Crystal structure of human protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in the open conformation.
ABSTRACT: SHP-1 belongs to the family of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and generally acts as a negative regulator in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Previously, the crystal structures of the tail-truncated SHP-1 and SHP-2 revealed an autoinhibitory conformation. To understand the regulatory mechanism of SHP-1, we have determined the crystal structure of the full-length SHP-1 at 3.1?Å. Although the tail was disordered in current structure, the huge conformational rearrangement of the N-SH2 domain and the incorporation of sulfate ions into the ligand-binding site of each domain indicate that the SHP-1 is in the open conformation. The N-SH2 domain in current structure is shifted away from the active site of the PTP domain to the other side of the C-SH2 domain, resulting in exposure of the active site. Meanwhile, the C-SH2 domain is twisted anticlockwise by about 110°. In addition, a set of new interactions between two SH2 domains and between the N-SH2 and the catalytic domains is identified, which could be responsible for the stabilization of SHP-1 in the open conformation. Based on the structural comparison, a model for the activation of SHP-1 is proposed.
Project description:Receptor-stimulated generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulates signal transduction, although the mechanism(s) is unclear. One potential basis is the reversible oxidation of the active site cysteine of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Here, we show that activation of the antigen receptor of T cells (TCR), which induces production of ROS, induces transient inactivation of the SH2 domain-containing PTP, SHP-2, but not the homologous SHP-1. SHP-2 is recruited to the LAT-Gads-SLP-76 complex and directly regulates the phosphorylation of key signaling proteins Vav1 and ADAP. Furthermore, the association of ADAP with the adapter SLP-76 is regulated by SHP-2 in a redox-dependent manner. The data indicate that TCR-mediated ROS generation leads to SHP-2 oxidation, which promotes T-cell adhesion through effects on an SLP-76-dependent signaling pathway to integrin activation.
Project description:We determined the substrate specificities of the protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) PTP1B, RPTP?, SHP-1, and SHP-2 by on-bead screening of combinatorial peptide libraries and solution-phase kinetic analysis of individually synthesized phosphotyrosyl (pY) peptides. These PTPs exhibit different levels of sequence specificity and catalytic efficiency. The catalytic domain of RPTP? has very weak sequence specificity and is approximately 2 orders of magnitude less active than the other three PTPs. The PTP1B catalytic domain has modest preference for acidic residues on both sides of pY, is highly active toward multiply phosphorylated peptides, but disfavors basic residues at any position, a Gly at the pY-1 position, or a Pro at the pY+1 position. By contrast, SHP-1 and SHP-2 share similar but much narrower substrate specificities, with a strong preference for acidic and aromatic hydrophobic amino acids on both sides of the pY residue. An efficient SHP-1/2 substrate generally contains two or more acidic residues on the N-terminal side and one or more acidic residues on the C-terminal side of pY but no basic residues. Subtle differences exist between SHP-1 and SHP-2 in that SHP-1 has a stronger preference for acidic residues at the pY-1 and pY+1 positions and the two SHPs prefer acidic residues at different positions N-terminal to pY. A survey of the known protein substrates of PTP1B, SHP-1, and SHP-2 shows an excellent agreement between the in vivo dephosphorylation pattern and the in vitro specificity profiles derived from library screening. These results suggest that different PTPs have distinct sequence specificity profiles and the intrinsic activity/specificity of the PTP domain is an important determinant of the enzyme's in vivo substrate specificity.
Project description:Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) inhibits T cell responses. This function relies on interaction with SHP-2. PD-1 has one immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) at Y223 and one immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM) at Y248. Only ITSM-Y248 is indispensable for PD-1-mediated inhibitory function but how SHP-2 enzymatic activation is mechanistically regulated by one PD-1 phosphotyrosine remains a puzzle. We found that after PD-1 phosphorylation, SHP-2 can bridge phosphorylated ITSM-Y248 residues on two PD-1 molecules via its amino terminal (N)-SH2 and carboxyterminal (C)-SH2 domains forming a PD-1: PD-1 dimer in live cells. The biophysical ability of SHP-2 to interact with two ITSM-pY248 residues was documented by isothermal titration calorimetry. SHP-2 interaction with two ITSM-pY248 phosphopeptides induced robust enzymatic activation. Our results unravel a mechanism of PD-1: SHP-2 interaction that depends only on ITSM-Y248 and explain how a single docking site within the PD-1 cytoplasmic tail can activate SHP-2 and PD-1-mediated inhibitory function.
