Applicability of the pittsburgh staging system for advanced cutaneous malignancy of the temporal bone.
ABSTRACT: The objectives are to evaluate the applicability of the Pittsburgh staging system (PSS) (designed for primary temporal bone malignancies) to advanced periauricular cutaneous malignancies with temporal bone involvement and to study treatment outcomes and prognostic factors predicting recurrence-free survival. Ten patients with advanced periauricular cutaneous malignancy with temporal bone involvement were identified. Patients with primary temporal bone or parotid gland malignancies were excluded. All patients were clinically T4 at presentation by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system. Using Pittsburgh staging, six were T1 (stage I) and four were T4 (stage III). The mean follow-up was 13.6 months (3 to 24 months). Patients with basal cell carcinoma were managed with wide local excision and lateral temporal bone resection (WLE/LTBR) without adjuvant therapy. Two of three (66%) are alive and free of disease; one patient died of other causes. Treatment for squamous cell carcinoma patients involved multimodality therapy. Kaplan-Meier survival curves show a worse prognosis in terms of disease-specific survival for patients with higher-staged PSS tumors. This did not reach statistical significance. The PSS may provide additional prognostic information on advanced cutaneous malignancies of the temporal bone over the more widely used AJCC staging system. However, further prospective multicenter studies with larger sample size are required to validate our findings. Basal cell carcinoma was well controlled with WLE/LTBR alone without adjuvant therapy, whereas squamous cell carcinoma required multimodality therapy: WLE/LTBR and postoperative radiation with or without chemotherapy.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Patients with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are at risk of developing gastric adenocarcinoma. Their diagnosis and management currently rely on histopathological guidance after random endoscopic biopsy sampling (Sydney biopsy strategy). This approach has significant flaws such as under-diagnosis, poor reproducibility and poor correlation between endoscopy and histology. This prospective, international multicentre study aims to establish whether endoscopy-led risk stratification accurately and reproducibly predicts CAG and IM extent and disease stage. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:Patients with CAG and/or IM on standard white light endoscopy (WLE) will be prospectively identified and invited to undergo a second endoscopy performed by an expert endoscopist using enhanced endoscopic imaging techniques with virtual chromoendoscopy. Extent of CAG/IM will be endoscopically staged with enhanced imaging and compared with standard WLE. Histopathological risk stratification through targeted biopsies will be compared with endoscopic disease staging and to random biopsy staging on WLE as a reference. At least 234 patients are required to show a 10?% difference in sensitivity and accuracy between enhanced imaging endoscopy-led staging and the current biopsy-led staging protocol of gastric atrophy with a power (beta) of 80?% and a 0.05 probability of a type I error (alpha). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The study was approved by the respective Institutional Review Boards (Netherlands: MEC-2018-078; UK: 19/LO/0089). The findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific meetings. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NTR7661; Pre-results.
Project description:Melanoma in situ (MIS) is increasing in incidence, and expert consensus opinion recommends surgical excision for therapeutic management. Currently, wide local excision (WLE) is the standard of care. However, Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is now used to treat a growing subset of individuals with MIS. During MMS, unlike WLE, the entire cutaneous surgical margin is evaluated intraoperatively for tumor cells.To assess the outcomes of patients with MIS treated with MMS compared with those treated with WLE.Retrospective review of a prospective database. The study cohort consisted of 662 patients with MIS treated with MMS or WLE per standard of care in dermatology and surgery (general surgery, otolaryngology, plastics, oculoplastics, surgical oncology) at an academic tertiary care referral center from January 1, 1978, to December 31, 2013, with follow-up through 2015.Mohs micrographic surgery or WLE.Recurrence, overall survival, and melanoma-specific survival.There were 277 patients treated with MMS (mean [SD] age, 64.0 [13.1] years; 62.1% male) and 385 treated with WLE (mean [SD] age, 58.5 [15.6] years; P?<?.001 for age; 54.8% male). Median follow-up was 8.6 (range, 0.2-37) years. Compared with WLE, MMS was used more frequently on the face (222 [80.2%] vs 141 [36.7%]) and scalp and neck (23 [8.3%] vs 26 [6.8%]; P?<?.001). The median (range) year of diagnosis was 2008 (1986-2013) for the MMS group vs 2003 (1978-2013) for the WLE group (P?<?.001). Overall recurrence rates were 5 (1.8%) in the MMS group and 22 (5.7%) in the WLE group (P?=?.07). Mean (SD) time to recurrence after MMS was 3.91 (4.4) years, and after WLE, 4.45 (2.7) years (P?=?.73). The 5-year recurrence rate was 1.1% in the MMS group and 4.1% in the WLE group (P?=?.07). For WLE-treated tumors, the surgical margin taken was greater for tumors that recurred compared with tumors that did not recur (P?=?.003). Five-year overall survival for MMS was 92% and for WLE was 94% (P?=?.28). Melanoma-specific mortality for the MMS group was 2 vs 13 patients for the WLE group, with mean (SD) survival of 6.5 (4.8) and 6.1 (0.8) years, respectively (P?=?.77).No significant differences were found in the recurrence rate, overall survival, or melanoma-specific survival of patients with MIS treated with MMS compared with WLE.
