Racial differences in age-related macular degeneration rates in the United States: a longitudinal analysis of a managed care network.
ABSTRACT: To compare the incidence, prevalence, and hazard of nonexudative and exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among different races throughout the United States.Retrospective longitudinal cohort study.Billing records of all encounters for 2 259 061 beneficiaries aged ?40 enrolled in a large, national US managed care network from 2001 through 2007 were reviewed and the incidence and prevalence of nonexudative and exudative AMD were determined and stratified by race. Cox regression analyses determined the hazard of nonexudative and exudative AMD for each race, with adjustment for confounders.During the study, 113 234 individuals (5.0%) were diagnosed with nonexudative and 17 181 (0.76%) with exudative AMD. After adjustment for confounders, blacks had a significantly reduced hazard of nonexudative (hazard ratio [HR]=0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71-0.79) and exudative AMD (HR=0.70, 95% CI: 0.59-0.83) at age 60 and a reduced hazard of nonexudative (HR=0.56, 95% CI: 0.52-0.60) and exudative AMD (HR=0.45, 95% CI: 0.37-0.54) at age 80 relative to whites. Similar comparisons for Latinos demonstrated an 18% reduced hazard for nonexudative AMD at age 80 (HR=0.82, 95% CI: 0.76-0.88) relative to whites. Asian Americans showed a 28% increased hazard for nonexudative AMD at age 60 (HR=1.28, 95% CI: 1.20-1.36) but a 46% decreased hazard for exudative AMD at age 80 (HR=0.54, 95% CI: 0.40-0.73).Racial minorities, including Latinos and Asian Americans, do not appear to have similar risks of developing nonexudative and exudative AMD as whites. Additional studies using other sources should be conducted to determine the generalizability of this study's findings to other groups.
Project description:To determine whether the risk for nonexudative and exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) varies for Americans of different Asian ethnicities.Claims data from a large national United States managed care network were reviewed to identify Asian Americans age 40 and older who had ? 1 eye care visits from 2001 to 2007. International Classification of Disease (ICD-9CM) billing codes were used to identify enrollees with nonexudative and exudative AMD. Incidence and prevalence rates were calculated for nonexudative and exudative AMD and were stratified by Asian ethnicity. Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the relative risk for developing nonexudative and exudative AMD for persons of different Asian ethnicities, with adjustment for sociodemographic factors and ocular and medical conditions.Of the 44,103 Asian Americans who met the inclusion criteria, 2221 (5.04%) had nonexudative AMD and 217 (0.49%) had exudative AMD. Chinese Americans (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50-1.77) and Pakistani Americans (HR, 1.97, 95% CI, 1.40-2.77) had a significantly increased risk for nonexudative AMD compared with non-Hispanic white Americans. By contrast, Japanese Americans had a 29% decreased risk for nonexudative AMD compared with non-Hispanic white Americans (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.59-0.85). There were no significant differences in risk for exudative AMD for any of the Asian ethnicities compared with white Americans.Asian Americans are the second fastest growing racial group in the United States. Eye care providers must be aware of the overall disease burden of AMD within this group and appreciate how disease rates can vary substantially among different Asian ethnicities.
Project description:To determine if statins are associated with the development or progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).A large, national insurance claims database was reviewed to identify individuals aged 60 years or older who were enrolled for ?2 years and had ?1 visits to an eye provider. Prescription claims for statins within a 24-month look-back period and outpatient lipid laboratory values were also reviewed. Cox regression analysis was used to determine whether statin use was associated with the development of nonexudative or exudative AMD or progressing from nonexudative to exudative AMD.Of the 107,007 beneficiaries eligible for the nonexudative AMD analysis, 4,647 incident cases of nonexudative AMD occurred. Seven hundred and ninety-two incident cases of exudative AMD were found among the 113,111 beneficiaries eligible for the exudative AMD analysis. Of the 10,743 beneficiaries with known nonexudative AMD eligible for the progression model, 404 progressed to exudative AMD during their time in the plan. After multivariable analysis, statin use was not associated with the development of nonexudative AMD (P > 0.05). Statin use of >12 months was associated with an increased hazard for developing exudative AMD (P < 0.005). Among those taking statins, only enrollees with the highest lipid levels had an increased hazard of developing exudative AMD (P < 0.05).In those with elevated lipid levels, >1 year of statin use was associated with an increased hazard for exudative AMD. Lipid status influences the relationship between statins and the risk of AMD. Because of a number of limitations in study design, these observations warrant further study and should not be the rationale for any changes in the use of statins to treat dyslipidemias.
