ATR-dependent checkpoint modulates XPA nuclear import in response to UV irradiation.
ABSTRACT: In response to DNA damage, mammalian cells activate various DNA repair pathways to remove DNA lesions and, meanwhile, halt cell cycle progressions to allow sufficient time for repair. The nucleotide excision repair (NER) and the ATR-dependent cell cycle checkpoint activation are two major cellular responses to DNA damage induced by UV irradiation. However, how these two processes are coordinated in the response is poorly understood. Here we showed that the essential NER factor XPA (xeroderma pigmentosum group A) underwent nuclear accumulation upon UV irradiation, and strikingly, such an event occurred in an ATR (Ataxia-Telangiectasia mutated and RAD3-related)-dependent manner. Either treatment of cells with ATR kinase inhibitors or transfection of cells with small interfering RNA targeting ATR compromised the UV-induced XPA nuclear translocation. Consistently, the ATR-deficient cells displayed no substantial XPA nuclear translocation while the translocation remained intact in ATM (Ataxia-Telangiectasia mutated)-deficient cells in response to UV irradiation. Moreover, we found that ATR is required for the UV-induced nuclear focus formation of XPA. Taken together, our results suggested that the ATR checkpoint pathway may modulate NER activity through the regulation of XPA redistribution in human cells upon UV irradiation.
Project description:In response to DNA damage, eukaryotic cells activate a series of DNA damage-dependent pathways that serve to arrest cell cycle progression and remove DNA damage. Coordination of cell cycle arrest and damage repair is critical for maintenance of genomic stability. However, this process is still poorly understood. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) and the ATR-dependent cell cycle checkpoint are the major pathways responsible for repair of UV-induced DNA damage. Here we show that ATR physically interacts with the NER factor Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA). Using a mass spectrometry-based protein footprinting method, we found that ATR interacts with a helix-turn-helix motif in the minimal DNA-binding domain of XPA where an ATR phosphorylation site (serine 196) is located. XPA-deficient cells complemented with XPA containing a point mutation of S196A displayed a reduced repair efficiency of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers as compared with cells complemented with wild-type XPA, although no effect was observed for repair of (6-4) photoproducts. This suggests that the ATR-dependent phosphorylation of XPA may promote NER repair of persistent DNA damage. In addition, a K188A point mutation of XPA that disrupts the ATR-XPA interaction inhibits the nuclear import of XPA after UV irradiation and, thus, significantly reduced DNA repair efficiency. By contrast, the S196A mutation has no effect on XPA nuclear translocation. Taken together, our results suggest that the ATR-XPA interaction mediated by the helix-turn-helix motif of XPA plays an important role in DNA-damage responses to promote cell survival and genomic stability after UV irradiation.
Project description:DNA damage triggers complex cellular responses in eukaryotic cells, including initiation of DNA repair and activation of cell cycle checkpoints. In addition to inducing cell cycle arrest, checkpoint also has been suggested to modulate a variety of other cellular processes in response to DNA damage. In this study, we present evidence showing that the cellular function of xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA), a major nucleotide excision repair (NER) factor, could be modulated by checkpoint kinase ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) in response to UV irradiation. We observed the apparent interaction and colocalization of XPA with ATR in response to UV irradiation. We showed that XPA was a substrate for in vitro phosphorylation by phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-related kinase family kinases whereas in cells XPA was phosphorylated in an ATR-dependent manner and stimulated by UV irradiation. The Ser196 of XPA was identified as a biologically significant residue to be phosphorylated in vivo. The XPA-deficient cells complemented with XPA-S196A mutant, in which Ser196 was substituted with an alanine, displayed significantly higher UV sensitivity compared with the XPA cells complemented with wild-type XPA. Moreover, substitution of Ser196 with aspartic acid for mimicking the phosphorylation of XPA increased the cell survival to UV irradiation. Taken together, our results revealed a potential physical and functional link between NER and the ATR-dependent checkpoint pathway in human cells and suggested that the ATR checkpoint pathway could modulate the cellular activity of NER through phosphorylation of XPA at Ser196 on UV irradiation.
