Is Ankyrin a genetic risk factor for psychiatric phenotypes?
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Genome wide association studies reported two single nucleotide polymorphisms in ANK3 (rs9804190 and rs10994336) as independent genetic risk factors for bipolar disorder. Another SNP in ANK3 (rs10761482) was associated with schizophrenia in a large European sample. Within the debate on common susceptibility genes for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, we tried to investigate common findings by analyzing association of ANK3 with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and unipolar depression. METHODS: We genotyped three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ANK3 (rs9804190, rs10994336, and rs10761482) in a case-control sample of German descent including 920 patients with schizophrenia, 400 with bipolar affective disorder, 220 patients with unipolar depression according to ICD 10 and 480 healthy controls. Sample was further differentiated according to Leonhard's classification featuring disease entities with specific combination of bipolar and psychotic syndromes. RESULTS: We found no association of rs9804190 and rs10994336 with bipolar disorder, unipolar depression or schizophrenia. In contrast to previous findings rs10761482 was associated with bipolar disorder (p = 0.015) but not with schizophrenia or unipolar depression. We observed no association with disease entities according to Leonhard's classification. CONCLUSION: Our results support a specific genetic contribution of ANK3 to bipolar disorder though we failed to replicate findings for schizophrenia. We cannot confirm ANK3 as a common risk factor for different diseases.
Project description:Many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified for Bipolar disorder (BD), but association between SNPs and BD can vary depending on the population tested. SNPs rs10994336 and rs9804190 in ANK3 and rs1006737 in CACNA1C have emerged as the most highly replicated SNPs significantly associated with BD. The aim of the present study was to assess the association of these SNPs with BD in the Pakistani population, which has never before been examined. A total of 120 BD and 120 control individuals from Pakistan were examined in this analysis. Genotyping results indicated that rs1006737 in CACNA1C was significantly associated with BD, while rs10994336 or rs9804190 in ANK3 was not significant when examined individually. However, risk score assessment found that the presence of two or more risk alleles was significantly associated with disease, indicating that risk alleles from ANK3 and CACNA1C may additively contribute to BD. A protein-protein interaction network was generated using STRING to probe the relationship between ANK3 and CACNA1C interactors and their associations with BD. While none of the interactors are directly linked to BD, they play a role in pathways linked to BD, including oxytocin and dopamine signaling pathways. Collectively, these results reveal a significant association of CACNA1C with BD among the Pakistani population, extending results from other ethnic groups to the Pakistani population for the first time.
Project description:Two recent reports have highlighted ANK3 as a susceptibility gene for bipolar disorder (BD). We first reported association between BD and the ANK3 marker rs9804190 in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of two independent samples (Baum et al., 2008). Subsequently, a meta-analysis of GWAS data based on samples from the US and the UK reported association with a different ANK3 marker, rs10994336 (Ferreira et al., 2008). The markers lie about 340 kb apart in the gene. Here, we test both markers in additional samples and characterize the contribution of each marker to BD risk. Our previously reported findings at rs9804190, which had been based on DNA pooling, were confirmed by individual genotyping in the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) waves 1-4 (P=0.05; odds ratio (OR)=1.24) and German (P=0.0006; OR=1.34) samples. This association was replicated in an independent US sample known as NIMH wave 5 (466 cases, 212 controls; P=0.017; OR=1.38). A random-effects meta-analysis of all three samples was significant (P=3 x 10(-6); OR=1.32), with no heterogeneity. Individual genotyping of rs10994336 revealed a significant association in the German sample (P=0.0001; OR=1.70), and similar ORs in the NIMH 1-4 and NIMH 5 samples that were not significant at the P<0.05 level. Meta-analysis of all three samples supported an association with rs10994336 (P=1.7 x 10(-5); OR=1.54), again with no heterogeneity. There was little linkage disequilibrium between the two markers. Further analysis suggested that each marker contributed independently to BD, with no significant marker x marker interaction. Our findings strongly support ANK3 as a BD susceptibility gene and suggest true allelic heterogeneity.
