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Noninvasive evaluation of kidney hypoxia and fibrosis using magnetic resonance imaging.


ABSTRACT: Interstitial fibrosis and hypoxia accelerate the progression of CKD, but clinical tools to quantitate these factors in patients are lacking. Here, we evaluated the use of two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, diffusion-weighted (DW)-MRI and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD)-MRI, to assess kidney fibrosis and hypoxia of the cortex in 142 patients with either diabetic nephropathy (n = 43), CKD without diabetes (n = 76), or acute kidney injury (AKI) (n = 23). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of DW-MRI correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in the diabetic nephropathy and CKD groups (r(2) = 0.56 and r(2) = 0.46, respectively). Although the T2* values of BOLD-MRI and eGFR displayed good correlation in the CKD group (r(2) = 0.38), we did not observe a significant correlation between these values in the diabetic nephropathy group, suggesting that factors other than tubulointerstitial alteration determine the degree of hypoxia in the renal cortex. In the AKI group, neither the T2* nor ADC values correlated with eGFR. Renal biopsies from patients with CKD demonstrated that the T2* and ADC MRI values correlated with renal pathology. Taken together, ADC and T2* values appear to serve as accurate indices for evaluating renal tubulointerstitial alterations and parenchymal hypoxia, respectively, in the cortex. Functional MRI can thus contribute to multilateral, noninvasive, in vivo assessment of kidney function.

SUBMITTER: Inoue T 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC3148697 | BioStudies | 2011-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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