Adjuvant Bisphosphonate Therapy in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Patients.
ABSTRACT: Adjuvant bisphosphonate therapy is increasingly used in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. This is based on level-one evidence that bisphosphonates, particularly zoledronic acid, can effectively prevent cancer treatment-induced bone loss in breast cancer patients receiving estradiol-lowering endocrine therapies such as aromatase inhibitors. Furthermore, emerging data from large clinical trials suggest that additional anticancer benefits can be derived due to a positive impact on the bone marrow microenvironment.
Project description:Studies have shown that bisphosphonates may have antitumor and antimetastatic properties. Recently, observational studies have suggested a possible protective effect of bisphosphonates on breast cancer, but the effect of bisphosphonate use on risk of breast cancer has not been tested in randomized trials.To assess the relationship of postmenopausal breast cancer incidence and bisphosphonate use using data from 2 randomized (1:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.The Fracture Intervention Trial (FIT) randomly assigned 6459 women aged 55 to 81 years to alendronate or placebo for a mean follow-up of 3.8 years. The Health Outcomes and Reduced Incidence With Zoledronic Acid Once Yearly-Pivotal Fracture Trial (HORIZON-PFT) randomly assigned 7765 women aged 65 to 89 years to annual intravenous zoledronic acid or placebo for a mean follow-up of 2.8 years. Data were collected at clinical centers in the United States (FIT and HORIZON-PFT) and in Asia and the Pacific, Europe, North America, and South America (HORIZON-PFT). Women, in either study, with recurrent breast cancer or who reported a history of breast cancer were excluded from analyses. In each trial, a blinded review was conducted of each cancer adverse event report to verify incident invasive breast cancer cases. The primary analysis compared events in the active vs placebo group using a log-rank test.Alendronate vs placebo (FIT) or zoledronic acid vs placebo (HORIZON-PFT).Hazard ratio for incident breast cancer in the bisphosphonate treatment group compared to the placebo group.There was no significant difference in the rate of breast cancer in FIT: 1.5% (n?=?46) in the placebo group and 1.8% (n?=?57) in the alendronate group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.24 [95% CI, 0.84-1.83]). In HORIZON-PFT, there was also no significant difference: 0.8% (n?=?29) in the placebo group and 0.9% (n?=?33) in the zoledronic acid group (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 0.70-1.89]). There was also no significant difference when the data from FIT and HORIZON-PFT were pooled (HR, 1.20 [95% CI, 0.89-1.63]).These 2 randomized clinical trials do not support the findings from observational research. Contrary to the results from observational studies, we found that 3 to 4 years of bisphosphonate treatment did not decrease the risk of invasive postmenopausal breast cancer.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00049829 (HORIZON-PFT).
Project description:Bisphosphonates are the gold standard for preventing skeletal-related events in patients with bone-metastatic cancer and have been investigated for reducing cancer treatment-induced bone loss. Evidence suggests bisphosphonates also offer anticancer benefits in adjuvant and advanced cancer settings. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a single-center, unselected cohort of women with early breast cancer (N=1646: 962 received adjuvant bisphosphonates, 684 did not) to assess the impact of bisphosphonates on disease-free and overall survival. The bisphosphonate group comprised all women who started bisphosphonate treatment within 1 year of breast cancer diagnosis and received ?3 months of bisphosphonate treatment (zoledronic acid, clodronate, ibandronate, or alendronate; majority received zoledronic acid). Disease-free survival was defined as the time from breast cancer diagnosis until first disease recurrence or death. Treatment groups were balanced for cancer stage, hormone receptor expression, and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 expression. Patients in the no-bisphosphonate group were more likely to be ?75 years of age, node-negative, and have histologic grade 3 tumors. In patients treated with adjuvant bisphosphonates, disease-free survival was significantly longer than in those who did not receive bisphosphonates (P=0.0017). Both disease-free and overall survival were significantly longer in patients with hormone receptor-positive disease irrespective of lymph node status (disease-free survival: P=0.0038; overall survival: P<0.0026). No significant disease-free survival difference was detected in patients with hormone receptor-negative disease. This large, retrospective study demonstrates a significant survival benefit with adjuvant bisphosphonates in patients with early breast cancer, particularly in patients with node-positive and hormone receptor-positive disease.