Project description:AIMS: The collagen-stimulated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulates signal transduction in platelets, although the mechanism is unclear. The major targets of ROS include protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). ROS-mediated oxidation of the active cysteine site in PTPs abrogates the PTP catalytic activity. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether collagen-induced ROS generation leads to PTP oxidation, which promotes platelet stimulation. RESULTS: SH2 domain-containing PTP-2 (SHP-2) is oxidized in platelets by ROS produced upon collagen stimulation. The oxidative inactivation of SHP-2 leads to the enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), Vav1, and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) in the linker for the activation of T cells signaling complex, which promotes the tyrosine phosphorylation-mediated activation of phospholipase C?2 (PLC?2). Moreover, we found that, relative to wild-type platelets, platelets derived from glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1)/catalase double-deficient mice showed enhanced cellular ROS levels, oxidative inactivation of SHP-2, and tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk, Vav1, Btk, and PLC?2 in response to collagen, which subsequently led to increased intracellular calcium levels, degranulation, and integrin ?IIb?3 activation. Consistent with these findings, GPx1/catalase double-deficiency accelerated the thrombotic response in FeCl3-injured carotid arteries. INNOVATION: The present study is the first to demonstrate that SHP-2 is targeted by ROS produced in collagen-stimulated platelets and suggests that a novel mechanism for the regulation of platelet activation by ROS is due to oxidative inactivation of SHP-2. CONCLUSION: We conclude that collagen-induced ROS production leads to SHP-2 oxidation, which promotes platelet activation by upregulating tyrosine phosphorylation-based signal transduction.
Project description:The N-terminal SH2 domain (N-SH2) of the non-receptor tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 is involved both in localization of SHP-2 by recognition of phosphotyrosine (pY) peptides and self-inhibition of SHP-2 phosphatase activity through the formation of a protein-protein interface with the phosphatase domain. Mutations that disrupt this interface break the coupling between pY-peptide binding cleft conformation and self-inhibition, thereby increasing both SHP-2 phosphatase activity and pY-peptide binding affinity, and are associated with the congenital condition Noonan syndrome and various pediatric leukemias. To better characterize the molecular process involved in N-SH2 pY-dependent binding, we have applied explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations to study the closed-to-open transition of the N-SH2 pY-peptide binding cleft.The existence of stable conformations in the left-handed helical and the extended regions of Tyr66 phi/psi space prevent rapid interconversion of the backbone and create a conformational switch such that Tyr66 in a left-handed helical backbone conformation results in an open cleft and in an extended backbone conformation results in a closed cleft. The stable conformations arise from deep, well-localized free-energy minima in the left-handed helical and extended regions of the Tyr66 phi/psi map. Changing the Tyr66 backbone conformation from extended to left-handed helical induces a closed-to-open transition in the cleft, and the reverse change in backbone conformation induces the reverse, open-to-closed transition. In the open-cleft state, weak solvent-exposed interactions involving the sidechains of Tyr66, Asp40, Lys55, and Gln57 serve to anchor the Tyr66 sidechain to the surface of the protein and away from the binding cleft entrance, thereby facilitating pY-peptide access to the binding cleft.The simulations point to a regulatory role for Tyr66 and surrounding residues in SHP-2 function: mutations at Tyr66, Asp40, Lys55, and/or Gln57 are predicted to break the switching mechanism and negatively impact pY-peptide binding. This in turn would interfere with cellular localization and the coupled SHP-2 phosphatase activity. The structurally well-defined binding cleft conformations resulting from the switch-like transition suggest the possibility of applying structure-based methods to develop inhibitors of N-SH2 pY-peptide binding to serve as research tools for signal transduction and precursors to therapeutics for SHP-2-related diseases.
