Broad-spectrum inhibition of HIV-1 by a monoclonal antibody directed against a gp120-induced epitope of CD4.
ABSTRACT: To penetrate susceptible cells, HIV-1 sequentially interacts with two highly conserved cellular receptors, CD4 and a chemokine receptor like CCR5 or CXCR4. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against such receptors are currently under clinical investigation as potential preventive or therapeutic agents. We immunized Balb/c mice with molecular complexes of the native, trimeric HIV-1 envelope (Env) bound to a soluble form of the human CD4 receptor. Sera from immunized mice were found to contain gp120-CD4 complex-enhanced antibodies and showed broad-spectrum HIV-1-inhibitory activity. A proportion of MAbs derived from these mice preferentially recognized complex-enhanced epitopes. In particular, a CD4-specific MAb designated DB81 (IgG1?) was found to preferentially bind to a complex-enhanced epitope on the D2 domain of human CD4. MAb DB81 also recognized chimpanzee CD4, but not baboon or macaque CD4, which exhibit sequence divergence in the D2 domain. Functionally, MAb DB81 displayed broad HIV-1-inhibitory activity, but it did not exert suppressive effects on T-cell activation in vitro. The variable regions of the heavy and light chains of MAb DB81 were sequenced. Due to its broad-spectrum anti-HIV-1 activity and lack of immunosuppressive effects, a humanized derivative of MAb DB81 could provide a useful complement to current preventive or therapeutic strategies against HIV-1.
Project description:Protein vaccines for T-cell immunity are not being prioritized because of poor immunogenicity. To overcome this hurdle, proteins are being targeted to maturing dendritic cells (DCs) within monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to DC receptors. To extend the concept to humans, we immunized human immunoglobulin-expressing mice with human DEC205 (hDEC205) extracellular domain. 3D6 and 3G9 mAbs were selected for high-affinity binding to hDEC205. In addition, CD11c promoter hDEC205 transgenic mice were generated, and 3G9 was selectively targeted to DCs in these animals. When mAb heavy chain was engineered to express HIV Gag p24, the fusion mAb induced interferon-γ- and interleukin-2-producing CD4(+) T cells in hDEC205 transgenic mice, if polynocinic polycytidylic acid was coadministered as an adjuvant. The T-cell response was broad, recognizing at least 3 Gag peptides, and high titers of anti-human immunoglobulin G antibody were made. Anti-hDEC205 also improved the cross-presentation of Gag to primed CD8(+) T cells from HIV-infected individuals. In all tests, 3D6 and 3G9 targeting greatly enhanced immunization relative to nonbinding control mAb. These results provide preclinical evidence that in vivo hDEC205 targeting increases the efficiency with which proteins elicit specific immunity, setting the stage for proof-of-concept studies of these new protein vaccines in human subjects.
Project description:Elicitation of broadly neutralizing Ab (bNAb) responses to the conserved elements of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env), including the primary receptor CD4 binding site (CD4bs), is a major focus of vaccine development yet to be accomplished. However, a large number of CD4bs-directed bNAbs have been isolated from HIV-1-infected individuals. Comparison of the routes of binding used by the CD4bs-directed bNAbs from patients and the vaccine-elicited CD4bs-directed mAbs indicates that the latter fail to neutralize primary virus isolates because they approach the Env spike with a vertical angle and contact the specific surface residues occluded in the native spike, including the bridging sheet on gp120. To preferentially expose the CD4bs and direct the immune response away from the bridging sheet, resulting in an altered angle of approach, we engineered an immunogen consisting of gp120 core in complex with the prototypic CD4-induced Ab, 17b. This mAb directly contacts the bridging sheet but not the CD4bs. The complex was further stabilized by chemical crosslinking to prevent dissociation. Rabbits immunized with the crosslinked complex displayed earlier affinity maturation, achieving tier 1 virus neutralization compared with animals immunized with gp120 core alone. Immunization with the crosslinked complex induced transient Ab responses with binding specificity similar to the CD4bs-directed bNAbs. mAbs derived from complex-immunized rabbits displayed footprints on gp120 more distal from the bridging sheet as compared with previous vaccine-elicited CD4bs Abs, indicating that Env-Ab complexes effectively dampen immune responses to undesired immunodominant bridging sheet determinants.
