Molecular identification of Trichinella papuae from a Thai patient with imported trichinellosis.
ABSTRACT: Previously, we reported the presence of imported trichinellosis in a Thai worker returning from Malaysia, who presented with progressive generalized muscle hypertrophy and weakness after eating wild boar meat. This work analyzed a partial small subunit of a mitochondrial ribosomal RNA gene of Trichinella larvae isolated from the patient. The results showed complete identity with a mitochondrial RNA gene of Trichinella papuae (GenBank accession no. EF517130). This is the first report of imported trichinellosis in Thailand caused by T. papuae. It is possible that T. papuae is widely distributed in the wildlife of Southeast Asia.
Project description:In September 2017, a severe trichinellosis outbreak occurred in Cambodia after persons consumed raw wild pig meat; 33 persons were infected and 8 died. We collected and analyzed the medical records for 25 patients. Clinical signs and symptoms included myalgia, facial or peripheral edema, asthenia, and fever. We observed increased levels of creatine phosphokinase and aspartate aminotransferase-, as well as eosinophilia. Histopathologic examination of muscle biopsy specimens showed nonencapsulated Trichinella larvae. A Trichinella excretory/secretory antigen ELISA identified Trichinella IgM and IgG. Biopsy samples were digested and larvae were isolated and counted. PCR for the 5S rDNA intergenic spacer region and a multiplex PCR, followed by sequencing identified the parasite as Trichinella papuae. This species was identified in Papua New Guinea during 1999 and in several outbreaks in humans in Thailand. Thus, we identified T. papuae nematodes in humans in Cambodia.
Project description:In 2006, the Thailand Ministry of Public Health studied 28 patients from a village in northern Thailand. All had myalgia, edema, fever, and gastrointestinal symptoms; most had eaten wild boar. A muscle biopsy specimen from a patient showed nonencapsulated larvae with a cytochrome oxidase I gene sequence of Trichinella papuae.
Project description:Outbreaks of trichinellosis caused by Trichinella papuae have been reported in South-East Asia. Mebendazole and thiabendazole are the treatments of choice for trichinellosis; however, both drugs result in significant side effects and are less effective for muscle-stage larvae (L1). An alternative therapeutic agent is needed to improve treatment. Information on lipid composition and metabolic pathways may bridge gaps in our knowledge and lead to new antiparasitics. The T. papuae L1 lipidome was analysed using a mass spectrometry-based approach, and 403 lipid components were identified. Eight lipid classes were found and glycerophospholipids were dominant, corresponding to 63% of total lipids, of which the glycerolipid DG (20:1[11Z]/22:4[7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z]/0:0) (iso2) was the most abundant. Overall, 57% of T. papuae lipids were absent in humans; therefore, lipid metabolism may be dissimilar in the two species. Proteins involved T. papuae lipid metabolism were explored using bioinformatics. We found that 4-hydroxybutyrate coenzyme A transferase, uncharacterized protein (A0A0V1MCB5) and ML-domain-containing protein are not present in humans. T. papuae glycerophospholipid metabolic and phosphatidylinositol dephosphorylation processes contain several proteins that are dissimilar to those in humans. These findings provide insights into T. papuae lipid composition and metabolism, which may facilitate the development of novel trichinellosis treatments.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Trichinellosis is a meat-borne zoonotic disease caused by parasites of the genus Trichinella. To date, 12 taxa have been described. The identification of Trichinella species is crucial in order to identify the possible source of infection, the geographical origin of the parasite and to assess risk of infection for domestic pigs and humans. Specific identification of the etiological agent is not always feasible using direct methods since the source of infection can be untraceable. The aim of this study was to develop a diagnostic tool to infer the causative Trichinella species using western blot patterns of sera derived from infected animal and human hosts.<h4>Methods</h4>Sera from mice experimentally infected with Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella britovi, Trichinella pseudospiralis and Trichinella papuae were tested by western blot using homologous and heterologous crude worm extracts (CWE) and a highly sensitive detection system based on chemiluminescence. In addition, sera from pigs experimentally infected with T. spiralis, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis and from patients with confirmed T. spiralis, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis infections, were also included.<h4>Results</h4>Sera from mice infected with one Trichinella species reacted with CWE proteins from all four investigated species. Likewise, sera derived from pigs and humans infected with one Trichinella species reacted with CWE proteins from all the three investigated species. Using T. spiralis CWE, sera from T. pseudospiralis-infected hosts yielded a characteristic pattern of reactivity using Wb, which differed to that produced by T. spiralis/T. britovi- or T. papuae-infected host sera.