unconnected NuRD complex and DNA-damage response pathways.
Project description:Metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1), a master dual co-regulatory protein is found to be an integral part of NuRD (Nucleosome Remodeling and Histone Deacetylation) complex, which has indispensable transcriptional regulatory functions via histone deacetylation and chromatin remodeling. Emerging literature establishes MTA1 to be a valid DNA-damage responsive protein with a significant role in maintaining the optimum DNA-repair activity in mammalian cells exposed to genotoxic stress. This DNA-damage responsive function of MTA1 was reported to be a P53-dependent and independent function. Here, we investigate the influence of P53 on gene regulation function of Mta1 to identify novel gene targets and functions of Mta1.Gene expression analysis was performed on five different mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) samples (i) the Mta1 wild type, (ii) Mta1 knock out (iii) Mta1 knock out in which Mta1 was reintroduced (iv) P53 knock out (v) P53 knock out in which Mta1 was over expressed using Affymetrix Mouse Exon 1.0 ST arrays. Further Hierarchical Clustering, Gene Ontology analysis with GO terms satisfying corrected p-value<0.1, and the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis were performed. Finally, RT-qPCR was carried out on selective candidate genes.This study represents a complete genome wide screen for possible target genes of a coregulator, Mta1. The comparative gene profiling of Mta1 wild type, Mta1 knockout and Mta1 re-expression in the Mta1 knockout conditions define "bona fide" Mta1 target genes. Further extensive analyses of the data highlights the influence of P53 on Mta1 gene regulation. In the presence of P53 majority of the genes regulated by Mta1 are related to inflammatory and anti-microbial responses whereas in the absence of P53 the predominant target genes are involved in cancer signaling. Thus, the presented data emphasizes the known functions of Mta1 and serves as a rich resource which could help us identify novel Mta1 functions.
Project description:p53-Transcriptional-regulated proteins interact with a large number of other signal transduction pathways in the cell, and a number of positive and negative autoregulatory feedback loops act upon the p53 response. P53 directly controls the POMC/?-MSH productions induced by ultraviolet (UV) and is associated with UV-independent pathological pigmentation. When identifying the causative gene of dyschromatosis universalis hereditaria (DUH), we found three mutations encoding amino acid substitutions in the gene SAM and SH3 domain containing 1 (SASH1), and SASH1 was associated with guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit-alpha isoforms short (G?s). However, the pathological gene and pathological mechanism of DUH remain unknown for about 90 years. We demonstrate that SASH1 is physiologically induced by p53 upon UV stimulation and SASH and p53 is reciprocally induced at physiological and pathophysiological conditions. SASH1 is regulated by a novel p53/POMC/?-MSH/G?s/SASH1 cascade to mediate melanogenesis. A novel p53/POMC/G?s/SASH1 autoregulatory positive feedback loop is regulated by SASH1 mutations to induce pathological hyperpigmentation phenotype. Our study demonstrates that a novel p53/POMC/G?s/SASH1 autoregulatory positive feedback loop is regulated by SASH1 mutations to induce pathological hyperpigmentation phenotype.
Project description:Overexpression of the prometastatic chromatin modifier protein metastasis tumor antigen 1 (MTA1) in human cancer contributes to tumor aggressiveness, but the role of endogenous MTA1 in cancer has not been explored. Here, we report the effects of selective genetic depletion of MTA1 in a physiologically relevant spontaneous mouse model of breast cancer pulmonary metastasis. We found that MTA1 acts as a mandatory modifier of breast-to-lung metastasis without effects on primary tumor formation. The underlying mechanism involved MTA1-dependent stimulation of STAT3 transcription through action on the MTA1/STAT3/Pol II coactivator complex, and, in turn, on the expression and functions of STAT3 target genes including Twist1. Accordingly, we documented a positive correlation between levels of MTA1 and STAT3 in publicly available breast cancer data sets. Together, our findings reveal an essential modifying role of the physiologic level of MTA1 in supporting pulmonary metastasis of breast cancer.