Project description:Importance:Since the advent of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A), nonexudative neovascularization has been described in the fellow eyes of unilateral exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, there is limited literature describing the natural course and optimal management of these lesions. Objective:To determine the incidence of fellow eye involvement in patients presenting with unilateral typical AMD or polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and to evaluate the patterns of OCT-A changes within 6 months before the onset of exudative changes, especially focusing on nonexudative neovascularization. Design, Setting, and Participants:Data for this study were taken from a prospective, observational cohort study involving Asian patients with exudative AMD in the Asian AMD Phenotyping Study between October 2015 and March 2016. Analyses began in June 2017. Only patients who had gradable OCT-A and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) scans of the fellow eye at baseline and follow-up at least 6 months apart were included for the analysis. The contralateral eye was evaluated for presence of nonexudative neovascularization based on multimodal imaging, which included ICGA, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and OCT-A. Main Outcomes and Measures:The difference between the incidence of those with nonexudative choroidal neovascularization and those without as analyzed using log-rank test and qualitative analysis of OCT-A images. Results:We included 95 fellow eyes of 95 patients who presented with unilateral exudative AMD with a mean (SD) age of 68.6 (8.6) years. Nonexudative neovascularization was present in 18 eyes (19%) (8 [22.9%] and 10 [19.0%] fellow eyes with typical AMD and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, respectively; 8 [44.4%] on OCT-A; 5 [27.8%] on ICGA; and 5 [27.8%] on both OCT-A and ICGA). Development of exudative changes was noted in 6 fellow eyes (6.3%). Four eyes developed exudation from previously noted nonexudative neovascularization, and 2 eyes arose exudative changes from de novo. The probability of developing exudation within 6 months was significantly higher in eyes with baseline nonexudative neovascularization (0.087; 95% CI, 0.0033-0.210) compared with eyes without (0.010; 95% CI, 0.0026-0.041) (P = .008). In all eyes whose OCT-A images were available immediately before the onset of exudative changes, there was an increase in the size of network vessels compared with baseline. Conclusions and Relevance:The presence of nonexudative neovascularization may predispose to the development of exudative changes.
Project description:To examine the association of vasodilator and antihypertensive medication use with the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).Longitudinal population-based study.Persons 43 to 86 years of age living in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, from 1988 through 1990.Examinations were performed every 5 years over a 20-year period. There were 9676 total person-visits over the course of the study. Status of AMD was determined from grading retinal photographs.Incidence of AMD.The 5-year incidence of early AMD over the 20-year period was 8.4%; for late AMD, it was 1.4%; for pure geographic atrophy (GA), it was 0.6%; for exudative AMD, it was 0.9%; and for progression of AMD, it was 24.9%. While adjusting for age, gender, and other factors, using a vasodilator (hazard ratio [HR], 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-2.38), particularly oral nitroglycerin (HR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.14-2.90), was associated with an increased risk of early AMD. Using an oral ?-blocker was associated with an increased hazard of incident exudative AMD (HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.04-2.82), but not pure GA (HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.20-1.29) or progression of AMD (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.67-1.28) over the 20-year period.Use of vasodilators is associated with a 72% increase in the hazard of incidence of early AMD, and use of oral ?-blockers is associated with a 71% increase in the hazard of incident exudative AMD. If these findings are replicated, it may have implications for care of older adults because vasodilators and oral ?-blockers are drugs that are used commonly by older persons.