Project description:Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of neoplasms. As suggested by its name, ALK was first described as part of a translocation product in cases of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, with other genetic and cytogenetic ALK mutations subsequently coming to attention in the development of many other hematologic and solid organ malignancies. ALK has now been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of several cutaneous malignancies, including secondary cutaneous systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) and primary cutaneous ALCL, melanoma, spitzoid tumors, epithelioid fibrous histiocytoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. The characterization of ALK-positivity in these cutaneous malignancies presents exciting opportunities for utilizing ALK-targeted inhibitors in the treatment of these diseases.
Project description:This study was conducted to report outcomes and identify factors predictive of survival and recurrence in patients undergoing lateral temporal bone resection (LTBR) as part of an extended radical parotidectomy for parotid cancer. This is a retrospective cohort study which includes all patients undergoing LTBR for parotid cancer between 1994 and 2010 at two affiliated academic centers. Survival and recurrence rates were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox multivariate regression. A total of 12 patients with median follow-up duration of 30.6 months were included: 6 de novo cases and 6 patients referred after local recurrence. Actuarial locoregional control at 2 years was 73%. Most patients (11; 92%) developed disease recurrence with distant metastases the most common site of first failure (83%). Overall and disease-specific survival rates were 80% at 2 years and 22.5% at 5 years. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 67% at 2 years and 8.3% at 5 years. On multivariate analysis, surgical margin status was an independent predictor of RFS (hazard ratio = 3.85, p = 0.045). In advanced parotid cancer, LTBR with a goal of gross total resection offers good locoregional control with an acceptable complication rate. The benefits of this surgery must be balanced with the morbidity and low likelihood of long-term survival, with most patients ultimately experiencing disease recurrence and death.
Project description:Wide local excision (WLE) with a safety margin is the standard of treatment for primary head and neck cutaneous malignant melanoma (HNCMM). Studies have demonstrated inconsistency in recurrence rates following immediate versus delayed reconstruction. The objectives of this study were to assess and compare recurrence rates after WLE of HNCMM followed by immediate or delayed reconstruction in determining recurrence-free survival estimates.A consecutive, retrospective analysis of 451 patients undergoing WLE of primary HNCMM followed by reconstruction over a period of 20 years was performed. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on timing of reconstruction (immediate versus delayed). Univariate analyses were performed to assess distributions. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses were performed to estimate recurrence-free survival.Tumor specimen positive margins were comparable between immediate and delayed reconstruction groups (P = 0.129). Univariate analysis demonstrated comparable local melanoma recurrence after immediate or delayed reconstruction (41.4% versus 53.3%; P = 0.399). After adjusting for prognostic factors, multivariate analysis also failed to demonstrate an association between reconstruction timing and local recurrence-free survival (P = 0.167).In this long-term study, we were not able to demonstrate an association between reconstruction timing and local recurrence-free survival after excision WLE of HNCMM, rendering immediate reconstruction a reliable approach. In addition, the presence of ulceration and a positive sentinel lymph node were positively associated with the risk of recurrence.
Project description:Biomarkers are important tools in clinical diagnosis and prognostic classification of various cutaneous malignancies. Besides clinical and histopathological aspects (e.g. anatomic site and type of the primary tumour, tumour size and invasion depth, ulceration, vascular invasion), an increasing variety of molecular markers have been identified, providing the possibility of a more detailed diagnostic and prognostic subgrouping of tumour entities, up to even changing existing classification systems. Recently published gene expression or proteomic profiling data relate to new marker molecules involved in skin cancer pathogenesis, which may, after validation by suitable studies, represent future prognostic or predictive biomarkers in cutaneous malignancies. We, here, give an overview on currently known serologic and newer immunohistochemical biomarker molecules in the most common cutaneous malignancies, malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous lymphoma, particularly emphasizing their prognostic and predictive significance.
Project description:Most cancer DNA sequencing studies have prioritized recurrent non-synonymous coding mutations in order to identify novel cancer-related mutations. Although attention is increasingly being paid to mutations in non-coding regions, standard approaches to identifying significant mutations may not be appropriate and there has been limited analysis of mutational clusters in functionally annotated non-coding regions. We sought to identify clustered somatic mutations (hotspot regions across samples) in functionally annotated regions in melanoma and other cutaneous malignancies (cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and Merkel cell carcinoma). Sliding window analyses revealed numerous recurrent clustered hotspot mutations in proximal promoters, with some specific clusters present in up to 25% of cases. Mutations in melanoma were clustered within ETS and Sp1 transcription factor binding motifs, had a UV signature and were identified in other cutaneous malignancies. Clinicopathologic correlation and mutation analysis support a causal role for chronic UV irradiation generating somatic mutations in transcription factor binding motifs of proximal promoters.
