Engagement of S1P₁-degradative mechanisms leads to vascular leak in mice.
ABSTRACT: GPCR inhibitors are highly prevalent in modern therapeutics. However, interference with complex GPCR regulatory mechanisms leads to both therapeutic efficacy and adverse effects. Recently, the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor inhibitor FTY720 (also known as Fingolimod), which induces lymphopenia and prevents neuroinflammation, was adopted as a disease-modifying therapeutic in multiple sclerosis. Although highly efficacious, dose-dependent increases in adverse events have tempered its utility. We show here that FTY720P induces phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of S1P receptor 1 (S1P₁) at multiple sites, resulting in GPCR internalization, polyubiquitinylation, and degradation. We also identified the ubiquitin E3 ligase WWP2 in the GPCR complex and demonstrated its requirement in FTY720-induced receptor degradation. GPCR degradation was not essential for the induction of lymphopenia, but was critical for pulmonary vascular leak in vivo. Prevention of receptor phosphorylation, internalization, and degradation inhibited vascular leak, which suggests that discrete mechanisms of S1P receptor regulation are responsible for the efficacy and adverse events associated with this class of therapeutics.
Project description:FTY720 phosphate (FTY720P) is a high potency agonist for all the endothelial differentiation gene family sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors except S1P receptor subtype 2 (S1P(2)). To map the distinguishing features of S1P(2) ligand recognition, we applied a computational modeling-guided mutagenesis strategy that was based on the high degree of sequence homology between S1P(1) and S1P(2). S1P(2) point mutants of the ligand-binding pocket were characterized. The head group-interacting residues Arg3.28, Glu3.29, and Lys7.34 were essential for activation. Mutation of residues Ala3.32, Leu3.36, Val5.41, Phe6.44, Trp6.48, Ser7.42, and Ser7.46, predicted to interact with the S1P hydrophobic tail, impaired activation by S1P. Replacing individual or multiple residues in the ligand-binding pocket of S1P(2) with S1P(1) sequence did not impart activation by FTY720P. Chimeric S1P(1)/S1P(2) receptors were generated and characterized for activation by S1P or FTY720P. The S1P(2) chimera with S1P(1) sequence from the N terminus to transmembrane domain 2 (TM2) was activated by FTY720P, and the S1P(2)(IC1-TM2)(S1P1) domain insertion chimera showed S1P(1)-like activation. Twelve residues in this domain, distributed in four motifs a-d, differ between S1P(1) and S1P(2). Insertion of (78)RPMYY in motif b alone or simultaneous swapping of five other residues in motifs c and d from S1P(1) into S1P(2) introduced FTY720P responsiveness. Molecular dynamics calculations indicate that FTY720P binding selectivity is a function of the entropic contribution to the binding free energy rather than enthalpic contributions and that preferred agonists retain substantial flexibility when bound. After exposure to FTY720P, the S1P(2)(IC1-TM2)(S1P1) receptor recycled to the plasma membrane, indicating that additional structural elements are required for the selective degradative trafficking of S1P(1).
Project description:FTY720 (Fingolimod), a synthetic analogue of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), activates four of the five EDG-family S1P receptors and is in a phase-III clinical study for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. (S)-FTY720-phosphate (FTY720-P) causes S1P(1) receptor internalization and targeting to the proteasomal degradative pathway, and thus functions as an antagonist of S1P(1) by depleting the functional S1P(1) receptor from the plasma membrane. Here we describe the pharmacological characterization of two unsaturated phosphonate enantiomers of FTY720, (R)- and (S)-FTY720-vinylphosphonate. (R)-FTY720-vinylphosphonate was a full agonist of S1P(1) (EC(50) 20+/-3 nM). In contrast, the (S) enantiomer failed to activate any of the five S1P GPCRs and was a full antagonist of S1P(1,3,4) (K(i) 384 nM, 39 nM, and 1190 nM, respectively) and a partial antagonist of S1P(2), and S1P(5). Both enantiomers dose-dependently inhibited lysophospholipase D (recombinant autotaxin) with K(i) values in the low micromolar range, although with different enzyme kinetic mechanisms. When injected into mice, both enantiomers caused transient peripheral lymphopenia. (R)- and (S)-FTY720-vinylphosphonates activated ERK1/2, AKT, and exerted an antiapoptotic effect in camptothecin-treated IEC-6 intestinal epithelial cells, which primarily express S1P(2) transcripts and traces of S1P(5). (S)-FTY720-vinylphosphonate is the first pan-antagonist of S1P receptors and offers utility in probing S1P responses in vitro and in vivo. The biological effects of the (R)- and (S)-FTY720-vinylphosphonate analogues underscore the complexity of FTY720 cellular targets.