Project description:To assess the effect of availability of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy on mortality and hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke over a 5-year follow-up period in United States Medicare beneficiaries newly diagnosed with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 2006 compared with control groups consisting of beneficiaries (1) newly diagnosed with exudative AMD at a time when anti-VEGF therapy was not possible and (2) newly diagnosed with nonexudative AMD.Retrospective cohort study.Beneficiaries newly diagnosed with exudative and nonexudative AMD in 2000 and 2006 selected from a random longitudinal sample of Medicare 5% claims and enrollment files.Beneficiaries with a first diagnosis of exudative AMD in 2006 were the treatment group; beneficiaries newly diagnosed with exudative AMD in 2000 or nonexudative AMD in 2000 or 2006 were control groups. To deal with potential selection bias, we designed an intent-to-treat study, which controlled for nonadherence to prescribed regimens. The treatment group consisted of patients with clinically appropriate characteristics to receive anti-VEGF injections given that the therapy is available, bypassing the need to monitor whether treatment was actually received. Control groups consisted of patients with clinically appropriate characteristics but first diagnosed at a time when the therapy was unavailable (2000) and similar patients but for whom the therapy was not clinically indicated (2000, 2006). We used a Cox proportional hazard model.All-cause mortality and hospitalization for AMI and stroke during follow-up.No statistically significant changes in probabilities of death and hospitalizations for AMI and stroke within a 5-year follow-up period were identified in exudative AMD beneficiaries newly diagnosed in 2006, the beginning of widespread anti-VEGF use, compared with 2000. As an alternative to our main analysis, which excluded beneficiaries from nonexudative AMD group who received anti-VEGF therapies during follow-up, we performed a sensitivity analysis with this group of individuals reincluded (11% of beneficiaries newly diagnosed with nonexudative AMD in 2006). Results were similar.Introduction of anti-VEGF agents in 2006 for treating exudative AMD has not posed a threat of increased risk of AMI, stroke, or all-cause mortality.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and associated risk factors. DESIGN:Population-based, prospective, cohort study. PARTICIPANTS:We included 2868 participants from the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study with retinal data at baseline and 5-year follow-up. METHODS:Digital macular photographs were graded for presence of AMD. Participants completed a questionnaire and extensive clinical battery. Biomarkers were assessed. Risk factors for AMD were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:We assessed AMD, defined as early or late. RESULTS:Among 2196 participants free of AMD at baseline, 14.9% developed incident AMD. In multivariate models, incident AMD was significantly associated with age (OR per year, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.11-1.17), current smoking (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.38-3.11), former smoking (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.04-1.79), plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level (OR, 1.62 per mmol/L; 95% CI, 1.19-2.22), and body mass index (BMI; OR, 1.04 per kg/m(2); 95% CI, 1.01-1.07). Among 563 participants with early AMD at baseline, 22.7% progressed to late AMD (11.0% pure geographic atrophy [GA] and 11.7% exudative AMD). On multivariate analyses, age was significantly associated with progression to GA (OR 1.14; 95% CI, 1.07-1.21) and exudative AMD (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.14). Adjusting for age, female sex was associated with exudative AMD (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.10-3.98) and plasma HDL cholesterol with GA (OR, 2.03 per mmol/L; 95% CI, 1.02-4.05). CONCLUSIONS:By age 85, 57.4% of participants had signs of AMD. Age, smoking, plasma HDL cholesterol, BMI, and female sex are associated with AMD. Elevated HDL cholesterol is associated with GA development.
Project description:BACKGROUND Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in people aged 65 years and older in developed countries. The pathogenesis of AMD has been linked to mechanisms involving inflammation, oxidative stress, and basal laminar deposit formation between retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells and the basal membrane, caused by advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are implicated in the pathogenesis of AMD through the AGE-and receptor for AGE (RAGE) interaction, which can be altered by polymorphisms of the RAGE gene. We examined RAGE rs1800624 and rs1800625 gene polymorphisms contributing to AMD development. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study enrolled 300 patients with early AMD, 300 patients with exudative AMD, and 800 healthy controls. The genotyping was carried out using the RT-PCR method. RESULTS The analysis of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the RAGE gene showed that rs1800624 was associated with a 1.6-fold decreased risk for exudative AMD under the dominant model after adjustment for age (OR=0.616; 95% CI: 0.394-0.963; p=0.034) and each copy of allele T at rs1800624 was associated with a 1.4-fold decreased risk for exudative AMD development under the additive model after adjustment for age (OR=0.701; 95% CI: 0.510-0.962; p=0.028). Analysis revealed that the rs1800625 allele G at rs1800625 was associated with a 1.5-fold increased risk for exudative AMD after adjustment for age (OR=1.545; 95% CI: 1.003-2.379; p=0.048). These results suggested that the allele G at rs1800625 was a risk-allele for exudative AMD development. In haplotype analysis, A-G haplotype was significantly more frequently observed in exudative AMD patients compared to healthy controls (3.3% versus 1.4%, p=0.035). CONCLUSIONS We revealed a significant association between RAGE gene rs1800624 and rs1800625 polymorphisms and AMD risk. We considered T allele at rs1800624 to be protective against AMD development, while allele G at rs1800625 was considered to be a marker of poor prognosis in AMD development.