GRK2: a novel cell-specific regulator of severity and duration of inflammatory pain.
ABSTRACT: Chronic pain associated with inflammation is a common clinical problem, and the underlying mechanisms have only begun to be unraveled. GRK2 regulates cellular signaling by promoting G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) desensitization and direct interaction with downstream kinases including p38. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of GRK2 to regulation of inflammatory pain and to unravel the underlying mechanism. GRK2(+/-) mice with an approximately 50% reduction in GRK2 developed increased and markedly prolonged thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia after carrageenan-induced paw inflammation or after intraplantar injection of the GPCR-binding chemokine CCL3. The effect of reduced GRK2 in specific cells was investigated using Cre-Lox technology. Carrageenan- or CCL3-induced hyperalgesia was increased but not prolonged in mice with decreased GRK2 only in Na(v)1.8 nociceptors. In vitro, reduced neuronal GRK2 enhanced CCL3-induced TRPV1 sensitization. In vivo, CCL3-induced acute hyperalgesia in GRK2(+/-) mice was mediated via TRPV1. Reduced GRK2 in microglia/monocytes only was required and sufficient to transform acute carrageenan- or CCL3-induced hyperalgesia into chronic hyperalgesia. Chronic hyperalgesia in GRK2(+/-) mice was associated with ongoing microglial activation and increased phospho-p38 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the spinal cord. Inhibition of spinal cord microglial, p38, or TNF-alpha activity by intrathecal administration of specific inhibitors reversed ongoing hyperalgesia in GRK2(+/-) mice. Microglia/macrophage GRK2 expression was reduced in the lumbar ipsilateral spinal cord during neuropathic pain, underlining the pathophysiological relevance of microglial GRK2. Thus, we identified completely novel cell-specific roles of GRK2 in regulating acute and chronic inflammatory hyperalgesia.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Maresin 1 (MaR1) is a specialised pro-resolving lipid mediator with anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. In this study, we addressed the modulation of peripheral and spinal cord cells by MaR1 in the context of inflammatory pain. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Mice were treated with MaR1 before intraplantar injection of carrageenan or complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Mechanical hyperalgesia was assessed using the electronic von Frey and thermal hyperalgesia using a hot plate. Spinal cytokine production and NF-?B activation were determined by ELISA and astrocytes and microglia activation by RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence. CGRP release by dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons was determined by EIA. Neutrophil and macrophage recruitment were determined by immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, and colorimetric methods. Trpv1 and Nav1.8 expression and calcium imaging of DRG neurons were determined by RT-qPCR and Fluo-4AM respectively. KEY RESULTS:MaR1 reduced carrageenan- and CFA-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and neutrophil and macrophage recruitment proximal to CGRP+ fibres in the paw skin. Moreover, MaR1 reduced NF-?B activation, IL-1? and TNF-? production, and spinal cord glial cells activation. In the DRG, MaR1 reduced CFA-induced Nav1.8 and Trpv1 mRNA expression and calcium influx and capsaicin-induced release of CGRP by DRG neurons. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:MaR1 reduced DRG neurons activation and CGRP release explaining, at least in part, its analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. The enduring analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects and also post-treatment activity of MaR1 suggest that specialised pro-resolving lipid mediators have potential as a new class of drugs for the treatment of inflammatory pain.
Project description:Peripheral inflammation initiates changes in spinal nociceptive processing leading to hyperalgesia. Previously, we demonstrated that among 102 lipid species detected by LC-MS/MS analysis in rat spinal cord, the most notable increases that occur after intraplantar carrageenan are metabolites of 12-lipoxygenases (12-LOX), particularly hepoxilins (HXA(3) and HXB(3)). Thus, we examined involvement of spinal LOX enzymes in inflammatory hyperalgesia. In the current work, we found that intrathecal (IT) delivery of the LOX inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid prevented the carrageenan-evoked increase in spinal HXB(3) at doses that attenuated the associated hyperalgesia. Furthermore, IT delivery of inhibitors targeting 12-LOX (CDC, Baicalein), but not 5-LOX (Zileuton) dose-dependently attenuated tactile allodynia. Similarly, IT delivery of 12-LOX metabolites of arachidonic acid 12(S)-HpETE, 12(S)-HETE, HXA(3), or HXB(3) evoked profound, persistent tactile allodynia, but 12(S)-HpETE and HXA(3) produced relatively modest, transient heat hyperalgesia. The pronociceptive effect of HXA(3) correlated with enhanced release of Substance P from primary sensory afferents. Importantly, HXA(3) triggered sustained mobilization of calcium in cells stably overexpressing TRPV1 or TRPA1 receptors and in acutely dissociated rodent sensory neurons. Constitutive deletion or antagonists of TRPV1 (AMG9810) or TRPA1 (HC030031) attenuated this action. Furthermore, pretreatment with antihyperalgesic doses of AMG9810 or HC030031 reduced spinal HXA(3)-evoked allodynia. These data indicate that spinal HXA(3) is increased by peripheral inflammation and promotes initiation of facilitated nociceptive processing through direct activation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 at central terminals.
