Acoustic communication at the water's edge: evolutionary insights from a mudskipper.
ABSTRACT: Coupled behavioural observations and acoustical recordings of aggressive dyadic contests showed that the mudskipper Periophthalmodon septemradiatus communicates acoustically while out of water. An analysis of intraspecific variability showed that specific acoustic components may act as tags for individual recognition, further supporting the sounds' communicative value. A correlative analysis amongst acoustical properties and video-acoustical recordings in slow-motion supported first hypotheses on the emission mechanism. Acoustic transmission through the wet exposed substrate was also discussed. These observations were used to support an "exaptation hypothesis", i.e. the maintenance of key adaptations during the first stages of water-to-land vertebrate eco-evolutionary transitions (based on eco-evolutionary and palaeontological considerations), through a comparative bioacoustic analysis of aquatic and semiterrestrial gobiid taxa. In fact, a remarkable similarity was found between mudskipper vocalisations and those emitted by gobioids and other soniferous benthonic fishes.
Project description:Sounds produced by teleost fishes are an important component of marine soundscapes, making passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) an effective way to map the presence of vocal fishes with a minimal impact on ecosystems. Based on a literature review, we list the known soniferous fish species occurring in Azorean waters and compile their sounds. We also describe new fish sounds recorded in Azores seamounts. From the literature, we identified 20 vocal fish species present in Azores. We analysed long-term acoustic recordings carried out since 2008 in Condor and Princesa Alice seamounts and describe 20 new putative fish sound sequences. Although we propose candidates as the source of some vocalizations, this study puts into evidence the myriad of fish sounds lacking species identification. In addition to identifying new sound sequences, we provide the first marine fish sound library for Azores. Our acoustic library will allow to monitor soniferous fish species for conservation and management purposes.
Project description:Few vertebrates capture prey in both the aquatic and the terrestrial environment due to the conflicting biophysical demands of feeding in water versus air. The Atlantic mudskipper (Periophthalmus barbarus) is known to be proficient at feeding in the terrestrial environment and feeds predominately in this environment. Given the considerable forward flow of water observed during the mouth-opening phase to assist with feeding on land, the mudskipper must alter the function of its feeding system to feed successfully in water. Here, we quantify the aquatic prey-capture kinematics of the mudskipper and compare this with the previously described pattern of terrestrial feeding. Prior to feeding in the aquatic environment, the gill slits open, allowing water to be expelled through the gill slits. The opposite happens in terrestrial feeding during which the gill slits remain closed at this point. In water, the expansive movements of the head are larger, amounting to a larger volume increase and are initiated slightly later than in the terrestrial environment. This implies the generation of strong suction flows when feeding in water. Consequently, the kinematic patterns of the hydrodynamic tongue during terrestrial feeding and aquatic suction feeding are similar, except for the amplitude of the volume increase and the active closing of the gill slits early during the terrestrial feeding strike. The mudskipper thus exhibits the capacity to change the kinematics of its feeding apparatus to enable successful prey capture in two disparate environments.
Project description:Interleukin-34 (IL-34) is a novel cytokine that plays an important role in innate immunity and inflammatory processes by binding to the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R). However, information on the function of IL-34 in fish remains limited. In the present study, we identified an IL-34 homolog from mudskippers ( Boleophthalmus pectinirostris). In silico analysis showed that the mudskipper IL-34 (BpIL-34) was similar to other known IL-34 variants in sequence and structure and was most closely related to an orange-spotted grouper ( Epinephelus coioides) homolog. BpIL-34 transcripts were constitutively expressed in various tissues, with the highest level of expression found in the brain. Edwardsiella tarda infection significantly up-regulated the mRNA expression of BpIL-34 in the mudskipper tissues. The recombinant mature BpIL-34 peptide (rBpIL-34) was purified and used to produce anti-rBpIL-34 IgG. Western blot analysis combined with PNGase F digestion revealed that native BpIL-34 in monocytes/macrophages (MOs/M?s) was N-glycosylated. In vitro, rBpIL-34 treatment enhanced the phagocytotic and bactericidal activity of mudskipper MOs/M?s, as well as the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor ? ( BpTNF-?) and BpIL-1? in these cells. Furthermore, the knockdown of mudskipper CSF-1R1 ( BpCSF-1R1), but not mudskipper BpCSF-1R2, significantly inhibited the rBpIL-34-mediated enhanced effect on MO/M? function. In conclusion, our results indicate that mudskipper BpIL-34 modulates the functions of MOs/M?s via BpCSF-1R1.
