The essential functions of NEDD8 are mediated via distinct surface regions, and not by polyneddylation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.
ABSTRACT: The ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 is highly conserved in eukaryotes, from man to Schizosaccharomyces pombe. NEDD8 conjugation to cullin proteins is a prerequisite for cullin based E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, and essential for S. pombe viability. Here, we have performed alanine scanning mutagenesis of all conserved surface residues and show that the majority of essential residues were located around the hydrophobic patch and the C-terminus. However, we further identified essential residues not previously reported to be involved in ubiquitin ligase regulation that importantly do not prevent Ned8p conjugation. We also find that mutation of all conserved lysine residues in Ned8p, did not affect yeast viability, suggesting that mono-neddylation is sufficient for yeast viability under most conditions.
Project description:A ubiquitin-like modifier, NEDD8, is covalently attached to cullin-family proteins, but its physiological role is poorly understood. Here we report that the NEDD8-modifying pathway is essential for cell viability and function of Pcu1 (cullin-1 orthologue) in fission yeast. Pcu1 assembled on SCF ubiquitin-ligase was completely modified by NEDD8. Pcu1(K713R) defective for NEDD8 conjugation lost the ability to complement lethality due to pcu1 deletion. Forced expression of Pcu1(K713R) or depletion of NEDD8 in cells resulted in impaired cell proliferation and marked stabilization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Rum1, which is a substrate of the SCF complex. Based on these findings, we propose that covalent modification of cullin-1 by the NEDD8 system plays an essential role in the function of SCF in fission yeast.
Project description:Cancer cells can survive through the upregulation of cell cycle and the escape from apoptosis induced by numerous cellular stresses. In the normal cells, these biological cascades depend on scheduled proteolytic degradation of regulatory proteins via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Therefore, interruption of regulated proteolytic pathways leads to abnormal cell-proliferation. Ubiquitin ligases called SCF complex (consisting of Skp-1, cullin, and F-box protein) or CRL (cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase) are predominant in a family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that control a final step in ubiquitination of diverse substrates. To a great extent, the ubiquitin ligase activity of the SCF complex requires the conjugation of NEDD8 to cullins, i.e. scaffold proteins. This review is anticipated to review the downregulation system of NEDD8 conjugation by several factors including a chemical compound such as MLN4924 and protein molecules (e.g. COP9 signalosome, inactive mutant of Ubc12, and NUB1/NUB1L). Since the downregulation of NEDD8 conjugation affects cell-cycle progression by inhibiting the ligase activity of SCF complexes, such knowledge in the NEDD8-conjugation pathway will contribute to the more magnificent therapies that selectively suppress tumorigenesis.
Project description:The bacterial effector protein cycle inhibiting factor (CIF) converts glutamine 40 of NEDD8 to glutamate (Q40E), causing cytopathic effects and inhibiting cell proliferation. Although these have been attributed to blocking the functions of cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases, how CIF modulates NEDD8-dependent signaling is unclear. Here we use conditional NEDD8-dependent yeast to explore the effects of CIF on cullin neddylation. Although CIF causes cullin deneddylation and the generation of free NEDD8 Q40E, inhibiting the COP9 signalosome (CSN) allows Q40E to form only on NEDD8 attached to cullins. In the presence of the CSN, NEDD8 Q40E is removed from cullins more rapidly than NEDD8, leading to a decrease in steady-state cullin neddylation. As NEDD8 Q40E is competent for cullin conjugation in the absence of functional CSN and with overexpression of the NEDD8 ligase Dcn1, our data are consistent with NEDD8 deamidation causing enhanced deneddylation of cullins by the CSN. This leads to a dramatic change in the extent of activated cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases.