Project description:Xeroderma pigmentosum Group A (XPA) is a crucial factor in mammalian nucleotide excision repair (NER) and nuclear import of XPA from the cytoplasm for NER is regulated in cellular DNA damage responses in S-phase. In this study, experiments were carried out to determine the transport mechanisms that are responsible for the UV (ultraviolet)-induced nuclear import of XPA. We found that, in addition to the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of XPA, importin-?4 or/and importin-?7 are required for the XPA nuclear import. Further investigation indicated that, importin-?4 and importin-?7 directly interacted with XPA in cells. Interestingly, the binding of importin-?4 to XPA was dependent on UV-irradiation, while the binding of importin-?7 was not, suggesting a role for importin-?7 in nuclear translocation of XPA in the absence of DNA damage, perhaps with specificity to certain non-S-phases of the cell-cycle. Consistent with the previous report of a dependence of UV-induced XPA nuclear import on ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR) in S-phase, knockdown of ATR reduced the amount of XPA interacting with importin-?4. In contrast, the GTPase XPA binding protein 1 (XAB1), previously proposed to be required for XPA nuclear import, showed no effect on the nuclear import of XPA in our siRNA knockdown analysis. In conclusion, our results suggest that upon DNA damage transport adaptor importin-?4 imports XPA into the nucleus in an ATR-dependent manner, while XAB1 has no role in this process. In addition, these findings reveal a potential new therapeutic target for the sensitization of cancer cells to chemotherapy.
Project description:Loss-of-function in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), a GS protein-coupled receptor that regulates signal transduction through cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) in melanocytes, is a major inherited melanoma risk factor. Herein, we report a novel cAMP-mediated response for sensing and responding to UV-induced DNA damage regulated by A-kinase-anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12). AKAP12 is identified as a necessary participant in PKA-mediated phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) at S435, a post-translational event required for cAMP-enhanced nucleotide excision repair (NER). Moreover, UV exposure promotes ATR-directed phosphorylation of AKAP12 at S732, which promotes nuclear translocation of AKAP12-ATR-pS435. This complex subsequently recruits XPA to UV DNA damage and enhances 5' strand incision. Preventing AKAP12's interaction with PKA or with ATR abrogates ATR-pS435 accumulation, delays recruitment of XPA to UV-damaged DNA, impairs NER and increases UV-induced mutagenesis. Our results define a critical role for AKAP12 as an UV-inducible scaffold for PKA-mediated ATR phosphorylation, and identify a repair complex consisting of AKAP12-ATR-pS435-XPA at photodamage, which is essential for cAMP-enhanced NER.
Project description:An essential component of the ATR (ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related)-activating structure is single-stranded DNA. It has been suggested that nucleotide excision repair (NER) can lead to activation of ATR by generating such a signal, and in yeast, DNA damage processing through the NER pathway is necessary for checkpoint activation during G1. We show here that ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced ATR signaling is compromised in XPA-deficient human cells during S phase, as shown by defects in ATRIP (ATR-interacting protein) translocation to sites of UV damage, UV-induced phosphorylation of Chk1 and UV-induced replication protein A phosphorylation and chromatin binding. However, ATR signaling was not compromised in XPC-, CSB-, XPF- and XPG-deficient cells. These results indicate that damage processing is not necessary for ATR-mediated S-phase checkpoint activation and that the lesion recognition function of XPA may be sufficient. In contrast, XP-V cells deficient in the UV bypass polymerase eta exhibited enhanced ATR signaling. Taken together, these results suggest that lesion bypass and not lesion repair may raise the level of UV damage that can be tolerated before checkpoint activation, and that XPA plays a critical role in this activation.
Project description:The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), which signals through cAMP, is a melanocytic transmembrane receptor involved in pigmentation, adaptive tanning, and melanoma resistance. We report MC1R-mediated or pharmacologically-induced cAMP signaling promotes nucleotide excision repair (NER) in a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent manner. PKA directly phosphorylates ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR) at Ser435, which actively recruits the key NER protein xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XPA) to sites of nuclear UV photodamage, accelerating clearance of UV-induced photolesions and reducing mutagenesis. Loss of Ser435 within ATR prevents PKA-mediated ATR phosphorylation, disrupts ATR-XPA binding, delays recruitment of XPA to UV-damaged DNA, and elevates UV-induced mutagenesis. This study mechanistically links cAMP-PKA signaling to NER and illustrates potential benefits of cAMP pharmacological rescue to reduce UV mutagenesis in MC1R-defective, melanoma-susceptible individuals.