Project description:The lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) regulates a wide range of cellular activities, including vascular maturation, angiogenesis, and immune-cell trafficking. Among the five known receptors for S1P (S1PR1-S1PR5), S1PR1 is a critical regulator of lymphocyte trafficking: its signaling is required for lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs, while its down-modulation by agonist-induced internalization is a prerequisite for lymphocyte entry into lymphoid organs from the bloodstream. Despite the importance of S1PR1 down-regulation in determining lymphocyte behavior, the molecular mechanism of its internalization in lymphocytes has not been defined. Here we show that agonist-induced S1PR1 internalization in T cells occurs via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is regulated by moesin, an ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family member. In S1P-stimulated T cells, S1PR1 relocalized within clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) and early endosomes, and S1PR1 internalization was blocked when clathrin was pharmacologically inhibited. Stimulating moesin-deficient T cells with S1P failed to induce S1PR1 internalization and CCV formation. Furthermore, treating moesin-deficient mice with FTY720, an S1P receptor agonist known to internalize S1PR1, caused delayed lymphopenia, and lymphocytes isolated from FTY720-treated moesin-deficient mice still responded to S1P ex vivo in chemotaxis assays. These results reveal a novel role for moesin in regulating clathrin-dependent S1PR1 internalization through CCV formation.
Project description:At the blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers, P-glycoprotein, an ATP-driven drug efflux pump, is a major obstacle to central nervous system (CNS) pharmacotherapy. Recently, we showed that signaling through tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), sphingolipids, and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) rapidly and reversibly reduced basal P-glycoprotein transport activity in the rat blood-brain barrier. The present study extends those findings to the mouse blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers and, importantly, identifies multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (Mrp1, Abcc1) as the transporter that mediates S1P efflux from brain and spinal cord endothelial cells. In brain and spinal cord capillaries isolated from wild-type mice, TNF-α, sphingosine, S1P, the S1PR agonist fingolimod (FTY720), and its active, phosphorylated metabolite, FTY720P, reduced P-glycoprotein transport activity; these effects were abolished by a specific S1PR1 antagonist. In brain and spinal cord capillaries isolated from Mrp1-null mice, neither TNF-α nor sphingosine nor FTY720 reduced P-glycoprotein transport activity. However, S1P and FTY720P had the same S1PR1-dependent effects on transport activity as in capillaries from wild-type mice. Thus, deletion of Mrp1 alone terminated endogenous signaling to S1PR1. These results identify Mrp1 as the transporter essential for S1P efflux from the endothelial cells and thus for inside-out S1P signaling to P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers.
Project description:The sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) is one of five G protein-coupled receptors activated by the lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Stimulation of S1PR1 by binding S1P or the synthetic agonist FTY720P results in rapid desensitization, associated in part with depletion of receptor from the cell surface. We report here combining spinning disc confocal fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry to show that rapid internalization of activated S1PR1 relies on a functional clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway. Uptake of activated S1PR1 was strongly inhibited in cells disrupted in their clathrin-mediated endocytosis by depleting clathrin or AP-2 or by treating cells with dynasore-OH. The uptake of activated S1P1R was strongly inhibited in cells lacking both ?-arrestin 1 and ?-arrestin 2, indicating that activated S1PR1 follows the canonical route of endocytosis for G-protein coupled receptor's (GPCR)'s.
Project description:Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a lysophospholipid mediator, is generated from sphingosine by sphingosine kinases and binds five known cell surface receptors. S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) plays an essential role in lymphocyte egress from secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), as evinced by the inability of lymphocytes to exit from the SLO in mice lacking lymphocytic S1P1. Fingolimod hydrochloride (FTY720) is a first-in-class, orally active, S1P receptor modulator with a structure closely related to sphingosine. FTY720 was first synthesized by chemical modification of a natural product, myriocin. FTY720 is effectively converted to an active metabolite, FTY720 phosphate (FTY720-P) by sphingosine kinases. FTY720-P shows high affinity to 4 of the S1P receptors (S1P1, S1P3, S1P4, and S1P5). In particular, FTY720-P strongly induces internalization and degradation of S1P1, inhibits S1P responsiveness of lymphocytes in the SLO, and acts as a functional antagonist at lymphocytic S1P1. Consequently, FTY720 inhibits S1P1-dependent lymphocyte egress from the SLO to decrease circulation of lymphocytes including autoreactive Th17 cells and is highly effective in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Because FTY720 shows a superior efficacy in relapsing remitting MS patients compared to intramuscular interferon-?-1a (Avonex®), S1P1 is presumed to be a useful target for the therapy of MS.
