Closely related proteins MBD2 and MBD3 play distinctive but interacting roles in mouse development.
ABSTRACT: MBD2 and MBD3 are closely related proteins with consensus methyl-CpG binding domains. MBD2 is a transcriptional repressor that specifically binds to methylated DNA and is a component of the MeCP1 protein complex. In contrast, MBD3 fails to bind methylated DNA in murine cells, and is a component of the Mi-2/NuRD corepressor complex. We show by gene targeting that the two proteins are not functionally redundant in mice, as Mbd3-/- mice die during early embryogenesis, whereas Mbd2-/- mice are viable and fertile. Maternal behavior of Mbd2-/- mice is however defective and, at the molecular level, Mbd2-/- mice lack a component of MeCP1. Mbd2-mutant cells fail to fully silence transcription from exogenous methylated templates, but inappropriate activation of endogenous imprinted genes or retroviral sequences was not detected. Despite their differences, Mbd3 and Mbd2 interact genetically suggesting a functional relationship. Genetic and biochemical data together favor the view that MBD3 is a key component of the Mi-2/NuRD corepressor complex, whereas MBD2 may be one of several factors that can recruit this complex to DNA.
Project description:The tumour-suppressor gene CDKN1A (encoding p21Waf/Cip1) is thought to be epigenetically repressed in cancer cells. FBI-1 (ZBTB7A) is a proto-oncogenic transcription factor repressing the alternative reading frame and p21WAF/CDKN1A genes of the p53 pathway. FBI-1 interacts directly with MBD3 (methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 3) in the nucleus. We demonstrated that FBI-1 binds both non-methylated and methylated DNA and that MBD3 is recruited to the CDKN1A promoter through its interaction with FBI-1, where it enhances transcriptional repression by FBI-1. FBI-1 also interacts with the co-repressors nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR), silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid receptors (SMRT) and BCL-6 corepressor (BCoR) to repress transcription. MBD3 regulates a molecular interaction between the co-repressor and FBI-1. MBD3 decreases the interaction between FBI-1 and NCoR/SMRT but increases the interaction between FBI-1 and BCoR. Because MBD3 is a subunit of the Mi-2 autoantigen (Mi-2)/nucleosome remodelling and histone deacetylase (NuRD)-HDAC complex, FBI-1 recruits the Mi-2/NuRD-HDAC complex via MBD3. BCoR interacts with the Mi-2/NuRD-HDAC complex, DNMTs and HP1. MBD3 and BCoR play a significant role in the recruitment of the Mi-2/NuRD-HDAC complex- and the NuRD complex-associated proteins, DNMTs and HP. By recruiting DNMTs and HP1, Mi-2/NuRD-HDAC complex appears to play key roles in epigenetic repression of CDKN1A by DNA methylation.
Project description:The heterogeneous collection of nucleosome remodelling and deacetylation (NuRD) complexes can be grouped into the MBD2- or MBD3-containing complexes MBD2-NuRD and MBD3-NuRD. MBD2 is known to bind to methylated CpG sequences in vitro in contrast to MBD3. Although functional differences have been described, a direct comparison of MBD2 and MBD3 in respect to genome-wide binding and function has been lacking. Here, we show that MBD2-NuRD, in contrast to MBD3-NuRD, converts open chromatin with euchromatic histone modifications into tightly compacted chromatin with repressive histone marks. Genome-wide, a strong enrichment for MBD2 at methylated CpG sequences is found, whereas CpGs bound by MBD3 are devoid of methylation. MBD2-bound genes are generally lower expressed as compared with MBD3-bound genes. When depleting cells for MBD2, the MBD2-bound genes increase their activity, whereas MBD2 plus MBD3-bound genes reduce their activity. Most strikingly, MBD3 is enriched at active promoters, whereas MBD2 is bound at methylated promoters and enriched at exon sequences of active genes.