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Anti-resorptive bisphosphonates (BP) are used for the treatment of osteoporosis and bone metastases. Clinical studies indicated a benefit in survival and tumor relapse in subpopulations of breast cancer patients receiving zoledronic acid, thus stimulating the debate about its anti-tumor activity. Amino-bisphosphonates in nM concentrations inhibit farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase leading to accumulation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and the ATP/pyrophosphate adduct ApppI, which induces apoptosis in osteoclasts. For anti-tumor effects ?M concentrations are needed and a sensitizer for bisphosphonate effects would be beneficial in clinical anti-tumor applications. We hypothesized that enhancing intracellular pyrophosphate accumulation via inhibition of probenecid-sensitive channels and transporters would sensitize tumor cells for bisphosphonates anti-tumor efficacy.<h4>Method</h4>MDA-MB-231, T47D and MCF-7 breast cancer cells were treated with BP (zoledronic acid, risedronate, ibandronate, alendronate) and the pyrophosphate channel inhibitors probenecid and novobiocin. We determined cell viability and caspase 3/7 activity (apoptosis), accumulation of IPP and ApppI, expression of ANKH, PANX1, ABCC1, SLC22A11, and the zoledronic acid target gene and tumor-suppressor KLF2.<h4>Results</h4>Treatment of MDA-MB-231 with BP induced caspase 3/7 activity, with zoledronic acid being the most effective. In MCF-7 and T47D either BP markedly suppressed cell viability with only minor effects on apoptosis. Co-treatment with probenecid enhanced BP effects on cell viability, IPP/ApppI accumulation as measurable in MCF-7 and T47D cells, caspase 3/7 activity and target gene expression. Novobiocin co-treatment of MDA-MB-231 yielded identical results on viability and apoptosis compared to probenecid, rendering SLC22A family members as candidate modulators of BP effects, whereas no such evidence was found for ANKH, ABCC1 and PANX1.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In summary, we demonstrate effects of various bisphosphonates on caspase 3/7 activity, cell viability and expression of tumor suppressor genes in breast cancer cells. Blocking probenecid and novobiocin-sensitive channels and transporters enhances BP anti-tumor effects and renders SLC22A family members as good candidates as BP modulators. Further studies will have to unravel if treatment with such BP-sensitizers translates into preclinical and clinical efficacy.
Project description:Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates have antitumor activity in certain breast cancer and myeloma patients. However, these drugs have limited oral absorption, tumor cell entry and activity, and cause bone side effects. The potencies of phosphorylated antiviral drugs have been increased by administering them as prodrugs, in which the negative charges on the phosphate moieties are masked to make them lipophilic. We synthesized heterocyclic bisphosphonate (BP) prodrugs in which the phosphonate moieties are derivatized with pivaloyloxymethyl (pivoxil) groups and that lack the hydroxy "bone hook" on the geminal carbon. When the lipophilic BP prodrugs enter tumor cells, they are converted into their active forms by intracellular esterases. The most active BP prodrug, tetrakispivaloyloxymethyl 2-(thiazole-2-ylamino)ethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate (7), was found to potently inhibit the in?vitro growth of a variety of tumor cell lines, especially hematopoietic cells, at nanomolar concentrations. Consistent with this fact, compound 7 inhibited the prenylation of the RAP1A small GTPase signaling protein at concentrations as low as 1-10?nm. In preclinical studies, 7 slowed the growth of human bladder cancer cells in an immunodeficient mouse model. Thus, 7 is significantly more active than zoledronic acid, the most active FDA-approved BP, and a potential anticancer therapeutic.