Project description:Cancers that arise in the head and neck region are comprised of a heterogeneous group of malignancies that include carcinogen- and human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven mucosal squamous cell carcinoma as well as skin cancers such as cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma. These malignancies develop in critical areas for eating, talking, and breathing and are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality despite advances in treatment. Understanding of advances in the management of these various cancers is important for all multidisciplinary providers who care for patients across the cancer care continuum. Additionally, the recent Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has necessitated adaptations to head and neck cancer care to accommodate the mitigation of COVID-19 risk and ensure timely treatment. This review explores advances in diagnostic criteria, prognostic factors, and management for subsites including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and the various forms of skin cancer (basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, and melanoma). Then, this review summarizes emerging developments in immunotherapy, radiation therapy, cancer survivorship, and the delivery of care during the COVID-19 era.
Project description:Keloids are caused by excessive scar formation that leads to scar growth beyond the initial scar boundaries. Keloid formation and progression is promoted by mechanical stress such as skin stretch force. Consequently, keloids rarely occur in paralyzed areas and areas with little skin tension, such as the periauricular region. Therefore, periauricular incision is commonly performed for face lifts. We report a rare case of keloids that arose from face-lift scars in a patient with bilateral facial nerve paralysis. A 51-year-old Japanese man presented with abnormal proliferative skin masses in bilateral periauricular scars. Seventeen years before, he had a cerebral infarction that resulted in permanent bilateral facial nerve paralysis. Three years before presentation, the patient underwent face-lift surgery with periauricular incisions. We diagnosed multiple keloids. We removed the masses surgically, closed the wounds with sutures in the superficial musculoaponeurotic system layer to reduce tension on the wound edges, reconstructed the earlobes with local skin flaps, and provided 2 consecutive days of radiotherapy. The wounds/scars were managed with steroid plasters and injections. Histology confirmed that the lesions were keloids. Ten months after surgery, the lesions did not exhibit marked regrowth. The keloids appeared to be caused by the patient's helmet, worn during his 3-hour daily motorcycle rides, which placed repeated tension on the periauricular area. This rare case illustrates how physical force contributes to auricular and periauricular keloid development and progression. It also shows that when performing surgery with periauricular incisions, care should be taken to eliminate wound/scar stretching.
Project description:Lymphotoxin-mediated activation of the lymphotoxin-β receptor (LTβR) has been implicated in several physiological and pathological processes, including lymphoid organ development, T-cell maturation, and solid and hematopoietic malignancies. Its role in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) or other T-cell malignancies has remained however to be investigated. Here we show that the genes encoding lymphotoxin (LT)-α and LTβ were expressed in T-ALL patient samples, more abundantly in the TAL/LMO molecular subtype, and in the TEL-JAK2 mouse model of cortical/mature T-ALL. Surface LTα1β2 protein was detected in primary mouse T-ALL cells, but only upon phorbol ester stimulation or absence of microenvironmental LTβR interaction. Indeed, in contrast to leukemic cells collected from transplanted Ltbr–/– mice or from co-cultures with Ltbr–/– mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), those collected from Ltbr+/+ mice or from Ltbr+/+ MEF co-cultures presented no surface LT expression. Supporting the notion that LT signaling plays a role in T-ALL, inactivation of the Ltbr gene in mice resulted in a statistically significant delay in TEL-JAK2-induced leukemia onset. Expression of the Lta and Ltb genes was found to be increased at the early asymtptomatic stages of TEL-JAK2 T-ALL, when only low proportions of malignant thymocytes are present in normal sized thymus. Interestingly, young asymptomatic TEL-JAK2;Ltbr–/– mice presented significantly less leukemic thymocytes than TEL-JAK2;Ltbr+/+ mice. Together, these data indicate that early lymphotoxin expression by T-ALL cells activates LTβR signaling in thymic stromal cells, thus promoting leukemogenesis. Primary T-ALL samples were obtained at diagnosis from bone marrow and/or peripheral blood with high leukemia involvement (>85%), and enriched by density centrifugation over Ficoll-Paque (GE Healthcare). Microarray analysis were performed on samples from patients with newly diagnosed T-ALL accrued from 2000 to 2013 at Centro Infantil Boldrini, Campinas, Brazil. Thymic samples, obtained from children undergoing cardiac surgery, were gently minced in culture medium and subsequently subjected to density centrifugation.