Project description:The methyl-cytosine binding domain 2 (MBD2)-nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex recognizes methylated DNA and silences expression of associated genes through histone deacetylase and nucleosome remodeling functions. Our previous structural work demonstrated that a coiled-coil interaction between MBD2 and GATA zinc finger domain containing 2A (GATAD2A/p66?) proteins recruits the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein (CHD4/Mi2?) to the NuRD complex and is necessary for MBD2-mediated DNA methylation-dependent gene silencing in vivo (Gnanapragasam, M. N., Scarsdale, J. N., Amaya, M. L., Webb, H. D., Desai, M. A., Walavalkar, N. M., Wang, S. Z., Zu Zhu, S., Ginder, G. D., and Williams, D. C., Jr. (2011) p66?-MBD2 coiled-coil interaction and recruitment of Mi-2 are critical for globin gene silencing by the MBD2-NuRD complex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 7487-7492). The p66?-MBD2 interaction differs from most coiled-coils studied to date by forming an anti-parallel heterodimeric complex between two peptides that are largely monomeric in isolation. To further characterize unique features of this complex that drive heterodimeric specificity and high affinity binding, we carried out biophysical analyses of MBD2 and the related homologues MBD3, MBD3-like protein 1 (MBD3L1), and MBD3-like protein 2 (MBD3L2) as well as specific mutations that modify charge-charge interactions and helical propensity of the coiled-coil domains. Analytical ultracentrifugation analyses show that the individual peptides remain monomeric in isolation even at 300 ?M in concentration for MBD2. Circular dichroism analyses demonstrate a direct correlation between helical content of the coiled-coil domains in isolation and binding affinity for p66?. Furthermore, complementary electrostatic surface potentials and inherent helical content of each peptide are necessary to maintain high-affinity association. These factors lead to a binding affinity hierarchy of p66? for the different MBD2 homologues (MBD2 ? MBD3 > MBD3L1 ? MBD3L2) and suggest a hierarchical regulatory model in tissue and life cycle stage-specific silencing by NuRD complexes.
Project description:ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling and core histone acetylation and deacetylation represent mechanisms to alter nucleosome structure. NuRD is a multisubunit complex containing nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase activities. The histone deacetylases HDAC1 and HDAC2 and the histone binding proteins RbAp48 and RbAp46 form a core complex shared between NuRD and Sin3-histone deacetylase complexes. The histone deacetylase activity of the core complex is severely compromised. A novel polypeptide highly related to the metastasis-associated protein 1, MTA2, and the methyl-CpG-binding domain-containing protein, MBD3, were found to be subunits of the NuRD complex. MTA2 modulates the enzymatic activity of the histone deacetylase core complex. MBD3 mediates the association of MTA2 with the core histone deacetylase complex. MBD3 does not directly bind methylated DNA but is highly related to MBD2, a polypeptide that binds to methylated DNA and has been reported to possess demethylase activity. MBD2 interacts with the NuRD complex and directs the complex to methylated DNA. NuRD may provide a means of gene silencing by DNA methylation.
Project description:Methylation at the DNA sequence 5'-CpG is required for mouse development. MeCP2 and MBD1 (formerly PCM1) are two known proteins that bind specifically to methylated DNA via a related amino acid motif and that can repress transcription. We describe here three novel human and mouse proteins (MBD2, MBD3, and MBD4) that contain the methyl-CpG binding domain. MBD2 and MBD4 bind specifically to methylated DNA in vitro. Expression of MBD2 and MBD4 tagged with green fluorescent protein in mouse cells shows that both proteins colocalize with foci of heavily methylated satellite DNA. Localization is disrupted in cells that have greatly reduced levels of CpG methylation. MBD3 does not bind methylated DNA in vivo or in vitro. MBD1, MBD2, MBD3, and MBD4 are expressed in somatic tissues, but MBD1 and MBD2 expression is reduced or absent in embryonic stem cells which are known to be deficient in MeCP1 activity. The data demonstrate that MBD2 and MBD4 bind specifically to methyl-CpG in vitro and in vivo and are therefore likely to be mediators of the biological consequences of the methylation signal.
Project description:Paternal repression of the imprinted H19 gene is mediated by a differentially methylated domain (DMD) that is essential to imprinting of both H19 and the linked and oppositely imprinted Igf2 gene. The mechanisms by which paternal-specific methylation of the DMD survive the period of genome-wide demethylation in the early embryo and are subsequently used to govern imprinted expression are not known. Methyl-CpG binding (MBD) proteins are likely candidates to explain how these DMDs are recognized to silence the locus, because they preferentially bind methylated DNA and recruit repression complexes with histone deacetylase activity. MBD RNA and protein are found in preimplantation embryos, and chromatin immunoprecipitation shows that MBD3 is bound to the H19 DMD. To test a role for MBDs in imprinting, two independent RNAi-based strategies were used to deplete MBD3 in early mouse embryos, with the same results. In RNAi-treated blastocysts, paternal H19 expression was activated, supporting the hypothesis that MBD3, which is also a member of the Mi-2/NuRD complex, is required to repress the paternal H19 allele. RNAi-treated blastocysts also have reduced levels of the Mi-2/NuRD complex protein MTA-2, which suggests a role for the Mi-2/NuRD repressive complex in paternal-specific silencing at the H19 locus. Furthermore, DNA methylation was reduced at the H19 DMD when MBD3 protein was depleted. In contrast, expression and DNA methylation were not disrupted in preimplantation embryos for other imprinted genes. These results demonstrate new roles for MBD3 in maintaining imprinting control region DNA methylation and silencing the paternal H19 allele. Finally, MBD3-depleted preimplantation embryos have reduced cell numbers, suggesting a role for MBD3 in cell division.