Project description:Insights into mechanisms governing resolution of inflammatory pain are of great importance for many chronic pain-associated diseases. Here we investigate the role of macrophages/monocytes and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the resolution of transient inflammatory pain. Depletion of mice from peripheral monocytes/macrophages delayed resolution of intraplantar IL-1?- and carrageenan-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia from 1 to 3 days to >1 week. Intrathecal administration of a neutralizing IL-10 antibody also markedly delayed resolution of IL-1?- and carrageenan-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia. Recently, we showed that IL-1?- and carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia is significantly prolonged in LysM-GRK2(+/-) mice, which have reduced levels of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) in LysM(+) myeloid cells. Here we show that adoptive transfer of wild-type, but not of GRK2(+/-), bone marrow-derived monocytes normalizes the resolution of IL-1?-induced hyperalgesia in LysM-GRK2(+/-) mice. Adoptive transfer of IL-10(-/-) bone marrow-derived monocytes failed to normalize the duration of IL-1?-induced hyperalgesia in LysM-GRK2(+/-) mice. Mechanistically, we show that GRK2(+/-) macrophages produce less IL-10 in vitro. In addition, intrathecal IL-10 administration attenuated IL-1?-induced hyperalgesia in LysM-GRK2(+/-) mice, whereas it had no effect in wild-type mice. Our data uncover a key role for monocytes/macrophages in promoting resolution of inflammatory hyperalgesia via a mechanism dependent on IL-10 signaling in dorsal root ganglia.We show that IL-10-producing monocytes/macrophages promote resolution of transient inflammatory hyperalgesia. Additionally, we show that reduced monocyte/macrophage GRK2 impairs resolution of hyperalgesia and reduces IL-10 production. We propose that low GRK2 expression and/or impaired IL-10 production by monocytes/macrophages represent peripheral biomarkers for the risk of developing chronic pain after inflammation.
Project description:Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) plays a major role in hyperalgesia and allodynia and is expressed both in the peripheral and central nervous systems (CNS). However, few studies have evaluated mechanisms by which CNS TRPV1 mediates hyperalgesia and allodynia after injury. We hypothesized that activation of spinal cord systems releases endogenous TRPV1 agonists that evoke the development of mechanical allodynia by this receptor. Using in vitro superfusion, the depolarization of spinal cord triggered the release of oxidized linoleic acid metabolites, such as 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HODE) that potently activated spinal TRPV1, leading to the development of mechanical allodynia. Subsequent calcium imaging and electrophysiology studies demonstrated that synthetic oxidized linoleic acid metabolites, including 9-HODE, 13-HODE, and 9 and 13-oxoODE, comprise a family of endogenous TRPV1 agonists. In vivo studies demonstrated that intrathecal application of these oxidized linoleic acid metabolites rapidly evokes mechanical allodynia. Finally, intrathecal neutralization of 9- and 13-HODE by antibodies blocks CFA-evoked mechanical allodynia. These data collectively reveal a mechanism by which an endogenous family of lipids activates TRPV1 in the spinal cord, leading to the development of inflammatory hyperalgesia. These findings may integrate many pain disorders and provide an approach for developing analgesic drugs.