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The present study suggests that western blot using T. spiralis CWE may be a useful tool to distinguish Trichinella infections caused by T. pseudospiralis from those caused by T. spiralis or T. britovi. This method may support epidemiological investigations, particularly when the source of infection is not traceable.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Trichinella spiralis muscle larval (ML) excretion/secretion (ES) antigen is the most widely used diagnostic antigen of trichinellosis, but preparation of ES antigen requires collecting worms from infected animals, and detection of specific IgG against ML ES antigen may result in a false negative at the early stage of infection. The aim of the study was to characterize T. spiralis elastase-1 (TsEla) and to evaluate its potential as diagnostic antigen for trichinellosis. METHODS:The complete cDNA sequences of the TsEla gene were cloned and expressed, and recombinant (rTsEla) was purified. TsEla transcription and expression in different T. spiralis life-cycle stages was investigated by qPCR and western blotting, and its location in the nematodes was evaluated using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The antigenicity of rTsEla was investigated by western blotting analysis and ELISA. Anti-Trichinella IgG, IgM and IgE of experimentally infected mice and specific IgG antibodies of trichinellosis patients were assayed by rTsEla-ELISA and ES-ELISA. RESULTS:The results of the qPCR and western blotting showed that TsEla was expressed in various T. spiralis life stages. Natural TsEla was detected in the soluble proteins and ES proteins of different life stages. IFA revealed that TsEla was identified in the whole nematodes of various stages, especially in the cuticle, stichosome and genital primordium of the parasite. Serum anti-Trichinella IgM, IgG and IgE in infected mice was first detected by rTsEla-ELISA at 6, 10 and 12 days post-infection (dpi), and reached 100% at 8, 14 and 14 dpi, respectively. When rTsEla-ELISA and ES-ELISA were used to detect anti-Trichinella IgG in sera of trichinellosis patients, the sensitivity was 97.37% (37/38) and 89.74% (34/38) (P?>?0.05), and the specificity was 99.10% (220/222) and 98.20% (218/222), respectively (P?>?0.05). The rTsEla cross-reacted with only one serum sample out of 20 samples from paragonimiasis patients and 7 samples from clonorchiasis patients. CONCLUSIONS:rTsEla is valuable to early diagnosis of trichinellosis and could be an alternative diagnostic antigen to the ML ES antigens.
Project description:Trichinellosis is an important and neglected foodborne zoonotic infectious disease in worldwide. The most human outbreaks in recent years have been related to consumption of wild boar meat. This cross-sectional study determined the prevalence of Trichinella spp. infections in hunted wild boars in northern Iran.Thirty-five hunted wild boars were subjected in this study in 2015. All samples were examined by conventional artificial digestion method to detect of muscle larvae. Genomic DNA was extracted by phenol-chloroform method from isolated larvae. To identify the Trichinella species, a PCR-based method was applied using the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and mitochondrial small-subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences.The overall prevalence of Trichinella spp. infection was 5.7% (2/35, 95%CI= 0-13.4). The mean larval burdens in two positive samples were 0.05 and 6 larvae per gr tissue muscle, respectively. The PCR reaction, using specific primers, yielded two 367 bp and 195 bp bands on agarose gel for ITS 2 and rrnS, respectively.There is a hidden burden of Trichinella spp. infection in wild boar population in Iran. Moreover, T. britovi is the prevalent species circulating in wild boars of Iran. Therefore, education of the hunters and other consumers should be performed about the risk of consumption of raw or undercooked meat and meat products from wild boars.
Project description:Trichinellosis, caused by Trichinella, is an emerging or re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease, which is distributed worldwide with major socio-economic importance in some developing countries. In particular, it has been calculated that more than 40 million people are at risk of Trichinella infection in China. This review summarizes the current information on the epidemiology, laboratory diagnosis and vaccines of trichinellosis in China. Moreover, study of the treatment potential of using Trichinella for immune-related diseases and cancer, as well as the transcription and post-transcription modification of Trichinella were also collected, providing viewpoints for future investigations. Current advances in research will help us to develop new strategies for the prevention and control of trichinellosis and may potentially yield biological agents for treating other diseases.