Project description:The neurohypophysial hormones, arginine vasotocin and isotocin, regulate both hydromineral balance and social behaviors in fish. In the amphibious mudskipper, Periophthalmus modestus, we previously found arginine-vasotocin-specific regulation of aggressive behavior, including migration of the submissive subordinate into water. This migration also implies the need for adaptation to dehydration. Here, we examined the effects of arginine vasotocin and isotocin administration on the amphibious behavior of individual mudskippers in vivo. The mudskippers remained in the water for an increased period of time after 1-8 h of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection with 500 pg/g arginine vasotocin or isotocin. The 'frequency of migration' was decreased after ICV injection of arginine vasotocin or isotocin, reflecting a tendency to remain in the water. ICV injections of isotocin receptor antagonist with arginine vasotocin or isotocin inhibited all of these hormonal effects. In animals kept out of water, mRNA expression of brain arginine vasotocin and isotocin precursors increased 3- and 1.5-fold, respectively. Given the relatively wide distribution of arginine vasotocin fibres throughout the mudskipper brain, induction of arginine vasotocin and isotocin under terrestrial conditions may be involved also in the preference for an aquatic habitat as ligands for brain isotocin receptors.
Project description:Hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) plays a critical role in immune and inflammatory responses and is important in controlling a variety of processes in monocytes and macrophages. However, very little information is available about the functions of HIF-1? in fish monocytes/macrophages (MO/M?). In this study, the cDNA sequence of the mudskipper (Boleophthalmus pectinirostris) HIF-1? gene (BpHIF-1?) was determined. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that BpHIF-1? is clustered in the fish HIF-1? tree. Constitutive expression of BpHIF-1? mRNA was detected by real-time quantitative PCR in all tested tissues, and the expression was found to be dramatically increased in the skin, liver, spleen, and kidney after Edwardsiella tarda infection. In addition, hypoxia and infection induced the expression of the BpHIF-1? transcript and protein in MO/M?, respectively. Hypoxia caused an increase in phagocytic and bactericidal capacity of mudskipper MO/M? in a BpHIF-1?-dependent manner. BpHIF-1? induced an anti-inflammatory status in MO/M? upon E. tarda infection and hypoxia. Therefore, BpHIF-1? may play a predominant role in the modulation of mudskipper MO/M? function in the innate immune system.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Repetitive species-specific sound enables the identification of the presence and behavior of soniferous species by acoustic means. Passive acoustic monitoring has been widely applied to monitor the spatial and temporal occurrence and behavior of calling species. METHODS:Underwater biological sounds in the Pearl River Estuary, China, were collected using passive acoustic monitoring, with special attention paid to fish sounds. A total of 1,408 suspected fish calls comprising 18,942 pulses were qualitatively analyzed using a customized acoustic analysis routine. RESULTS:We identified a diversity of 66 types of fish sounds. In addition to single pulse, the sounds tended to have a pulse train structure. The pulses were characterized by an approximate 8 ms duration, with a peak frequency from 500 to 2,600 Hz and a majority of the energy below 4,000 Hz. The median inter-pulsepeak interval (IPPI) of most call types was 9 or 10 ms. Most call types with median IPPIs of 9 ms and 10 ms were observed at times that were exclusive from each other, suggesting that they might be produced by different species. According to the literature, the two section signal types of 1 + 1 and 1 + N10 might belong to big-snout croaker (Johnius macrorhynus), and 1 + N19 might be produced by Belanger's croaker (J. belangerii). DISCUSSION:Categorization of the baseline ambient biological sound is an important first step in mapping the spatial and temporal patterns of soniferous fishes. The next step is the identification of the species producing each sound. The distribution pattern of soniferous fishes will be helpful for the protection and management of local fishery resources and in marine environmental impact assessment. Since the local vulnerable Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) mainly preys on soniferous fishes, the fine-scale distribution pattern of soniferous fishes can aid in the conservation of this species. Additionally, prey and predator relationships can be observed when a database of species-identified sounds is completed.