Project description:P-glycoprotein, an ATP-driven drug efflux pump, is a major obstacle to the delivery of small-molecule drugs across the blood-brain barrier and into the CNS. Here we test a unique signaling-based strategy to overcome this obstacle. We used a confocal microscopy-based assay with isolated rat brain capillaries to map a signaling pathway that within minutes abolishes P-glycoprotein transport activity without altering transporter protein expression or tight junction permeability. This pathway encompasses elements of proinflammatory- (TNF-?) and sphingolipid-based signaling. Critical to this pathway was signaling through sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1). In brain capillaries, S1P acted through S1PR1 to rapidly and reversibly reduce P-glycoprotein transport activity. Sphingosine reduced transport by a sphingosine kinase-dependent mechanism. Importantly, fingolimod (FTY720), a S1P analog recently approved for treatment of multiple sclerosis, also rapidly reduced P-glycoprotein activity; similar effects were found with the active, phosphorylated metabolite (FTY720P). We validated these findings in vivo using in situ brain perfusion in rats. Administration of S1P, FTY720, or FTY729P increased brain uptake of three radiolabeled P-glycoprotein substrates, (3)H-verapamil (threefold increase), (3)H-loperamide (fivefold increase), and (3)H-paclitaxel (fivefold increase); blocking S1PR1 abolished this effect. Tight junctional permeability, measured as brain (14)C-sucrose accumulation, was not altered. Therefore, targeting signaling through S1PR1 at the blood-brain barrier with the sphingolipid-based drugs, FTY720 or FTY720P, can rapidly and reversibly reduce basal P-glycoprotein activity and thus improve delivery of small-molecule therapeutics to the brain.
Project description:Egress of lymphocytes from lymphoid tissues is a complex process in which G?i-mediated signals play a decisive role. We show here that although FTY720, an agonist of the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)(1) receptor, induces S1P(1) receptor internalization sufficiently in the presence or absence of G?i2 or G?i3, the drug blocks egress of wild-type (WT) and G?i3-deficent T cells, but not G?i2-deficient T cells, in both WT and G?i2-deficient hosts. Intravital imaging of lymph nodes revealed that all three groups of T cells approached and engaged cortical sinusoids similarly in the presence or absence of FTY720. The cells also entered and departed the sinus at an almost identical frequency in the absence of the drug. However, after engagement of the sinus, most WT and G?i3-deficient T cells retracted and migrated back into the parenchyma in FTY720-treated animals, due to a failure of the cells to establish adhesion on the sinus, whereas G?i2-deficient T cells adhered firmly on the sinus, which prevented their retraction, facilitating their transmigration of the lymphatic endothelial barrier. These data confirm egress of G?i2(-/-) T cells independent of S1P-mediated chemotaxis and failure of FTY720 to close lymphatic stromal channels and argue for the first time, to our knowledge, that FTY720 induces lymphopenia in part by impairing T cell adhesion to the sinus in a manner dependent on G?i2.
Project description:Effective therapeutic agents are lacking for the prevention and reversal of vascular leak, a frequent pathophysiologic result of inflammatory processes such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis. We previously demonstrated the potent barrier-enhancing effects of related compounds sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), the pharmaceutical agent FTY720, and its analog (S)-FTY720 phosphonate (Tys) in models of inflammatory lung injury. In this study, we characterize additional novel FTY720 analogs for their potential to reduce vascular leak as well as utilize them as tools to better understand the mechanisms by which this class of agents modulates permeability. Transendothelial resistance (TER) and labeled dextran studies demonstrate that (R)-methoxy-FTY720 ((R)-OMe-FTY), (R)/(S)-fluoro-FTY720 (FTY-F), and ?-glucuronide-FTY720 (FTY-G) compounds display in vitro barrier-enhancing properties comparable or superior to FTY720 and S1P. In contrast, the (S)-methoxy-FTY720 ((S)-OMe-FTY) analog disrupts lung endothelial cell (EC) barrier integrity in TER studies in association with actin stress fiber formation and robust intracellular calcium release, but independent of myosin light chain or ERK phosphorylation. Additional mechanistic studies with (R)-OMe-FTY, FTY-F, and FTY-G suggest that lung EC barrier enhancement is mediated through lipid raft signaling, Gi-linked receptor coupling to downstream tyrosine phosphorylation events, and S1PR1-dependent receptor ligation. These results provide important mechanistic insights into modulation of pulmonary vascular barrier function by FTY720-related compounds and highlight common signaling events that may assist the development of novel therapeutic tools in the prevention or reversal of the pulmonary vascular leak that characterizes ARDS.
Project description:In the search for bioactive sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor ligands, a series of 2-amino-2-heterocyclic-propanols were synthesized. These molecules were discovered to be substrates of human-sphingosine kinases 1 and 2 (SPHK1 and SPHK2). When phosphorylated, the resultant phosphates showed varied activities at the five sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors (S1P(1-5)). Agonism at S1P(1) was displayed in vivo by induction of lymphopenia. A stereochemical preference of the quaternary carbon was crucial for phosphorylation by the kinases and alters binding affinities at the S1P receptors. Oxazole and oxadiazole compounds are superior kinase substrates to FTY720, the prototypical prodrug immunomodulator, fingolimod (FTY720). The oxazole-derived structure was the most active for human SPHK2. Imidazole analogues were less active substrates for SPHKs, but more potent and selective agonists of the S1P(1) receptor; additionally, the imidazole class of compounds rendered mice lymphopenic.