CtIP interacts with TopBP1 and Nbs1 in the response to double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) in Xenopus egg extracts.
ABSTRACT: In the presence of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs), the activation of ATR is achieved by the ability of ATM to phosphorylate TopBP1 on serine 1131, which leads to an enhancement of the interaction between ATR and TopBP1. In Xenopus egg extracts, the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex is additionally required to bridge ATM and TopBP1 together. In this report, we show that CtIP, which is recruited to DSB-containing chromatin, interacts with both TopBP1 and Nbs1 in a damage-dependent manner. An N-terminal region containing the first two BRCT repeats of TopBP1 is essential for the interaction with CtIP. Furthermore, two distinct regions in the N-terminus of CtIP participate in establishing the association between CtIP and TopBP1. The first region includes two adjacent putative ATM/ATR phosphorylation sites on serines 273 and 275. Secondly, binding is diminished when an MRN-binding region spanning residues 25-48 is deleted, indicative of a role for the MRN complex in mediating this interaction. This was further evidenced by a decrease in the interaction between CtIP and TopBP1 in Nbs1-depleted extracts and a reciprocal decrease in the binding of Nbs1 to TopBP1 in the absence of CtIP, suggestive of the formation of a complex containing CtIP, TopBP1, and the MRN complex. When CtIP is immunodepleted from egg extracts, the activation of the response to DSBs is compromised and the levels of ATR, TopBP1, and Nbs1 on damaged chromatin are reduced. Thus, CtIP interacts with TopBP1 in a damage-stimulated, MRN-dependent manner during the activation of ATR in response to DSBs.
Project description:The activation of ATR-ATRIP in response to double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) depends upon ATM in human cells and Xenopus egg extracts. One important aspect of this dependency involves regulation of TopBP1 by ATM. In Xenopus egg extracts, ATM associates with TopBP1 and thereupon phosphorylates it on S1131. This phosphorylation enhances the capacity of TopBP1 to activate the ATR-ATRIP complex. We show that TopBP1 also interacts with the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex in egg extracts in a checkpoint-regulated manner. This interaction involves the Nbs1 subunit of the complex. ATM can no longer interact with TopBP1 in Nbs1-depleted egg extracts, which suggests that the MRN complex helps to bridge ATM and TopBP1 together. The association between TopBP1 and Nbs1 involves the first pair of BRCT repeats in TopBP1. In addition, the two tandem BRCT repeats of Nbs1 are required for this binding. Functional studies with mutated forms of TopBP1 and Nbs1 suggested that the BRCT-dependent association of these proteins is critical for a normal checkpoint response to DSBs. These findings suggest that the MRN complex is a crucial mediator in the process whereby ATM promotes the TopBP1-dependent activation of ATR-ATRIP in response to DSBs.
Project description:TopBP1 is critical for both DNA replication and checkpoint regulation in vertebrate cells. In this study, we have identified Rif1 as a binding partner of TopBP1 in Xenopus egg extracts. In addition, Rif1 also interacts with both ATM and the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex, which are key regulators of checkpoint responses to double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs). Depletion of Rif1 from egg extracts compromises the activation of Chk1 in response to DSBs but not stalled replication forks. Removal of Rif1 also has a significant impact on the chromatin-binding behavior of key checkpoint proteins. In particular, binding of TopBP1, ATR and the MRN complex to chromatin containing DSBs is reduced in the absence of Rif1. Rif1 interacts with chromatin in a highly regulated and dynamic manner. In unperturbed egg extracts, the association of Rif1 with chromatin depends upon formation of replication forks. In the presence of DSBs, there is elevated accumulation of Rif1 on chromatin under conditions where the activation of ATM is suppressed. Taken together, these results suggest that Rif1 plays a dynamic role in the early steps of a checkpoint response to DSBs in the egg-extract system by promoting the correct accumulation of key regulators on the DNA.
Project description:The MRN (MRE11-RAD50-NBS1) complex has been implicated in many aspects of the DNA damage response. It has key roles in sensing and processing DNA double-strand breaks, as well as in activation of ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated). We reveal a function for MRN in ATR (ATM- and RAD3-related) activation by using defined ATR-activating DNA structures in Xenopus egg extracts. Strikingly, we demonstrate that MRN is required for recruitment of TOPBP1 to an ATR-activating structure that contains a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) junction and that this recruitment is necessary for phosphorylation of CHK1. We also show that the 911 (RAD9-RAD1-HUS1) complex is not required for TOPBP1 recruitment but is essential for TOPBP1 function. Thus, whereas MRN is required for TOPBP1 recruitment at an ssDNA-to-dsDNA junction, 911 is required for TOPBP1 "activation." These findings provide molecular insights into how ATR is activated.