Project description:Regorafenib is an inhibitor of multiple protein kinases which exerts antitumor and antimetastatic activities in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). SH2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) is reported to have tumor suppressive potential because it acts as a negative regulator of p-STAT3(Tyr705) signaling. However, little is known about the mechanism regarding regorafenib affects SHP-1 tyrosine phosphatase activity and leads to apoptosis and tumor suppression in CRC. Here, we found that regorafenib triggered apoptotic cell death and significantly enhanced SHP-1 activity, which dramatically decreased the phosphorylated form of STAT3 at Tyr705 (p-STAT3(Tyr705)). Importantly, regorafenib augmented SHP-1 activity by direct disruption of the association between N-SH2 and catalytic PTP domain of SHP-1. Deletion of the N-SH2 domain (dN1) or point mutation (D61A) of SHP-1 blocked the effect of regorafenib-induced SHP-1 activity, growth inhibition and a decrease of p-STAT3(Tyr705) expression, suggesting that regorafenib triggers a conformational change in SHP-1 by relieving its autoinhibition. In vivo assay showed that regorafenib significantly inhibited xenograft growth and decreased p-STAT3(Tyr705) expression but induced higher SHP-1 activity. Collectively, regorafenib is a novel SHP-1 agonist exerts superior anti-tumor effects by enhancing SHP-1 activity that directly targets p-STAT3(Tyr705). Small molecule-enhancement of SHP-1 activity may be a promising therapeutic approach for CRC treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Stem cell factor (SCF) receptor c-Kit is recognized as a key signaling molecule, which transduces signals for the proliferation, differentiation and survival of stem cells. Binding of SCF to its receptor triggers transactivation, leading to the recruitment of kinases and phosphatases to the docking platforms of c-Kit catalytic domain. Tyrosine phosphatase-1 (Shp-1) deactivates/attenuates 'Kit' kinase activity. Whereas, Asp816Val mutation in the Kit activation loop transforms kinase domain to a constitutively activated state (switch off-to-on state), in a ligand-independent manner. This phenomenon completely abrogates negative regulation of Shp-1. To predict the possible molecular basis of interaction between c-Kit and Shp-1, we have performed an in silico protein-protein docking study between crystal structure of activated c-Kit (phosphorylated c-Kit) and full length crystal structure of Shp-2, a close structural counterpart of Shp-1. FINDINGS: Study revealed a stretch of conserved amino acids (Lys818 to Ser821) in the Kit activation domain, which makes decisive H-bonds with N-sh2 and phosphotyrosine binding pocket residues of the phosphatase. These H-bonds may impose an inhibitory steric hindrance to the catalytic domain of c-Kit, there by blocking further interaction of the activation loop molecules with incoming kinases. We have also predicted a phosphotyrosine binding pocket in SH2 domains of Shp-1, which is found to be predominantly closer to a catalytic groove like structure in c-Kit kinase domain. CONCLUSIONS: This study predicts that crucial hydrogen bonding between N-sh2 domain of Shp-1 and Kit activation loop can modulate the negative regulation of c-Kit kinase by Shp-1. Thus, this finding is expected to play a significant role in designing suitable gain-of-function c-Kit mutants for inducing conditional proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells.
Project description:KIR3DL1 is an inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) that negatively regulates natural killer cell cytotoxicity. The KIR3DL1 cytoplasmic region (3DL1-cyto) is disordered and can be dissected into three segments: (I) H340-V351; (II) M352-D371; and (III) P372-P423. NMR studies indicate that segment II can dynamically adopt a loop-like conformation, and segments I and III can form dynamic helices that may mediate binding to membranes, particularly in the region around the N-terminal (N) immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM), consistent with its role in signaling. Furthermore, individual SH2 domains of SHP-2 strongly engage with the unphosphorylated N-ITIM of 3DL1-cyto, while binding of the tandem SHP-2 SH2 domains to the bis-phosphorylated ITIMs results in more extensive conformational changes in segments I and III. The findings enhance our understanding of KIR function and how ITIMs in a target receptor operate in concert to engage the tandem SH2 domains of SHP-2.
Project description:Sorafenib is a multiple kinase inhibitor which targets Raf kinases, VEGFR, and PDGFR and is approved for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Previously, we found that p-STAT3 is a major target of SC-43, a sorafenib derivative. In this study, we report that SC-43-induced apoptosis in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) via a novel mechanism. Three CCA cell lines (HuCCT-1, KKU-100 and CGCCA) were treated with SC-43 to determine their sensitivity to SC-43-induced cell death and apoptosis. We found that SC-43 activated SH2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) activity, leading to p-STAT3 and downstream cyclin B1 and Cdc2 downregulation, which induced G2-M arrest and apoptotic cell death. Importantly, SC-43 augmented SHP-1 activity by direct binding to N-SH2 and relief of its autoinhibition. Deletion of the N-SH2 domain (dN1) or point mutation (D61A) of SHP-1 counteracted the effect of SC-43-induced SHP-1 phosphatase activation and antiproliferation ability in CCA cells. In vivo assay revealed that SC-43 exhibited xenograft tumor growth inhibition, p-STAT3 reduction and SHP-1 activity elevation. In conclusion, SC-43 induced apoptosis in CCA cells through the SHP-1/STAT3 signaling pathway.
Project description:Natural killer (NK) cells are a powerful weapon against viral infections and tumor growth. Although the actin-myosin (actomyosin) cytoskeleton is crucial for a variety of cellular processes, the role of mechanotransduction, the conversion of actomyosin mechanical forces into signaling cascades, was never explored in NK cells. Here, we demonstrate that actomyosin retrograde flow (ARF) controls the immune response of primary human NK cells through a novel interaction between β-actin and the SH2-domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1), converting its conformation state, and thereby regulating NK cell cytotoxicity. Our results identify ARF as a master regulator of the NK cell immune response. Since actin dynamics occur in multiple cellular processes, this mechanism might also regulate the activity of SHP-1 in additional cellular systems.