Project description:Chronic pain is a major clinical problem, yet the mechanisms underlying the transition from acute to chronic pain remain poorly understood. In mice, reduced expression of GPCR kinase 2 (GRK2) in nociceptors promotes cAMP signaling to the guanine nucleotide exchange factor EPAC1 and prolongs the PGE2-induced increase in pain sensitivity (hyperalgesia). Here we hypothesized that reduction of GRK2 or increased EPAC1 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons would promote the transition to chronic pain. We used 2 mouse models of hyperalgesic priming in which the transition from acute to chronic PGE2-induced hyperalgesia occurs. Hyperalgesic priming with carrageenan induced a sustained decrease in nociceptor GRK2, whereas priming with the PKC? agonist ??RACK increased DRG EPAC1. When either GRK2 was increased in vivo by viral-based gene transfer or EPAC1 was decreased in vivo, as was the case for mice heterozygous for Epac1 or mice treated with Epac1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, chronic PGE2-induced hyperalgesia development was prevented in the 2 priming models. Using the CFA model of chronic inflammatory pain, we found that increasing GRK2 or decreasing EPAC1 inhibited chronic hyperalgesia. Our data suggest that therapies targeted at balancing nociceptor GRK2 and EPAC1 levels have promise for the prevention and treatment of chronic pain.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The main symptoms of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) include pain and numbness. Neuronal G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) plays an important role in various pain models. Cisplatin treatment can induce the activation of proinflammatory microglia in spinal cord. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of spinal neuronal GRK2 in cisplatin-induced CIPN and in the prevention of CIPN by electroacupuncture (EA).<h4>Methods</h4>The pain and sensory deficit behaviors of mice were examined by von Frey test and adhesive removal test. The expression of neuronal GRK2 in the spinal cord is regulated by intraspinal injection of adeno-associated virus (AAV) containing neuron-specific promoters. The protein levels of GRK2, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), and DNAX-activating protein of 12 kDa (DAP12) in spinal dorsal horn were detected by Western blot, the density of intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENFs) was detected by immunofluorescence, and microglia activation were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).<h4>Results</h4>In this study, cisplatin treatment led to the decrease of GRK2 expression in the dorsal horn of spinal cord. Overexpression of neuronal GRK2 in spinal cord by intraspinal injection of an AAV vector expressing GRK2 with human synapsin (hSyn) promotor significantly inhibited the loss of IENFs and alleviated the mechanical pain and sensory deficits induced by cisplatin. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the overexpression of neuronal GRK2 significantly inhibited the messenger RNA (mRNA) upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and M1 microglia marker cluster of differentiation (CD)16 induced by cisplatin. Furthermore, the TREM2 and DAP12, which has been demonstrated to play a role in microglia activation and in the development of CIPN, were also downregulated by overexpression of neuronal GRK2 in this study. Interestingly, preventive treatment with EA completely mimics the effect of overexpression of neuronal GRK2 in the spinal cord in this mouse model of cisplatin-induced CIPN. EA increased GRK2 level in spinal dorsal horn after cisplatin treatment. Intraspinal injection of AAV vector specifically downregulated neuronal GRK2, completely reversed the regulatory effect of EA on CIPN and microglia activation. All these indicated that the neuronal GRK2 mediated microglial activation contributed to the process of CIPN.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Neuronal GRK2 in the spinal cord contributed to the preventive effect of EA on CIPN. The neuronal GRK2 may be a potential target for CIPN intervention.
Project description:Abnormal pain sensitivity is commonly associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and affects the life quality of ASD individuals. SHANK3 deficiency was implicated in ASD and pain dysregulation. Here, we report functional expression of SHANK3 in mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons and spinal cord presynaptic terminals. Homozygous and heterozygous Shank3 complete knockout (?e4-22) results in impaired heat hyperalgesia in inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Specific deletion of Shank3 in Nav1.8-expressing sensory neurons also impairs heat hyperalgesia in homozygous and heterozygous mice. SHANK3 interacts with transient receptor potential subtype V1 (TRPV1) via Proline-rich region and regulates TRPV1 surface expression. Furthermore, capsaicin-induced spontaneous pain, inward currents in DRG neurons, and synaptic currents in spinal cord neurons are all reduced after Shank3 haploinsufficiency. Finally, partial knockdown of SHANK3 expression in human DRG neurons abrogates TRPV1 function. Our findings reveal a peripheral mechanism of SHANK3, which may underlie pain deficits in SHANK3-related ASDs.
Project description:LASSBio-1135 is an imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine derivative with high efficacy in screening models of nociception and inflammation, presumed as a weak COX-2 inhibitor. In order to tease out its mechanism of action, we investigated others possible target for LASSBio-1135, such as TNF-? and TRPV1, to better characterize it as a multitarget compound useful in the treatment of chronic pain. TRPV1 modulation was assessed in TRPV1-expressing Xenopus oocytes against capsaicin and low pH-induced current. Modulation of TNF-? production was evaluated in culture of macrophages stimulated with LPS. In vivo efficacy of LASSBio-1135 was investigated in carrageenan and partial sciatic ligation-induced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Corroborating its previous demonstration of efficacy in a model of capsaicin-induced hyperalgesia, LASSBio-1135 blocks capsaicin-elicited currents in a non-competitive way with an IC50 of 580 nM as well as low pH-induced current at 50 µM. As an additional action, LASSBio-1135 inhibited TNF-? release in these cells stimulated by LPS with an IC50 of 546 nM by reducing p38 MAPK phosphorilation. Oral administration of 100 µmol x Kg(-1) LASSBio-1135 markedly reduced thermal hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, however at 10 µmol x Kg(-1) only a partial reduction was observed at the 4th h. Neutrophil recruitment and TNF-? production after carrageenan stimulus was also inhibited by the treatment with LASSBio-1135. Modulating TRPV1 and TNF-? production, two key therapeutic targets of neuropathic pain, 100 µmol x Kg(-1) LASSBio-1135 was orally efficacious in reversing thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia produced by partial sciatic ligation 7-11 days after surgery without provoking hyperthermia, a common side effect of TRPV1 antagonists. In conclusion LASSBio-1135, besides being a weak COX-2 inhibitor, is a non-competitive TRPV1 antagonist and a TNF-? inhibitor. As a multitarget compound, LASSBio-1135 is orally efficacious in a model of neuropathic pain without presenting hyperthermia.
