Selective removal of promoter nucleosomes by the RSC chromatin-remodeling complex.
ABSTRACT: Purified chromatin rings, excised from the PHO5 locus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in transcriptionally repressed and activated states, were remodeled with RSC and ATP. Nucleosomes were translocated, and those originating on the promoter of repressed rings were removed, whereas those originating on the open reading frame (ORF) were retained. Treatment of the repressed rings with histone deacetylase diminished the removal of promoter nucleosomes. These findings point to a principle of promoter chromatin remodeling for transcription, namely that promoter specificity resides primarily in the nucleosomes rather than in the remodeling complex that acts upon them.
Project description:Analysis of in vivo chromatin remodeling at the PHO5 promoter of yeast led to the conclusion that remodeling removes nucleosomes from the promoter by disassembly rather than sliding away from the promoter. The catalytic activities required for nucleosome disassembly remain unknown. Transcriptional activation of the yeast PHO8 gene was found to depend on the chromatin-remodeling complex SWI/SNF, whereas activation of PHO5 was not. Here, we show that PHO8 gene circles formed in vivo lose nucleosomes upon PHO8 induction, indicative of nucleosome removal by disassembly. Our quantitative analysis of expression noise and chromatin-remodeling data indicates that the dynamics of continual nucleosome removal and reformation at the activated promoters of PHO5 and PHO8 are closely similar. In contrast to PHO5, however, activator-stimulated transcription of PHO8 appears to be limited mostly to the acceleration of promoter nucleosome disassembly with little or no acceleration of promoter transitions following nucleosome disassembly, accounting for the markedly lower expression level of PHO8.
Project description:Repressed PHO5 gene chromatin, isolated from yeast in the native state, was remodeled by yeast extract in a gene activator-dependent, ATP-dependent manner. The product of the reaction bore the hallmark of the process in vivo, the selective removal of promoter nucleosomes, without effect on open reading frame nucleosomes. Fractionation of the extract identified a single protein, chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 1 (Chd1), capable of the remodeling activity. Deletion of the CHD1 gene in an isw1? pho80? strain abolished PHO5 gene expression, demonstrating the relevance of the remodeling reaction in vitro to the process in vivo.
Project description:Although yeast PHO5 promoter chromatin opening is a founding model for chromatin remodeling, the complete set of involved remodelers remained unknown for a long time. The SWI/SNF and INO80 remodelers cooperate here, but nonessentially, and none of the many tested single or combined remodeler gene mutations could prevent PHO5 promoter opening. RSC, the most abundant and only remodeler essential for viability, was a controversial candidate for the unrecognized remodeling activity but unassessed in vivo. Now we show that remodels the structure of chromatin (RSC) is crucially involved in PHO5 promoter opening. Further, the isw1 chd1 double deletion also delayed chromatin remodeling. Strikingly, combined absence of RSC and Isw1/Chd1 or Snf2 abolished for the first time promoter opening on otherwise sufficient induction in vivo. Together with previous findings, we recognize now a surprisingly complex network of five remodelers (RSC, SWI/SNF, INO80, Isw1 and Chd1) from four subfamilies (SWI/SNF, INO80, ISWI and CHD) as involved in PHO5 promoter chromatin remodeling. This is likely the first described complete remodeler set for a physiological chromatin transition. RSC was hardly involved at the coregulated PHO8 or PHO84 promoters despite cofactor recruitment by the same transactivator and RSC's presence at all three promoters. Therefore, promoter-specific chromatin rather than transactivators determine remodeler requirements.
Project description:Chromatin transactions are typically studied in vivo, or in vitro using artificial chromatin lacking the epigenetic complexity of the natural material. Attempting to bridge the gap between these approaches, we established a system for isolating the yeast genome as a library of mononucleosomes harboring the natural epigenetic signature, suitable for biochemical manipulation. Combined with deep sequencing, this library was used to investigate the stability of individual nucleosomes and, as proof of principle, the nucleosome preference of the chromatin remodeling complex, RSC. This approach uncovered a distinct preference of RSC for nucleosomes derived from regions with a high density of histone variant H2AZ, and this preference is indeed markedly diminished using nucleosomes from cells lacking H2AZ. The preference for H2AZ remodeling/nucleosome ejection can also be reconstituted with recombinant nucleosome arrays. Together, our data indicate that, despite being separated from their genomic context, individual nucleosomes can retain their original identity as promoter- or transcription start site (TSS)-nucleosomes. Besides shedding new light on substrate preference of the chromatin remodeler RSC, the simple experimental system outlined here should be generally applicable to the study of chromatin transactions.
Project description:The 'remodels structure of chromatin' (RSC) complex is an essential chromatin remodeling factor that is required for the control of several processes including transcription, repair and replication. The ability of RSC to relocate centrally positioned mononucleosomes at the end of nucleosomal DNA is firmly established, but the data on RSC action on oligo-nucleosomal templates remains still scarce. By using atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging, we have quantitatively studied the RSC-induced mobilization of positioned di- and trinucleosomes as well as the directionality of mobilization on mononucleosomal template labeled at one end with streptavidin. AFM imaging showed only a limited set of distinct configurational states for the remodeling products. No stepwise or preferred directionality of the nucleosome motion was observed. Analysis of the corresponding reaction pathways allows deciphering the mechanistic features of RSC-induced nucleosome relocation. The final outcome of RSC remodeling of oligosome templates is the packing of the nucleosomes at the edge of the template, providing large stretches of DNA depleted of nucleosomes. This feature of RSC may be used by the cell to overcome the barrier imposed by the presence of nucleosomes.