Project description:Audio recordings made from free-ranging animals can be used to investigate aspects of physiology, behavior, and ecology through acoustic signal processing. On-animal acoustical monitoring applications allow continuous remote data collection, and can serve to address questions across temporal and spatial scales. We report on the design of an inexpensive collar-mounted recording device and present data on the activity budget of wild mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) derived from these devices applied for a 2-week period. Over 3300 h of acoustical recordings were collected from 10 deer on their winter range in a natural gas extraction field in northwestern Colorado. Analysis of a subset of the data indicated deer spent approximately 33.5% of their time browsing, 20.8% of their time processing food through mastication, and nearly 38.3% of their time digesting through rumination, with marked differences in diel patterning of these activities. Systematic auditory vigilance was a salient activity when masticating, and these data offer options for quantifying wildlife responses to varying listening conditions and predation risk. These results (validated using direct observation) demonstrate that acoustical monitoring is a viable and accurate method for characterizing individual time budgets and behaviors of ungulates, and may provide new insight into the ways external forces affect wildlife behavior.
Project description:The Hauraki Gulf, a shallow embayment in north-eastern New Zealand, provides an interesting environment for ecological soundscape research. It is situated on a tectonic plate boundary, contains one of the busiest ports in the southern hemisphere and is home to a diverse range of soniferous animals. The underwater soundscape was monitored for spatial and temporal trends at six different listening stations using passive acoustic recorders. The RMS sound pressure level of ambient sound (50-24,000?Hz) at the six listening stations was similar, ranging from 90-110?dB re 1??Pa throughout the recording period. Biophony had distinct temporal patterns and biological choruses of urchins were significantly correlated to temperature. Geophony and biophony followed the acoustic niche hypothesis, where each sound exhibited both temporal and frequency partitioning. Vessel passage sound were identified in 1.9-35.2% of recordings from the different listening stations. Vessel sound recorded in the Hauraki Gulf has the potential to mask concurrent geophony and biophony, sounds that may be important to marine life. This study provides a baseline of ambient sound, useful for future management strategies in shallow embayments where anthropogenic pressure is likewise increasing.
Project description:Postpartum Depression (PPD), a condition that affects up to 15% of mothers in high-income countries, reduces attention to the needs of the child and is among the first causes of infanticide. PPD is usually identified using self-report measures and therefore it is possible that mothers are unwilling to report PPD because of a social desirability bias. Previous studies have highlighted the presence of significant differences in the acoustical properties of the vocalizations of infants of depressed and healthy mothers, suggesting that the mothers' behavior can induce changes in infants' vocalizations. In this study, cry episodes of infants (N = 56, 157.4 days ± 8.5, 62% firstborn) of depressed (N = 29) and non-depressed (N = 27) mothers (mean age = 31.1 years ± 3.9) are analyzed to investigate the possibility that a cloud-based machine learning model can identify PPD in mothers from the acoustical properties of their infants' vocalizations. Acoustic features (fundamental frequency, first four formants, and intensity) are first extracted from recordings of crying infants, then cloud-based artificial intelligence models are employed to identify maternal depression versus non-depression from estimated features. The trained model shows that commonly adopted acoustical features can be successfully used to identify postpartum depressed mothers with high accuracy (89.5%).