Project description:Bisphosphonates drugs target the skeleton and are used globally for the treatment of common bone disorders. Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates act by inhibiting the mevalonate pathway in bone-resorbing osteoclasts but, surprisingly, also appear to reduce the risk of death from pneumonia. We overturn the long-held belief that these drugs act only in the skeleton and show that a fluorescently labelled bisphosphonate is internalised by alveolar macrophages and large peritoneal macrophages in vivo. Furthermore, a single dose of a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (zoledronic acid) in mice was sufficient to inhibit the mevalonate pathway in tissue-resident macrophages, causing the build-up of a mevalonate metabolite and preventing protein prenylation. Importantly, one dose of bisphosphonate enhanced the immune response to bacterial endotoxin in the lung and increased the level of cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. These studies suggest that bisphosphonates, as well as preventing bone loss, may boost immune responses to infection in the lung and provide a mechanistic basis to fully examine the potential of bisphosphonates to help combat respiratory infections that cause pneumonia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Adjuvant bisphosphonates, when given in a low-estrogen environment, can decrease breast cancer recurrence and death. Treatment guidelines include recommendations for adjuvant bisphosphonates in postmenopausal patients. SWOG/Alliance/Canadian Cancer Trials Group/ECOG-ACRIN/NRG Oncology study S0307 compared the efficacy of three bisphosphonates in early-stage breast cancer. METHODS:Patients with stage I-III breast cancer were randomly assigned to 3?years of intravenous zoledronic acid, oral clodronate, or oral ibandronate. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS) with overall survival as a secondary outcome. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS:A total of 6097 patients enrolled. Median age was 52.7?years. Prior to being randomly assigned, 73.2% patients indicated preference for oral vs intravenous formulation. DFS did not differ across arms in a log-rank test (P?=?.49); 5-year DFS was 88.3% (zoledronic acid: 95% confidence interval [CI] = 86.9% to 89.6%), 87.6% (clodronate: 95% CI = 86.1% to 88.9%), and 87.4% (ibandronate: 95% CI = 85.6% to 88.9%). Additionally, 5-year overall survival did not differ between arms (log rank P?=?.50) and was 92.6% (zoledronic acid: 95% CI = 91.4% to 93.6%), 92.4% (clodronate: 95% CI = 91.2% to 93.5%), and 92.9% (ibandronate: 95% CI = 91.5% to 94.1%). Bone as first site of recurrence did not differ between arms (P?=?.93). Analyses based on age and tumor subtypes showed no treatment differences. Grade 3/4 toxicity was 8.8% (zoledronic acid), 8.3% (clodronate), and 10.5% (ibandronate). Osteonecrosis of the jaw was highest for zoledronic acid (1.26%) compared with clodronate (0.36%) and ibandronate (0.77%). CONCLUSIONS:We found no evidence of differences in efficacy by type of bisphosphonate, either in overall analysis or subgroups. Despite an increased rate of osteonecrosis of the jaw with zoledronic acid, overall toxicity grade differed little across arms. Given that patients expressed preference for oral formulation, efforts to make oral agents available in the United States should be considered.
Project description:Bisphosphonates are the first-choice treatment of osteoporosis and Paget's disease of bone. Among the bisphosphonates, the non-amino-bisphosphonates, such as clodronic acid, are intracellular converted into toxic analogues of ATP and induce cellular apoptosis whereas the amino-bisphosphonates, such as zoledronic acid, inhibit the farnesyl-diphosphate-synthase, an enzyme of the mevalonate pathway. This pathway regulates cholesterol and glucose homeostasis and is a target for statins. In this retrospective cohort study, we evaluated the effects of an intravenous infusion of zoledronic acid (5 mg) or clodronic acid (1500 mg) on blood lipid (i.e. total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglycerides) and glucose levels in patients with osteoporosis and Paget's disease of bone. All patients were evaluated before, 1 and 6 months after bisphosphonate treatment. Pagetic and osteoporotic patients treated with zoledronic acid showed a significant reduction in glucose and atherogenic lipids during follow-up whereas these phenomena were not observed after clodronic treatment. The effect on circulating lipid levels was similar in naïve and re-treated Pagetic patients. Zoledronic acid treatment was associated with a reduction in blood glucose and atherogenic lipids in patients with metabolic bone disorders. The extent of change was similar to that obtained with the regular assumption of a low-intensity statin. Further studies are warranted to better evaluate the clinical implications of these observations.