Project description:The protein kinases ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM-Rad3 related (ATR) are activated in response to DNA damage, genotoxic stress and virus infections. Here we show that during infection with wild-type adenovirus, ATR and its cofactors RPA32, ATRIP and TopBP1 accumulate at viral replication centres, but there is minimal ATR activation. We show that the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex is recruited to viral centres only during infection with adenoviruses lacking the early region E4 and ATR signaling is activated. This suggests a novel requirement for the MRN complex in ATR activation during virus infection, which is independent of Mre11 nuclease activity and recruitment of RPA/ATR/ATRIP/TopBP1. Unlike other damage scenarios, we found that ATM and ATR signaling are not dependent on each other during infection. We identify a region of the viral E4orf3 protein responsible for immobilization of the MRN complex and show that this prevents ATR signaling during adenovirus infection. We propose that immobilization of the MRN damage sensor by E4orf3 protein prevents recognition of viral genomes and blocks detrimental aspects of checkpoint signaling during virus infection.
Project description:The activation of Chk1 in response to stalled replication forks in Xenopus egg extracts involves a complex pathway containing ATM and Rad3-related (ATR), topoisomerase II?-binding protein 1 (TopBP1), Rad17, the Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 (9-1-1) complex, and Claspin. We have observed that egg extracts lacking the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex show greatly, although not completely, reduced activation of Chk1 in response to replication blockages. Depletion of both Rad17 and MRN leads to a further, essentially complete, reduction in the activation of Chk1. Thus, Rad17 and MRN act in at least a partially additive manner in promoting activation of Chk1. There was not an obvious change in the binding of RPA, ATR, Rad17, or the 9-1-1 complex to chromatin in aphidicolin (APH)-treated, MRN-depleted extracts. However, there was a substantial reduction in the binding of TopBP1. In structure-function studies of the MRN complex, we found that the Mre11 subunit is necessary for the APH-induced activation of Chk1. Moreover, a nuclease-deficient mutant of Mre11 cannot substitute for wild-type Mre11 in this process. These results indicate that the MRN complex, in particular the nuclease activity of Mre11, plays an important role in the activation of Chk1 in response to stalled replication forks. These studies reveal a previously unknown property of the MRN complex in genomic stability.
Project description:Human Nbs1, a component of the MRN complex involved in DNA double strand break repair, contains a concatenated N-terminal FHA-BRCT1/2 sequence that supports interaction with multiple phosphopeptide binding partners. MDC1 binding localizes Nbs1 to the damage site, while binding of CDK-phosphorylated CtIP activates additional ATM-dependent CtIP phosphorylation, modulating substrate-dependent resection. We have investigated the phosphopeptide binding characteristics of Nbs1 BRCT1/2 based on a molecular modeling approach that revealed structural homology with the tandem TopBP1 BRCT7/8 domains. Relevance of the model was substantiated by the ability of TopBP1-binding FANCJ phosphopeptide to interact with hsNbsBRCT1/2, albeit with lower affinity. The modeled BRCT1/2 is characterized by low pSer/pThr selectivity, preference for a cationic residue at the + 2 position, and an inter-domain binding cleft selective for hydrophobic residues at the + 3/ + 4 positions. These features provide insight into the basis for interaction of SDT motifs with the BRCT1/2 domains and allowed identification of CtIP pSer347- and pThr847-containing phosphopeptides as high and lower affinity ligands, respectively. Among other binding partners considered, rodent XRCC1 contains an SDT sequence in the second linker consistent with high-affinity Nbs1 binding, while human XRCC1 lacks this motif, but contains other phosphorylated sequences that exhibit low-affinity binding.