Project description:A major priority in HIV vaccine research is the development of an immunogen to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Monoclonal antibody (mAb) b12 is one of now several broadly neutralizing mAbs that bind epitopes overlapping the CD4-binding site (CD4bs) on HIV-1 gp120 and that serve as templates to engineer effective immunogens. We are exploring a strategy whereby extra glycans are incorporated onto gp120 to occlude the epitopes of non-neutralizing mAbs while maintaining exposure of the b12 site. Immunizing with these so-called hyperglycosylated gp120s is hypothesized to preferentially elicit b12-like NAbs. Here, the effects of two adjuvants, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and Quil A, on eliciting b12-like responses when formulated with a new hyperglycosylated mutant, ?N2mCHO(Q105N), is presented. Sera from ?N2mCHO(Q105N)_MPL immunized animals bound the homologous antigen ?N2mCHO(Q105N) with greater preference than sera from ?N2mCHO(Q105N)_QuilA immunized animals, demonstrating the modulation of antibody fine specificity by these two adjuvants. We also found that sera from ?N2mCHO(Q105N)_QuilA immunized animals bound best to a resurfaced HIV gp120 core protein on which non-CD4bs epitopes are substituted with non-HIV residues, suggesting that these sera contain a relatively larger fraction of CD4bs-specific antibodies. Consistent with these data, inhibition assays revealed epitope overlap with the binding sites of the CD4bs-specific antibodies b12, b13 and VRC03. Unexpectedly, these sera did not exhibit significant neutralizing activity against a set of HIV-1 primary strains. Our results show that although formulating mutant ?N2mCHO(Q105N) with Quil A promotes the elicitation of CD4bs-directed antibodies relative to wild-type gp120, tweaking of the immunization regimen is needed to yield robust, CD4bs-focused NAbs.
Project description:Neutralizing antibody protection against HIV-1 may require broad and potent antibodies targeting multiple epitopes. We tested 7 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against 45 viruses of diverse subtypes from early infection. The CD4 binding site MAb NIH45-46W was most broad and potent (91% coverage; geometric mean 50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)], 0.09 ?g/ml). Combining NIH45-46W and a V3-specific MAb, PGT128, neutralized 96% of viruses, while PGT121, another V3-specific MAb, neutralized the remainder. Thus, 2 or 3 antibody specificities may prevent infection by most HIV-1 variants.
Project description:The identification of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) able to neutralize a broad spectrum of primary HIV-1 isolates is highly important for understanding the immune response of HIV-1 infection and developing vaccines and therapeutics. In this study, we isolated a novel human mAb termed Y498 from a phage display antibody library constructed with the PBMC samples of a CRF07_BC-infected Chinese donor whose sera exhibited broadly neutralizing activity. Y498 cross-reacted with diverse Env antigens and neutralized 30% of 70 tested HIV-1 isolates. It efficiently blocked the binding of soluble CD4 to gp120 and competed with the CD4-binding site (CD4bs)-specific mAbs. By combining molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis, the epitope of Y498 was characterized to contain three antigenic sites on gp120, including the CD4 binding loop in C3, the ?23 in C4 and the ?24-?5 in C5, which overlap the binding sites of CD4 and CD4bs-directed mAbs (b12, VRC01, A16). Therefore, Y498 is a novel neutralizing human mAb targeting a conformation-dependent CD4bs-based epitope, and its isolation and characterization could provide helpful information for elucidating human immune response to HIV-1 infection and designing effective vaccines and immunotherapeutics.
Project description:The isolation of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that neutralize a broad spectrum of primary HIV-1 isolates and the characterization of the human neutralizing antibody B cell response to HIV-1 infection are important goals that are central to the design of an effective antibody-based vaccine.We immortalized IgG(+) memory B cells from individuals infected with diverse clades of HIV-1 and selected on the basis of plasma neutralization profiles that were cross-clade and relatively potent. Culture supernatants were screened using various recombinant forms of the envelope glycoproteins (Env) in multiple parallel assays. We isolated 58 mAbs that were mapped to different Env surfaces, most of which showed neutralizing activity. One mAb in particular (HJ16) specific for a novel epitope proximal to the CD4 binding site on gp120 selectively neutralized a multi-clade panel of Tier-2 HIV-1 pseudoviruses, and demonstrated reactivity that was comparable in breadth, but distinct in neutralization specificity, to that of the other CD4 binding site-specific neutralizing mAb b12. A second mAb (HGN194) bound a conserved epitope in the V3 crown and neutralized all Tier-1 and a proportion of Tier-2 pseudoviruses tested, irrespective of clade. A third mAb (HK20) with broad neutralizing activity, particularly as a Fab fragment, recognized a highly conserved epitope in the HR-1 region of gp41, but showed striking assay-dependent selectivity in its activity.This study reveals that by using appropriate screening methods, a large proportion of memory B cells can be isolated that produce mAbs with HIV-1 neutralizing activity. Three of these mAbs show unusual breadth of neutralization and therefore add to the current panel of HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies with potential for passive protection and template-based vaccine design.
Project description:Human anti-V3 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) generated from HIV-1 infected individuals display diversity in the range of their cross-neutralization that may be related to their immunogenetic background. The study of the immunoglobulin (Ig) variable region gene usage of heavy chains have shown a preferential usage of the VH5-51 gene segment which was detected in 35% of 51 human anti-V3 mAbs. In contrast, human mAbs against other envelope regions of HIV-1 (anti-Env), including the CD4-binding domain, the CD4-induced epitope, and gp41 preferentially used the VH1-69 gene segment, and none of them used the VH5-51 gene. Furthermore, the usage of the VH4 family by anti-V3 mAbs was restricted to only one gene segment, VH4-59, while the VH3 gene family was used at a significantly lower frequency by all of the analyzed anti-HIV-1 mAbs. Multivariate analysis showed that usage of VH gene segments was significantly different between anti-V3 and anti-Env mAbs, and compared to antibodies from healthy subjects. In addition, the anti-V3 mAbs preferentially used the JH3 and D2-15 gene segments. The preferential usage of selected Ig gene segments and the characteristic pattern of Ig gene usage by anti-V3 mAbs can be related to the conserved structure of the V3 region.