Project description:The kinin B(1) receptor (B(1)R) is upregulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxydative stress, which are enhanced by transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) activation. To examine the link between TRPV1 and B(1)R in inflammatory pain, this study aimed to determine the ability of TRPV1 to regulate microglial B(1)R expression in the spinal cord dorsal horn, and the underlying mechanism.B(1)R expression (mRNA, protein and binding sites) was measured in cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal cord in response to TRPV1 activation by systemic capsaicin (1-50 mg/kg, s.c) in rats pre-treated with TRPV1 antagonists (capsazepine or SB-366791), the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), or vehicle. B(1)R function was assessed using a tail-flick test after intrathecal (i.t.) injection of a selective B(1)R agonist (des-Arg(9)-BK), and its microglial localization was investigated by confocal microscopy with the selective fluorescent B(1)R agonist, [N?-bodipy]-des-Arg(9)-BK. The effect of i.t. capsaicin (1 ?g/site) was also investigated.Capsaicin (10 to 50 mg/kg, s.c.) enhanced time-dependently (0-24h) B(1)R mRNA levels in the lumbar spinal cord; this effect was prevented by capsazepine (10 mg/kg, i.p.; 10 ?g/site, i.t.) and SB-366791 (1 mg/kg, i.p.; 30 ?g/site, i.t.). Increases of B(1)R mRNA were correlated with IL-1? mRNA levels, and they were significantly less in cervical and thoracic spinal cord. Intrathecal capsaicin (1 ?g/site) also enhanced B(1)R mRNA in lumbar spinal cord. NAC (1 g/kg/d × 7 days) prevented B(1)R up-regulation, superoxide anion production and NF-kB activation induced by capsaicin (15 mg/kg). Des-Arg(9)-BK (9.6 nmol/site, i.t.) decreased by 25-30% the nociceptive threshold at 1 min post-injection in capsaicin-treated rats (10-50 mg/kg) while it was without effect in control rats. Des-Arg(9)-BK-induced thermal hyperalgesia was blocked by capsazepine, SB-366791 and by antagonists/inhibitors of B(1)R (SSR240612, 10 mg/kg, p.o.), glutamate NMDA receptor (DL-AP5, 10 ?g/site, i.t.), substance P NK-1 receptor (RP-67580, 10 ?g/site, i.t.) and nitric oxide synthase (L-NNA, 10 ?g/site, i.t.). The B(1)R fluorescent agonist was co-localized with an immunomarker of microglia (Iba-1) in spinal cord dorsal horn of capsaicin-treated rats.This study highlights a new mechanism for B(1)R induction via TRPV1 activation and establishes a link between these two pro-nociceptive receptors in inflammatory pain.
Project description:AIM:To investigate the role of p38 MAP kinase in lower urinary tract dysfunction in mice with spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS:Cystometry and external urethral sphincter-electromyography were performed under an awake condition in 4-week SCI female mice. Two weeks after SCI, a catheter connected to an osmotic pump filled with a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was implanted into the intrathecal space of L6-S1 spinal cord for continuous intrathecal instillation at infusion rate of 0.51??L/h for 2?weeks before the urodynamic study. L6 dorsal root ganglia were then removed from CSF and p38 MAPK inhibitor-treated SCI mice as well as from CSF-treated normal (spinal intact) mice to evaluate the levels of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) transcripts by real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS:In p38 MAPK inhibitor-treated SCI mice, nonvoiding contractions during bladder filling, bladder capacity, and post-void residual volume were significantly reduced while micturition pressure and voiding efficiency were significantly increased in comparison to these measurements in CSF-treated SCI mice. The expression of TRPV1, TNF-?, and iNOS messenger RNA was increased in SCI mice compared with expression in spinal intact mice and significantly decreased after p38 MAPK inhibitor treatment. CONCLUSIONS:The p38 MAPK signaling pathway in bladder sensory neurons or in the spinal cord plays an important role in storage and voiding problems such as detrusor overactivity and inefficient voiding after SCI.