Project description:ATM and ATR are two redundant checkpoint kinases essential for the stable maintenance of telomeres in eukaryotes. Previous studies have established that MRN (Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1) and ATRIP (ATR Interacting Protein) interact with ATM and ATR, respectively, and recruit their partner kinases to sites of DNA damage. Here, we investigated how Tel1(ATM) and Rad3(ATR) recruitment to telomeres is regulated in fission yeast. Quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays unexpectedly revealed that the MRN complex could also contribute to the recruitment of Tel1(ATM) to telomeres independently of the previously established Nbs1 C-terminal Tel1(ATM) interaction domain. Recruitment of Tel1(ATM) to telomeres in nbs1-c60Delta cells, which lack the C-terminal 60 amino acid Tel1(ATM) interaction domain of Nbs1, was dependent on Rad3(ATR)-Rad26(ATRIP), but the kinase domain of Rad3(ATR) was dispensable. Thus, our results establish that the Rad3(ATR)-Rad26(ATRIP) complex contributes to the recruitment of Tel1(ATM) independently of Rad3(ATR) kinase activity, by a mechanism redundant with the Tel1(ATM) interaction domain of Nbs1. Furthermore, we found that the N-terminus of Nbs1 contributes to the recruitment of Rad3(ATR)-Rad26(ATRIP) to telomeres. In response to replication stress, mammalian ATR-ATRIP also contributes to ATM activation by a mechanism that is dependent on the MRN complex but independent of the C-terminal ATM interaction domain of Nbs1. Since telomere protection and DNA damage response mechanisms are very well conserved between fission yeast and mammalian cells, mammalian ATR-ATRIP may also contribute to the recruitment of ATM to telomeres and to sites of DNA damage independently of ATR kinase activity.
Project description:The Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (Nbs1) subunit of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex protects genome integrity by coordinating double-strand break (DSB) repair and checkpoint signaling through undefined interactions with ATM, MDC1, and Sae2/Ctp1/CtIP. Here, fission yeast and human Nbs1 structures defined by X-ray crystallography and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) reveal Nbs1 cardinal features: fused, extended, FHA-BRCT(1)-BRCT(2) domains flexibly linked to C-terminal Mre11- and ATM-binding motifs. Genetic, biochemical, and structural analyses of an Nbs1-Ctp1 complex show Nbs1 recruits phosphorylated Ctp1 to DSBs via binding of the Nbs1 FHA domain to a Ctp1 pThr-Asp motif. Nbs1 structures further identify an extensive FHA-BRCT interface, a bipartite MDC1-binding scaffold, an extended conformational switch, and the molecular consequences associated with cancer predisposing Nijmegen breakage syndrome mutations. Tethering of Ctp1 to a flexible Nbs1 arm suggests a mechanism for restricting DNA end processing and homologous recombination activities of Sae2/Ctp1/CtIP to the immediate vicinity of DSBs.
Project description:The Mre11/Rad50/NBS1 (MRN) complex is thought to be a critical sensor that detects damaged DNA and recruits ATM to DNA foci for activation. However, it remains to be established how the MRN complex regulates ATM recruitment to the DNA foci during DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here we show that Skp2 E3 ligase is a key component for the MRN complex-mediated ATM activation in response to DSBs. Skp2 interacts with NBS1 and triggers K63-linked ubiquitination of NBS1 upon DSBs, which is critical for the interaction of NBS1 with ATM, thereby facilitating ATM recruitment to the DNA foci for activation. Finally, we show that Skp2 deficiency exhibits a defect in homologous recombination (HR) repair, thereby increasing IR sensitivity. Our results provide molecular insights into how Skp2 and the MRN complex coordinate to activate ATM, and identify Skp2-mediatetd NBS1 ubiquitination as a vital event for ATM activation in response to DNA damage.
Project description:Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ataxia-telangiectasia Rad3-related (ATR) and the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex ensure genome stability in response to DNA damage. However, their essential role in DNA metabolism remains unknown. Here we show that ATM and ATR prevent accumulation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during chromosomal replication. Replicating chromosomes accumulate DSBs in Xenopus laevis egg extracts depleted of ATM and ATR. Addition of ATM and ATR proteins to depleted extracts prevents DSB accumulation by promoting restart of collapsed replication forks that arise during DNA replication. We show that collapsed forks maintain MCM complex but lose Pol epsilon, and that Pol epsilon reloading requires ATM and ATR. Replication fork restart is abolished in Mre11 depleted extracts and is restored by supplementation with recombinant human Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex. Using a novel fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based technique, we demonstrate that ATM and ATR induce Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex redistribution to restarting forks. This study provides direct biochemical evidence that ATM and ATR prevent accumulation of chromosomal abnormalities by promoting Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 dependent recovery of collapsed replication forks.