Project description:Bisphosphonates are used to treat bone diseases such as osteoporosis and cancer-induced bone pain and fractures. It is thought that modifying the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution profiles of bisphosphonates (i.e. rapid renal clearance and extensive bone absorption) will not only reduce their side effects, but also expand their clinical applications to extraskeletal tissues. In the present work, using zoledronic acid (Zol) and calcium as model bisphosphonate and metal molecules, respectively, we prepared DOPA (an anionic lipid)-coated spherical Zol-Ca nanocomposites (Zol-Ca@DOPA) and developed Zol-nanoparticle formulations (i.e. Zol-Ca@bi-lipid NPs) based on the nanocomposites. The influence of the inputted weight ratio of Zol-Ca@DOPA to DSPE-PEG2k on the properties (e.g. size, size distribution, loading efficiency, encapsulation efficiency, zeta potential, and polydispersity) of Zol-Ca@bi-lipid NPs was investigated, and a type of Zol-Ca@bi-lipid NPs with size around 25nm was selected for further studies. In a mouse model, the Zol-Ca@bi-lipid NPs significantly reduced the bone distribution of Zol, increased the blood circulating time of Zol, and altered the distribution of Zol in major organs, as compared to free Zol. It is expected that similar nanoparticles prepared with bisphosphonate-metal complexes can be explored to expand the applications to bisphosphonates in extraskeletal tissues.
Project description:Bisphosphonates have benefits in breast cancer and multiple myeloma patients and have been used with adoptive immunotherapy with ?? T cells expressing V?2?V?2 TCRs. Although treatment with ?? T cells is safe, it has shown limited efficacy. Present bisphosphonates stimulate ?? T cells but were designed to inhibit bone resorption rather than treating cancer and have limited oral absorption, tumor cell entry, and cause bone side effects. The development of phosphate and phosphonate nucleotide prodrugs has led to important drugs for hepatitis C and HIV. Using a similar approach, we synthesized bisphosphonate prodrugs and found that they efficiently limit tumor cell growth. Pivoxil bisphosphonate esters enter cells where esterases convert them to their active acids. The bisphosphonate esters stimulated ?? T cells to secrete TNF-? in response to a variety of tumor cells more efficiently than their corresponding acids. The most active compound, tetrakis-pivaloyloxymethyl 2-(thiazole-2-ylamino)ethylidene-1,1- bisphosphonate (7), specifically expanded ?? T cells and stimulated them to secrete interferon-? and kill tumor cells. In preclinical studies, combination therapy with compound 7 and ?? T cells prolonged survival of mice inoculated with either human bladder cancer or fibrosarcoma cells. Therefore, bisphosphonate prodrugs could enhance the effectiveness of adoptive cancer immunotherapy with ?? T cells.
Project description:Potent antiresorptive drugs (bisphosphonate and denosumab) are often used to protect bone health in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. In addition, clinical trials have shown that these drugs increase disease-free survival, though the mechanism of adjuvant benefit is largely unknown. Here we review the bone health and adjuvant data for both classes of antiresorptive drugs and highlight differences in their pharmacology. Inhibition of bone resorption is vitally important to protect against osteoporotic fractures, and may also contribute to adjuvant survival benefits by making the bone microenvironment less amenable to breast cancer metastasis. After a course of therapy, stoppage of bisphosphonates yields a persistent antiresorptive effect, whereas discontinuation of denosumab causes a rebound increase in bone resorption markers and a loss of bone mineral density to baseline levels. Whether the potential adjuvant benefits of denosumab are also rapidly lost after drug discontinuation deserves further investigation.