Project description:SWI/SNF-family chromatin remodeling complexes, such as S. cerevisiae RSC, slide and eject nucleosomes to regulate transcription. Within nucleosomes, stiff DNA sequences confer spontaneous partial unwrapping, prompting whether and how SWI/SNF-family remodelers are specialized to remodel partially-unwrapped nucleosomes. RSC1 and RSC2 are orthologs of mammalian PBRM1 (polybromo) which define two separate RSC sub-complexes. Remarkably, in vitro the Rsc1-containing complex remodels partially-unwrapped nucleosomes much better than does the Rsc2-containing complex. Moreover, a rsc1? mutation, but not rsc2?, is lethal with histone mutations that confer partial unwrapping. Rsc1/2 isoforms both cooperate with the DNA-binding proteins Rsc3/30 and the HMG protein, Hmo1, to remodel partially-unwrapped nucleosomes, but show differential reliance on these factors. Notably, genetic impairment of these factors strongly reduces the expression of genes with wide nucleosome-deficient regions (e.g., ribosomal protein genes), known to harbor partially-unwrapped nucleosomes. Taken together, Rsc1/2 isoforms are specialized through composition and interactions to manage and remodel partially-unwrapped nucleosomes.
Project description:Chromatin dynamics are mediated by remodeling enzymes and play crucial roles in gene regulation, as established in a paradigmatic model, the <i>Saccharomyces cerevisiae PHO5</i> promoter. However, effective nucleosome dynamics, that is, trajectories of promoter nucleosome configurations, remain elusive. Here, we infer such dynamics from the integration of published single-molecule data capturing multi-nucleosome configurations for repressed to fully active <i>PHO5</i> promoter states with other existing histone turnover and new chromatin accessibility data. We devised and systematically investigated a new class of 'regulated on-off-slide' models simulating global and local nucleosome (dis)assembly and sliding. Only seven of 68,145 models agreed well with all data. All seven models involve sliding and the known central role of the N-2 nucleosome, but regulate promoter state transitions by modulating just one assembly rather than disassembly process. This is consistent with but challenges common interpretations of previous observations at the <i>PHO5</i> promoter and suggests chromatin opening by binding competition.
Project description:The Imitation SWItch (ISWI) chromatin remodeling factors have been implicated in nucleosome positioning. In vitro, they can mobilize nucleosomes bi-directionally, making it difficult to envision how they can establish precise translational positioning of nucleosomes in vivo. It has been proposed that they require other cellular factors to do so, but none has been identified thus far. Here, we demonstrate that both ISW2 and TUP1 are required to position nucleosomes across the entire coding sequence of the DNA damage-inducible gene RNR3. The chromatin structure downstream of the URS is indistinguishable in Deltaisw2 and Deltatup1 mutants, and the crosslinking of Tup1 and Isw2 to RNR3 is independent of each other, indicating that both complexes are required to maintain repressive chromatin structure. Furthermore, Tup1 repressed RNR3 and blocked preinitiation complex formation in the Deltaisw2 mutant, even though nucleosome positioning was completely disrupted over the promoter and ORF. Our study has revealed a novel collaboration between two nucleosome-positioning activities in vivo, and suggests that disruption of nucleosome positioning is insufficient to cause a high level of transcription.
Project description:The remodeling of the promoter chromatin structure is a key event for the induction of the PHO5 gene. Two DNA-binding proteins Pho2 and Pho4 are critical for this step. We found that the NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex is essential for PHO5 transcriptional induction without affecting Pho4 translocation upon phosphate starvation. Our data also indicate that NuA4 is critical for the chromatin remodeling event that occurs over the PHO5 promoter prior to activation. Using Chromatin IP analysis, we found that Esa1-dependent histone H4 acetylation at the PHO5 promoter correlates with specific recruitment of the NuA4 complex to this locus under repressing conditions. We demonstrate that the homeodomain transcriptional activator Pho2 is responsible for this recruitment in vivo and interacts directly with the NuA4 complex. Finally, we show that Pho4 is unable to bind the PHO5 promoter without prior action of NuA4. These results indicate that, before induction, NuA4 complex recruitment by Pho2 is an essential event that presets the PHO5 promoter for subsequent binding by Pho4, chromatin remodeling and transcription.
Project description:The nucleosome remodeling complex RSC functions throughout the yeast genome to set the positions of -1 and +1 nucleosomes and thereby determines the widths of nucleosome-depleted regions (NDRs). The related complex SWI/SNF participates in nucleosome remodeling/eviction and promoter activation at certain yeast genes, including those activated by transcription factor Gcn4, but did not appear to function broadly in establishing NDRs. By analyzing the large cohort of Gcn4-induced genes in mutants lacking the catalytic subunits of SWI/SNF or RSC, we uncovered cooperation between these remodelers in evicting nucleosomes from different locations in the promoter and repositioning the +1 nucleosome downstream to produce wider NDRs-highly depleted of nucleosomes-during transcriptional activation. SWI/SNF also functions on a par with RSC at the most highly transcribed constitutively expressed genes, suggesting general cooperation by these remodelers for maximal transcription. SWI/SNF and RSC occupancies are greatest at the most highly expressed genes, consistent with their cooperative functions in nucleosome remodeling and transcriptional activation. Thus, SWI/SNF acts comparably with RSC in forming wide nucleosome-free NDRs to achieve high-level transcription but only at the most highly expressed genes exhibiting the greatest SWI/SNF occupancies.