Project description:Effective performance of digestion testing methods for Trichinella, and their use for the detection of infected animals and the prevention of human trichinellosis require system-wide incorporation of appropriate quality assurance (QA) practices. The recommendations of the International Commission on Trichinellosis (ICT) aim to facilitate reliable test results when laboratories operate within a quality management system (QMS) which includes: 1) a quality manual (or similar documentation of the QMS); 2) a validated test method with identified critical control points; 3) a training program; 4) procedures utilizing proficiency testing and other methods to confirm technical capability of analysts; 5) equipment calibration and maintenance; 6) standard operating procedures, related documentation and reporting; 7) procedures to enable continuous monitoring and improvements; and 8) regular internal and third party audits. The quality manual or similar documentation describes the QMS within a testing laboratory, and lists the QA policies and good laboratory practices. Quality assurance goals contained in such documentation are the foundation of an effective QA program and must be explicit, measurable, and expressed in terms of performance criteria for the test method based on purpose for testing. The digestion method is capable of consistently detecting Trichinella larvae in meat at a level of sensitivity that is recognized to be effective for use in controlling animal infection and preventing human disease. However, consistent performance of the assay is assured only when parameters of the test method have been defined, scientifically validated as fit for purpose, and used within an effective QMS. The essential components of a digestion assay, specifically the critical control points and minimum standards for test performance are described. Reliable proficiency samples and their appropriate use in a quality system are key factors for certifying and maintaining an effective testing laboratory, including qualifying, re-qualifying and disqualifying of analysts as appropriate. Thus recommendations are included for the preparation and use of proficiency samples in a Trichinella digestion testing laboratory. The minimum training requirements for analysts performing a quality assured digestion assay, as well as suggested requirements for the content of a training manual, are also outlined. Finally, these ICT recommendations include essential components and minimum standards for maintaining and achieving certification and maintenance of a laboratory performing digestion testing for Trichinella. The certification program for the laboratory, including qualifying analysts, may be administered by a National Reference Laboratory or an authorized third party certifying body, under the auspices of the appropriate competent authority.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We have previously reported that a 31 kDa protein was screened from the excretory-secretory (ES) proteins of Tichinella spiralis muscle larvae (ML) by immunoproteomics using early infection sera, and the gene encoding a 31 kDa protein from T. spiralis was cloned and expressed in an E. coli expression system. In this study, the recombinant 31 kDa antigens were used for detection of anti-Trichinella antibodies in serum of experimentally infected mice by ELISA. METHODS:Anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies in sera of mice infected with Trichinella were assayed by ELISA with recombinant 31 kDa antigens, and its sensitivity and specificity were compared with ELISA with ES antigen. RESULTS:The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA with recombinant antigens was 96.67% (29/30) and 96.87% (62/64), compared with 100% (30/30) and 98.44% (63/64) of ELISA with ES antigens was (P>0.05). In heavily, moderately and lightly infected mice (500, 300 and 100 larvae/mouse), anti-Trichinella antibodies were firstly detected by ELISA with recombinant antigens at 8, 12 and 14 dpi, respectively; then increased rapidly with a detection rate of 100% respectively at 28, 22 and 30 dpi. While the antibodies were firstly detected by ELISA with ES antigens at 10, 8 and 10 dpi, respectively, the antibody positive rate reached 100% at 14, 12 and 22 dpi, respectively. CONCLUSION:The recombinant 31 kDa antigens of T. spirali had a good sensitivity and specificity for detecting anti-Trichinella antibodies and might be the potential diagnostic antigen for trichinellosis.
Project description:The first human case with trichinellosis was reported in 1964 in Tibet, China. However, up to the present, the etiological agent of trichinellosis has been unclear. The aim of this study was to identify a Tibet Trichinella isolate at a species level by PCR-based methods. Multiplex PCR revealed amplicon of the expected size (173 bp) for Trichinella spiralis in assays containing larval DNA from Tibet Trichinella isolate from a naturally infected pig. The Tibet Trichinella isolate was also identified by PCR amplification of the 5S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer region (5S ISR) and mitochondrial large-subunit ribosomal RNA (mt-lsrDNA) gene sequences. The results showed that 2 DNA fragments (749 bp and 445 bp) of the Tibet Trichinella isolate were identical to that of the reference isolates of T. spiralis. The Tibet Trichinella isolate might be classifiable to T. spiralis. This is the first report on T. spiralis in southwestern China.