Project description:Broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are potentially important tools in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine design. A few rare MAbs have been intensively studied, but we still have a limited appreciation of their neutralization breadth. Using a pseudovirus assay, we evaluated MAbs from clade B-infected donors and a clade B HIV(+) plasma against 93 viruses from diverse backgrounds. Anti-gp120 MAbs exhibited greater activity against clade B than non-B viruses, whereas anti-gp41 MAbs exhibited broad interclade activity. Unexpectedly, MAb 4E10 (directed against the C terminus of the gp41 ectodomain) neutralized all 90 viruses with moderate potency. MAb 2F5 (directed against an epitope adjacent to that of 4E10) neutralized 67% of isolates, but none from clade C. Anti-gp120 MAb b12 (directed against an epitope overlapping the CD4 binding site) neutralized 50% of viruses, including some from almost every clade. 2G12 (directed against a high-mannose epitope on gp120) neutralized 41% of the viruses, but none from clades C or E. MAbs to the gp120 V3 loop, including 447-52D, neutralized a subset of clade B viruses (up to 45%) but infrequently neutralized other clades (</=7%). MAbs b6 (directed against the CD4 binding site) and X5 (directed against a CD4-induced epitope of gp120) neutralized only sensitive primary clade B viruses. The HIV(+) plasma neutralized 70% of the viruses, including some from all major clades. Further analysis revealed five neutralizing immunotypes that were somewhat associated with clades. As well as the significance for vaccine design, our data have implications for passive-immunization studies in countries where clade C viruses are common, given that only MAbs b12 and 4E10 were effective against viruses from this clade.
Project description:Targeting antigens to dendritic cells (DCs) by using hybrid monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against DC receptors is known to improve activation and support long-lasting T cell responses. In the present work, we used the mAb ?DEC205 fused to the Trypanosoma cruzi amastigote surface protein 2 (ASP-2) to identify a region of this protein recognized by specific T cells. The hybrid ?DEC-ASP2 mAb was successfully generated and preserved its ability to bind the DEC205 receptor. Immunization of BALB/c mice with the recombinant mAb in the presence of polyriboinosinic: polyribocytidylic acid (poly (I:C)) specifically enhanced the number of IFN-? producing cells and CD4+ T cell proliferation when compared to mice immunized with a mAb without receptor affinity or with the non-targeted ASP-2 protein. The strong immune response induced in mice immunized with the hybrid ?DEC-ASP2 mAb allowed us to identify an ASP-2-specific CD4+ T cell epitope recognized by the BALB/c MHCII haplotype. We conclude that targeting parasite antigens to DCs is a useful strategy to enhance T cell mediated immune responses facilitating the identification of new T-cell epitopes.
Project description:Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) administered shortly after human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection can suppress viremia and limit seeding of the viral reservoir, but lifelong treatment is required for the majority of patients. Highly potent broadly neutralizing HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) can reduce plasma viremia when administered during chronic HIV-1 infection, but the therapeutic potential of these antibodies during acute infection is unknown. We tested the ability of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein-specific broadly neutralizing MAbs to suppress acute simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) replication in rhesus macaques. Four groups of macaques were infected with SHIV-SF162P3 and received (i) the CD4-binding-site MAb VRC01; (ii) a combination of a more potent clonal relative of VRC01 (VRC07-523) and a V3 glycan-dependent MAb (PGT121); (iii) daily cART, all on day 10, just prior to expected peak plasma viremia; or (iv) no treatment. Daily cART was initiated 11 days after MAb administration and was continued for 13 weeks in all treated animals. Over a period of 11 days after a single administration, MAb treatment significantly reduced peak viremia, accelerated the decay slope, and reduced total viral replication compared to untreated controls. Proviral DNA in lymph node CD4 T cells was also diminished after treatment with the dual MAb. These data demonstrate the virological effect of potent MAbs and support future clinical trials that investigate HIV-1-neutralizing MAbs as adjunctive therapy with cART during acute HIV-1 infection.Treatment of chronic HIV-1 infection with potent broadly neutralizing HIV-1 MAbs has been shown to significantly reduce plasma viremia. However, the antiviral effect of MAb treatment during acute HIV-1 infection is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that MAbs targeting the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein both suppress acute SHIV plasma viremia and limit CD4 T cell-associated viral DNA. These findings provide support for clinical trials of MAbs as adjunctive therapy with antiretroviral therapy during acute HIV-1 infection.