Project description:NEDD8 (neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated protein 8) is a ubiquitin-like protein that activates the largest ubiquitin E3 ligase family, the cullin-RING ligases. Many non-cullin neddylation targets have been proposed in recent years. However, overexpression of exogenous NEDD8 can trigger NEDD8 conjugation through the ubiquitylation machinery, which makes validating potential NEDD8 targets challenging. Here, we re-evaluate studies of non-cullin targets of NEDD8 in light of the current understanding of the neddylation pathway, and suggest criteria for identifying genuine neddylation substrates under homeostatic conditions. We describe the biological processes that might be regulated by non-cullin neddylation, and the utility of neddylation inhibitors for research and as potential therapies. Understanding the biological significance of non-cullin neddylation is an exciting research prospect primed to reveal fundamental insights.
Project description:SCF (Skp1-cullin/Cdc53-F-box protein) ubiquitin ligases bind substrates via the variable F-box protein and, in conjunction with the RING domain protein Rbx1 and the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc3/Cdc34, catalyze substrate ubiquitination. The cullin subunit can be modified covalently by conjugation of the ubiquitin-like protein Rub1/NEDD8 (neddylation) or bound noncovalently by the protein CAND1 (cullin-associated, neddylation-dissociated). Expression of the Candida albicans CAND1 gene homolog CaTIP120 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is toxic only in the presence of CaCdc53, consistent with a specific interaction between CaTip120 and CaCdc53. To genetically analyze this system in C. albicans, we deleted the homologs of RUB1/NEDD8, TIP120/CAND1, and the deneddylase gene JAB1, and we also generated a temperature-sensitive allele of the essential CaCDC53 gene by knock-in site-directed mutagenesis. Deletion of CaRUB1 and CaTIP120 caused morphological, growth, and protein degradation phenotypes consistent with a reduction in SCF ubiquitin ligase activity. Furthermore, the double Carub1(-/-) Catip120(-/-) mutant was more defective in SCF activity than either individual deletion mutant. These results indicate that CAND1 stimulates SCF ubiquitin ligase activity and that it does so independently of neddylation. Our data do not support a role for CAND1 in the protection of either the F-box protein or cullin from degradation but are consistent with the suggested role of CAND1 in SCF complex remodeling.
Project description:Ubiquitin and UBL (ubiquitin-like) modifiers are small proteins that covalently modify other proteins to alter their properties or behaviours. Ubiquitin modification (ubiquitylation) targets many substrates, often leading to their proteasomal degradation. NEDD8 (neural-precursor-cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated 8) is the UBL most closely related to ubiquitin, and its best-studied role is the activation of CRLs (cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases) by its conjugation to a conserved C-terminal lysine residue on cullin proteins. The attachment of UBLs requires three UBL-specific enzymes, termed E1, E2 and E3, which are usually well insulated from parallel UBL pathways. In the present study, we report a new mode of NEDD8 conjugation (NEDDylation) whereby the UBL NEDD8 is linked to proteins by ubiquitin enzymes in vivo. We found that this atypical NEDDylation is independent of classical NEDD8 enzymes, conserved from yeast to mammals, and triggered by an increase in the NEDD8 to ubiquitin ratio. In cells, NEDD8 overexpression leads to this type of NEDDylation by increasing the concentration of NEDD8, whereas proteasome inhibition has the same effect by depleting free ubiquitin. We show that bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor used in cancer therapy, triggers atypical NEDDylation in tissue culture, which suggests that a similar process may occur in patients receiving this treatment.