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) causes considerable healthcare costs for patients and healthcare system, which are expected to grow as the population ages. The objective of this study was to assess the incremental economic burden of exudative AMD by comparing total healthcare costs between the exudative AMD group and non-AMD group to understand economic burden related to exudative AMD. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study used the National Health Insurance Service database including the entire Korean population. Exudative AMD group included individuals with at least one claim for ranibizumab and one claim using the registration code for exudative AMD (V201). Non-AMD group was defined as individuals without any claims regarding the diagnostic code of H35.3 or ranibizumab. The exudative AMD group and non-AMD group were matched using a propensity-score model. Incremental healthcare resource utilization and healthcare costs were measured during a one-year follow-up by employing econometric models: ordinary least squares (OLS) with log transformation and heteroscedastic retransformation; and generalized linear model (GLM) with a log link function and gamma distribution. RESULTS:A total of 7119 exudative AMD patients were matched to 7119 non-AMD patients. The number of outpatient visits was higher in the exudative AMD group (P-value <?0.0001), while the length of hospitalization was shorter in exudative AMD group (P-value <?0.0001). Exudative AMD patients had total costs 2.13 times (95%CI, 2.08-2.17) greater than non-AMD group using OLS, and total costs 4.06 times (95%CI, 3.82-4.31) greater than non-AMD group using GLM. Annual incremental total costs were estimated as $5519 (OLS) and $3699 (GLM). CONCLUSIONS:Exudative AMD was associated with significantly increased healthcare costs compared to the non-AMD group. Attention is needed to manage the socioeconomic burden of exudative AMD.
Project description:In the present study, we investigated the association between susceptible genetic variants to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and response to as-needed intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI) therapy for exudative AMD including both typical neovascular AMD and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) over 12-months. A total of 234 patients with exudative AMD were initially treated with 3 monthly IAI and thereafter as-needed IAI over 12 months. Seven variants of 6 genes including ARMS2 A69S (rs10490924), CFH (I62V:rs800292 and rs1329428), C2-CFB-SKIV2L(rs429608), C3 (rs2241394), CETP (rs3764261) and ADAMTS-9 (rs6795735) were genotyped for all participants using TaqMan technology. After adjusting for age, gender, baseline BCVA and AMD subtype, A (protective) allele of C2-CFB-SKIV2L rs429608 was associated with visual improvement at 12-month (P?=?0.003). Retreatment was associated with T(risk) allele of ARMS2 A69S (P?=?2.0?×?10-4; hazard ratio: 2.18:95%CI: 1.47-3.24) and C(risk) allele of CFH rs1329428 (P?=?2.0?×?10-3; hazard ratio: 1.74:95%CI: 1.16-2.59) after adjusting for the baseline confounders. The need for additional injections was also associated with T allele of ARMS2 A69S (P?=?1.0?×?10-5) and C allele of CFH rs1329428 (P?=?3.0?×?10-3) after adjusting for the baseline confounders. The variants of ARMS2 and CFH are informative for both physicians and patients to predict recurrence and to quantify the need for additional injections.
Project description:A local immune response has been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), but it is unclear if systemic immunosuppressive/immunomodulatory therapy (IMT) protects against the onset and/or progression of AMD. We performed a retrospective cohort study using a Cox proportional hazards model of two cohorts. Cohort 1 included patients with stage V chronic kidney disease (CKD) status post kidney transplantation, on at least one IMT agent, and older than 50. Cohort 2 included patients with stage IV or V CKD who had not undergone kidney transplantation, were not on IMT, and were older than 50. The main outcomes were hazard ratios of a new diagnosis of dry AMD, wet AMD, or conversion from dry to wet. There were 10,813 patients in cohort 1, and 217,081 patients in cohort 2. After controlling for sex and age, there was no significant difference in the hazard of developing a new diagnosis of dry AMD (HR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.87-1.05, p = 0.32), developing a new diagnosis of wet AMD without any prior diagnosis of dry AMD (HR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.66-1.08, p = 0.18), or converting from dry to wet AMD (HR 1.24, 95% CI 0.94-1.62, p = 0.12). For patients over 70 on mycophenolate mofetil, there was a reduced hazard of converting from dry to wet AMD (HR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.85-0.99, p = 0.02). In contrast, everolimus had an increased hazard of dry AMD (HR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.24-3.69, p < 0.01). Most systemic IMT does not affect the risk of onset or progression of AMD in patients with CKD. However, mycophenolate mofetil may confer some degree of protection against the conversion of dry AMD to wet AMD, suggesting that modulation of the immune response may prevent progression of the disease.