Project description:The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), a GS-coupled receptor that signals through cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA), regulates pigmentation, adaptive tanning, and melanoma resistance. MC1R-cAMP signaling promotes PKA-mediated phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia and rad3-related (ATR) at Ser435 (ATR-pS435), a modification that enhances nucleotide excision repair (NER) by facilitating recruitment of the XPA protein to sites of UV-induced DNA damage. High-throughput methods were developed to quantify ATR-pS435, measure XPA-photodamage interactions, and assess NER function. We report that melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) or ACTH induce ATR-pS435, enhance XPA's association with UV-damaged DNA and optimize melanocytic NER. In contrast, MC1R antagonists agouti signaling protein (ASIP) or human ?-defensin 3 (HBD3) interfere with ATR-pS435 generation, impair the XPA-DNA interaction, and reduce DNA repair. Although ASIP and HBD3 each blocked ?-MSH-mediated induction of the signaling pathway, only ASIP depleted basal ATR-pS435. Our findings confirm that ASIP diminishes agonist-independent MC1R basal signaling whereas HBD3 is a neutral MC1R antagonist that blocks activation by melanocortins. Furthermore, our data suggest that ATR-pS435 may be a useful biomarker for the DNA repair-deficient MC1R phenotype.
Project description:The E2F1 transcription factor is a well known regulator of cell proliferation and apoptosis, but its role in the DNA damage response is less clear. Using a local UV irradiation technique and immunofluorescence staining, E2F1 is shown to accumulate at sites of DNA damage. Localization of E2F1 to UV-damaged DNA requires the ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) kinase and serine 31 of E2F1 but not an intact DNA binding domain. E2F1 deficiency does not appear to affect the expression of nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors, such as XPC and XPA. However, E2F1 depletion does impair the recruitment of NER factors to sites of damage and reduces the efficiency of DNA repair. E2F1 mutants unable to bind DNA or activate transcription retain the ability to stimulate NER. These findings demonstrate that E2F1 has a direct, non-transcriptional role in DNA repair involving increased recruitment of NER factors to sites of damage.
Project description:It is well established that efficient removal of highly-promutagenic UV-induced dipyrimidine photoproducts via nucleotide excision repair (NER) is required for protection against sunlight-associated malignant melanoma. Nonetheless, the extent to which reduced NER capacity might contribute to individual melanoma susceptibility in the general population remains unclear. Here we show that among a panel of 14 human melanoma strains, 11 exhibit significant inhibition of DNA photoproduct removal during S phase relative to G0/G1 or G2/M. Evidence is presented that this cell cycle-specific NER defect correlates with enhanced apoptosis and reduced clonogenic survival following UV irradiation. In addition, melanoma strains deficient in S phase-specific DNA photoproduct removal manifest significantly lower levels of phosphorylated histone H2AX at 1 h post-UV, suggesting diminished activation of ataxia telangiectasia and Rad 3-related (ATR) kinase, i.e., a primary orchestrator of the cellular response to UV-induced DNA replication stress. Consistently, in the case of DNA photoproduct excision-proficient melanoma cells, siRNA-mediated depletion of ATR (but not of its immediate downstream effector kinase Chk1) engenders deficient NER specifically during S. On the other hand simultaneous siRNA-mediated depletion of ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) exerts no significant effect on either phosphorylation of H2AX at 1 h post-UV or the efficiency of DNA photoproduct removal. Our data suggest that defective NER exclusively during S phase, possibly associated with decreased ATR signaling, may constitute an heretofore unrecognized determinant in melanoma pathogenesis.
Project description:The endonuclease ERCC1-XPF incises the damaged strand of DNA 5' to a lesion during nucleotide excision repair (NER) and has additional, poorly characterized functions in interstrand cross-link repair, double-strand break repair, and homologous recombination. XPA, another key factor in NER, interacts with ERCC1 and recruits it to sites of damage. We identified ERCC1 residues that are critical for the interaction with XPA and assessed their importance for NER in vitro and in vivo. Mutation of two conserved residues (Asn-110 and Tyr-145) located in the XPA-binding site of ERCC1 dramatically affected NER but not nuclease activity on model DNA substrates. In ERCC1-deficient cells expressing ERCC1(N110A/Y145A), the nuclease was not recruited to sites of UV damage. The repair of UV-induced (6-4)photoproducts was severely impaired in these cells, and they were hypersensitive to UV irradiation. Remarkably, the ERCC1(N110A/Y145A) protein rescues the sensitivity of ERCC1-deficient cells to cross-linking agents. Our studies suggest that ERCC1-XPF engages in different repair pathways through specific protein-protein interactions and that these functions can be separated through the selective disruption of these interactions. We discuss the impact of these findings for understanding how ERCC1 contributes to resistance of tumor cells to therapeutic agents such as cisplatin.