Project description:The ankyrin 3 gene (ANK3) produces the ankyrin G protein that plays an integral role in regulating neuronal activity. Previous studies have linked ANK3 to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. A recent mouse study suggests that ANK3 may regulate behavioral disinhibition and stress reactivity. This led us to hypothesize that ANK3 might also be associated with stress-related psychopathology such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as disorders of the externalizing spectrum such as antisocial personality disorder and substance-related disorders that are etiologically linked to impulsivity and temperamental disinhibition.We examined the possibility of association between ANK3 SNPs and both PTSD and externalizing (defined by a factor score representing a composite of adult antisociality and substance abuse) in a cohort of white non-Hispanic combat veterans and their intimate partners (n=554). Initially, we focused on rs9804190-a SNP previously reported to be associated with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and ankyrin G expression in brain. Then we examined 358 additional ANK3 SNPs utilizing a multiple-testing correction.rs9804190 was associated with both externalizing and PTSD (p=0.028 and p=0.042 respectively). Analysis of other ANK3 SNPs identified several that were more strongly associated with either trait. The most significant association with externalizing was observed at rs1049862 (p=0.00040, pcorrected=0.60). The most significant association with PTSD (p=0.00060, pcorrected=0.045) was found with three SNPs in complete linkage disequilibrium (LD)-rs28932171, rs11599164, and rs17208576.These findings support a role of ANK3 in risk of stress-related and externalizing disorders, beyond its previous associations with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.
Project description:Schizophrenia is a chronic, severely debilitating mental disorder. Many studies have suggested that genetic factors play an important role in the onset and development of schizophrenia. In our study, we conducted a case-control study in a northern Chinese Han population of 499 schizophrenia patients and 500 controls to investigate the effect of variant genotypes of 13 SNPs in ANK3 on schizophrenia risk. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using the chi-squared test, genetic model analysis, and haplotype analysis. Four ANK3 SNPs were associated with schizophrenia risk. The minor allele of rs958852 in ANK3 was associated with a 0.75-fold reduction in schizophrenia risk in an allelic model. In the genetic model, rs958852 was associated with a reduced schizophrenia risk, and rs10994336, rs10994338 and rs4948418 were associated with an increased schizophrenia risk (rs10994336, OR = 2.00, 95%CI: 1.01-3.94, p = 0.047; rs10994338, OR = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.01-3.93, p = 0.047; rs4948418, OR = 2.00, 95%CI: 1.01-3.94, p = 0.047). In addition, haplotype "TTC" of ANK3 was associated with a 0.73-fold reduced schizophrenia risk (95%CI: 0.54-0.99; p = 0.044). To our knowledge, this is the first to report of an association between ANK3 rs10994336, rs10994338, rs4948418 and rs958852 and schizophrenia risk in a northern Chinese Han population.
Project description:To identify susceptibility loci for bipolar disorder, we tested 1.8 million variants in 4,387 cases and 6,209 controls and identified a region of strong association (rs10994336, P = 9.1 x 10(-9)) in ANK3 (ankyrin G). We also found further support for the previously reported CACNA1C (alpha 1C subunit of the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel; combined P = 7.0 x 10(-8), rs1006737). Our results suggest that ion channelopathies may be involved in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in cognition have been reported in patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD) and their first degree relatives, suggesting that susceptibility genes for BD may impact on cognitive processes. Recent genome-wide genetic studies have reported a strong association with BD in a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs10994336) within ANK3, which codes for Ankyrin 3. This protein is involved in facilitating the propagation of action potentials by regulating the assembly of sodium gated ion channels. Since ANK3 influences the efficiency of transmission of neuronal impulses, allelic variation in this gene may have widespread cognitive effects. Preclinical data suggest that this may principally apply to sequential signal detection, a core process of sustained attention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred and eighty-nine individuals of white British descent were genotyped for the ANK3 rs10994336 polymorphism and received diagnostic interviews and comprehensive neurocognitive assessment of their general intellectual ability, memory, decision making, response inhibition and sustained attention. Participants comprised euthymic BD patients (n =?47), their unaffected first-degree relatives (n = 75) and healthy controls (n = 67). The risk allele T was associated with reduced sensitivity in target detection (p = 0.0004) and increased errors of commission (p = 0.0018) during sustained attention regardless of diagnosis. We found no effect of the ANK3 genotype on general intellectual ability, memory, decision making and response inhibition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that allelic variation in ANK3 impacts cognitive processes associated with signal detection and this mechanism may relate to risk for BD. However, our results require independent replication and confirmation that ANK3 (rs10994336) is a direct functional variant.