Project description:In eukaryotes, the conjugation of the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 onto protein targets is an important post-translational modification. The best understood neddylation targets are the cullins, scaffold subunits of E3 ubiquitin ligases, where neddylation as well as deneddylation, facilitated by the protease activity of the CSN (COP9 signalosome), are required to control ubiquitin ligase assembly, function, and ultimately substrate degradation. Little is known about the role of other deneddylating enzymes besides CSN and the role of neddylation and deneddylation of their substrates. We previously characterized Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with defects in the conserved NEDD8-specific protease DEN1 (DENEDDYLASE1). These mutants display only subtle growth phenotypes despite the strong accumulation of a broad range of neddylated proteins. Specifically, we identified AXR1 (AUXIN-RESISTANT1), a subunit of the heterodimeric NAE (E1 NEDD8-ACTIVATING ENZYME), as highly neddylated in den1 mutants. Here, we examined the mechanism and consequences of AXR1 neddylation in more detail. We find that AXR1 as well as other neddylation enzymes are autoneddylated at multiple lysines. NAE autoneddylation can be linked to reduced NCE (E2 NEDD8-CONJUGATING ENZYME) NEDD8 thioester levels, either by critically reducing the pool of free NEDD8 or by reducing NAE activity. In planta, increasing NEDD8 gene dosage is sufficient to suppress den1 mutant phenotypes. We therefore suggest that DEN1 serves to recover diverted NEDD8 moieties from autoneddylated NAE subunits, and possibly also other neddylated proteins, to maintain NEDD8 pathway activity toward other NEDD8-dependent processes such as cullin E3 ligase regulation.
Project description:Nedd8 is a ubiquitin-like protein that controls vital biological events through conjugation to target proteins. We previously identified the HECT-type ubiquitin ligase Smurf1 which controls diverse cellular processes is activated by Nedd8 through covalent neddylation. However, the effect of non-covalent binding to Nedd8 remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that both Smurf1 and its homologue Smurf2 carry a non-covalent Nedd8-binding site within its catalytic HECT domain. Structural analysis reveals that Smurf2 has Nedd8-binding sites within the small sub-domain of N-lobe and the C-lobe of HECT domain. Interestingly, the consensus Nedd8 binding sequence, L(X7)R(X5)F(X)ALQ is conserved in both Smurfs. Mutational studies reveal that all the five residues in the conserved sequence are required for binding to Nedd8. Functional studies suggest that mutations that disrupt Smurf interaction with Nedd8 reduce its neddylation and stabilize the protein. Furthermore, Nedd8 binding site in Smurf is shown to be necessary for its ubiquitin ligase activity towards the substrate and also the self-ubiquitylation. Finally, we show that Nedd8 binding to Smurf plays important roles in the regulation of cell migration and the BMP and TGF? signaling pathways.
Project description:Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) are directed to targets by cascades of E1, E2, and E3 enzymes. The largest ubiquitin E3 subclass consists of cullin-RING ligases (CRLs), which contain one each of several cullins (CUL1, -2, -3, -4, or -5) and RING proteins (RBX1 or -2). CRLs are activated by ligation of the UBL NEDD8 to a conserved cullin lysine. How is cullin NEDD8ylation specificity established? Here we report that, like UBE2M (also known as UBC12), the previously uncharacterized E2 UBE2F is a NEDD8-conjugating enzyme in vitro and in vivo. Biochemical and structural analyses indicate how plasticity of hydrophobic E1-E2 interactions and E1 conformational flexibility allow one E1 to charge multiple E2s. The E2s have distinct functions, with UBE2M/RBX1 and UBE2F/RBX2 displaying different target cullin specificities. Together, these studies reveal the molecular basis for and functional importance of hierarchical expansion of the NEDD8 conjugation system in establishing selective CRL activation.
Project description:The p53 tumor suppressor is regulated by post-translational modification, including ubiquitination, phosphorylation and acetylation. It has previously been shown that the ubiquitin ligase Mdm2 also promotes the conjugation of Nedd8, a ubiquitin-like protein, to p53, inhibiting its transcriptional activity. We report the identification of FBXO11, a member of the F-box protein family and a component of the Skp1.Cullin1.F-box (SCF) complex, as a new p53-interacting protein. We show that FBXO11 promotes the neddylation of p53 both in vitro and in vivo. In addition to the C-terminal lysine residues, FBXO11 can also promote Nedd8 conjugation to Lys-320 and Lys-321, and neddylation of p53 leads to suppression of p53 function. This is consistent with recent studies showing that a lysine to arginine mutation at Lys-320 significantly enhances p53 function, although Lys-320 was originally identified as an acetylation site involving PCAF-mediated activation of p53. Our study provides an example of an F-box protein acting as an adaptor protein that can mediate the neddylation of a non-cullin substrate.