Project description:Mi-2/nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) chromatin remodeling complexes are important regulators of chromatin structure and DNA accessibility. We examined requirements for individual domains of chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 4 (CHD4), a core catalytic component of NuRD complexes, as well as the NuRD subunit methyl-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) and methylated DNA, for NuRD function in the context of tissue-specific transcription. By itself, loss of NuRD activity is not sufficient for transcriptional activation. However, NuRD complexes greatly reduce activation of the B cell-specific mb-1 (Cd79a) gene by the transcription factors EBF1 and Pax5. Using our B cell model system, we determined that the two chromodomains and ATPase/helicase and C-terminal domains (CTD) of CHD4 are all necessary for repression of mb-1 promoters by NuRD. All of these domains except the CTD are required for efficient association of CHD4 with mb-1 promoter chromatin. Loss of MBD2 expression or of DNA methylation impaired association of CHD4 with mb-1 promoter chromatin and enhanced its transcription. We conclude that repressive functions of MBD2-containing NuRD complexes are dependent on cooperative interactions between the major domains of CHD4 with histones and DNA and on binding of methylated DNA by MBD2.
Project description:We have recently reported that a novel MBD2 interactor (MBDin) has the capacity to reactivate transcription from MBD2-repressed methylated promoters even in the absence of demethylation events. Here we show that another unrelated protein, TACC3, displays a similar activity on methylated genes. In addition the data reported here provide possible molecular mechanisms for the observed phenomenon. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that MBD2/TACC3 form a complex in vivo with the histone acetyltransferase pCAF. MBD2 could also associate with HDAC2, a component of MeCP1 repression complex. However, we found that the complexes formed by MBD2 with TACC3/pCAF and with HDAC2 were mutually exclusive. Moreover, HAT enzymatic assays demonstrated that HAT activity associates with MBD2 in vivo and that such association significantly increased when TACC3 was over-expressed. Overall our findings suggest that TACC3 can be recruited by MBD2 on methylated promoters and is able to reactivate transcription possibly by favoring the formation of an HAT-containing MBD2 complex and, thus, switching the repression potential of MBD2 in activation even prior to eventual demethylation.
Project description:The heterogeneous collection of NuRD complexes can be grouped into the MBD2 or MBD3 containing complexes MBD2-NuRD and MBD3-NuRD. MBD2 is known to bind to methylated CpG sequences in vitro in contrast to MBD3. Although functional differences have been described, a direct comparison of MBD2 and MBD3 in respect to genome-wide binding and function has been lacking. Here we show when depleting cells for MBD2, the MBD2 bound genes increase their activity, whereas MBD2 plus MBD3 bound genes reduce their activity. Most strikingly, MBD3 is enriched at active promoters, whereas MBD2 is bound at methylated promoters and enriched at exon sequences of active genes. This suggests a functional connection between MBD2 binding to chromatin and splicing. 9 Total samples were analysed. Three individual replicates for HeLa cells treated with siRNA against MBD2, MBD3 or scrambled siRNA were performed. We calculated the fold change of gene expression of cells treated with MBD2- or MBD3-siRNA over cells treated with scrambled siRNA.
Project description:The heterogeneous collection of NuRD complexes can be grouped into the MBD2 or MBD3 containing complexes MBD2-NuRD and MBD3-NuRD. Although functional differences have been described, a direct comparison of MBD2 and MBD3 in respect to genome-wide binding and function has been lacking. Here we show a strong enrichment for MBD2 at methylated CpG sequences, whereas CpGs bound by MBD3 are devoid of methylation. Gene activity of MBD2 bound genes is four fold lower as compared to genes bound by MBD3. When depleting cells for MBD2, the MBD2 bound genes increase their activity, whereas MBD2 plus MBD3 bound genes reduce their activity. Most strikingly, MBD3 is enriched at active promoters, whereas MBD2 is bound at methylated promoters and enriched at exon sequences of active genes. This suggests a functional connection between MBD2 binding to chromatin and splicing. V5 ChIP followed by high throughput sequencing in HeLa cells transiently transfected with either V5-MBD2b, V5-MBD3 or V5.