Project description:Independent genome-wide association studies have implicated a common single nucleotide polymorphism within the ANK3 gene (rs10994336) in bipolar disorder (BD) susceptibility, thus establishing rs10994336 marker as a strong candidate predisposing genetic factor for BD. Furthermore, recent findings demonstrate that this variant impacts on cognitive functioning in BD patients, their unaffected relatives, and healthy controls by influencing sustained attention. Here, we aimed to replicate this finding in a large population-based sample of healthy young adults (n=1808). Sustained attention was evaluated using the Continuous Performance Test as in the original study and working memory was assessed with the n-back task. Individuals carrying the BD risk T-allele showed significantly reduced sensitivity in target detection, increased errors of commission, and atypical response latency variability. In addition, we confirmed the lack of an association between the rs10994336 variant and working memory, as well as general intellectual ability, suggesting a specific effect on the Continuous Performance Test performance.
Project description:Ankyrin-3 (ANK3) is one of the few genes that have been consistently identified as associated with bipolar disorder by multiple genome-wide association studies. However, the exact molecular basis of the association remains unknown. A rare loss-of-function splice-site SNP (rs41283526*G) in a minor isoform of ANK3 (incorporating exon ENSE00001786716) was recently identified as protective of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. This suggests that an elevated expression of this isoform may be involved in the etiology of the disorders. In this study, we used novel approaches and data sets to test this hypothesis. First, we strengthen the statistical evidence supporting the allelic association by replicating the protective effect of the minor allele of rs41283526 in three additional large independent samples (meta-analysis p-values: 6.8E-05 for bipolar disorder and 8.2E-04 for schizophrenia). Second, we confirm the hypothesis that both bipolar and schizophrenia patients have a significantly higher expression of this isoform than controls (p-values: 3.3E-05 for schizophrenia and 9.8E-04 for bipolar type I). Third, we determine the transcription start site for this minor isoform by Pacific Biosciences sequencing of full-length cDNA and show that it is primarily expressed in the corpus callosum. Finally, we combine genotype and expression data from a large Norwegian sample of psychiatric patients and controls, and show that the risk alleles in ANK3 identified by bipolar disorder GWAS are located near the transcription start site of this isoform and are significantly associated with its elevated expression. Together, these results point to the likely molecular mechanism underlying ANK3´s association with bipolar disorder.
Project description:The single-nucleotide polymorphism rs9804190 in the Ankyrin G (ANK3) gene has been reported in genome-wide association studies to be associated with bipolar disorder (BD). However, the neural system effects of rs9804190 in BD are not known. We investigated associations between rs9804190 and gray and white matter (GM and WM, respectively) structure within a frontotemporal neural system implicated in BD. A total of 187 adolescent and adult European Americans were studied: a group homozygous for the C allele (52 individuals with BD and 56 controls) and a T-carrier group, carrying the high-risk T allele (38 BD and 41 controls). Subjects participated in high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scanning. Frontotemporal region of interest (ROI) and whole-brain exploratory analyses were conducted. DTI ROI-based analysis revealed a significant diagnosis by genotype interaction within the uncinate fasciculus (P?0.05), with BD subjects carrying the T (risk) allele showing decreased fractional anisotropy compared with other subgroups, independent of age. Genotype effects were not observed in frontotemporal GM volume. These findings support effects of rs9804190 on frontotemporal WM in adolescents and adults with BD and suggest a mechanism contributing to WM pathology in BD.
Project description:We have performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of schizophrenia in a Norwegian discovery sample of 201 cases and 305 controls (TOP study) with a focused replication analysis in a larger European sample of 2663 cases and 13,780 control subjects (SGENE-plus study). Firstly, the discovery sample was genotyped with Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 and 572,888 markers were tested for schizophrenia association. No SNPs in the discovery sample attained genome-wide significance (P<8.7 x 10(-8)). Secondly, based on the GWAS data, we selected 1000 markers with the lowest P values in the discovery TOP sample, and tested these (or HapMap-based surrogates) for association in the replication sample. Sixteen loci were associated with schizophrenia (nominal P value<0.05 and concurring OR) in the replication sample. As a next step, we performed a combined analysis of the findings from these two studies, and the strongest evidence for association with schizophrenia was provided for markers rs7045881 on 9p21, rs433598 on 16p12 and rs10761482 on 10q21. The markers are located in PLAA, ACSM1 and ANK3, respectively. PLAA has not previously been described as a susceptibility gene, but 9p21 is implied as a schizophrenia linkage region. ACSM1 has been identified as a susceptibility gene in a previous schizophrenia GWAS study. The association of ANK3 with schizophrenia is intriguing in light of recent associations of ANK3 with bipolar disorder, thereby supporting the hypothesis of an overlap in genetic susceptibility between these psychopathological entities.