Hyperthermia inhibits platelet hemostatic functions and selectively regulates the release of alpha-granule proteins.
ABSTRACT: Hyperthermia is one of the main disturbances of homeostasis occurring during sepsis or hypermetabolic states such as cancer. Platelets are important mediators of the inflammation that accompanies these processes, but very little is known about the changes in platelet function that occur at different temperatures.To explore the effect of higher temperatures on platelet physiology.Platelet responses including adhesion, spreading (fluorescence microscopy), ?(IIb)?(3) activation (flow cytometry), aggregation (turbidimetry), ATP release (luminescence), thromboxane A(2) generation, alpha-granule protein secretion (ELISA) and protein phosphorylation from different signaling pathways (immunoblotting) were studied.Preincubation of platelets at temperatures higher than 37 °C (38.5-42 °C) inhibited thrombin-induced hemostasis, including platelet adhesion, aggregation, ATP release and thromboxane A(2) generation. The expression of P-selectin and CD63, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release, was completely inhibited by hyperthermia, whereas von Willebrand factor (VWF) and endostatin levels remained substantially increased at high temperatures. This suggested that release of proteins from platelet granules is modulated not only by classical platelet agonists but also by microenvironmental factors. The observed gradation of response involved not only antiangiogenesis regulators, but also other cargo proteins. Some signaling pathways were more stable than others. While ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation were resistant to changes in temperature, Src, Syk, p38 phosphorylation and IkappaB degradation were decreased in a temperature-dependent fashion.Higher temperatures, such as those observed with fever or tissue invasion, inhibit the hemostatic functions of platelets and selectively regulate the release of alpha-granule proteins.
Project description:The role of protein kinase C (PKC) in platelet-activating-factor (PAF)-induced platelet activation was examined by using two selective inhibitors of PKC, namely Ro 31-7549/001 and Ro 31-8220/002. Both inhibitors dose-dependently inhibited PAF-induced phosphorylation of the major 40-47 kDa protein substrate of PKC, with 50% inhibition at 4.5 microM-Ro 31-7549/001 and 0.7 microM-Ro 31-8220/002. Inhibition of PKC had no effect on maximal elevation of intracellular Ca2+ [Ca2+]i produced by either a high or a low dose of PAF, but significantly increased the duration of the Ca2+ signal and the thromboxane B2 (TxB2) generation in high-dose PAF-stimulated platelets. The inhibitors also abrogated the effect of the PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate on PAF-induced [Ca2+]i elevation. Sub-maximal PAF-induced dense-granule release and platelet aggregation were dose-dependently inhibited by Ro 31-7549/001 and Ro 31-8220/002. The findings suggest that endogenously activated PKC holds a bifurcating role in PAF-activated platelets, negatively affecting duration of both [Ca2+]i and TxB2 generation, and positively influencing dense-granule release and aggregation.
Project description:Leukemia-Associated RhoGEF (LARG) is highly expressed in platelets, which are essential for maintaining normal haemostasis. We studied the function of LARG in murine and human megakaryocytes and platelets with Larg knockout (KO), shRNA-mediated knockdown and small molecule-mediated inhibition. We found that LARG is important for human, but not murine, megakaryocyte maturation. Larg KO mice exhibit macrothrombocytopenia, internal bleeding in the ovaries and prolonged bleeding times. KO platelets have impaired aggregation, ?-granule release and integrin ?2b?3 activation in response to thrombin and thromboxane, but not to ADP. The same agonist-specific reductions in platelet aggregation occur in human platelets treated with a LARG inhibitor. Larg KO platelets have reduced RhoA activation and myosin light chain phosphorylation, suggesting that Larg plays an agonist-specific role in platelet signal transduction. Using two different in vivo assays, Larg KO mice are protected from in vivo thrombus formation. Together, these results establish that LARG regulates human megakaryocyte maturation, and is critical for platelet function in both humans and mice.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The endocannabinoid system has previously been implicated in the regulation of neurons and inflammatory cells. Additionally, it has been reported that endocannabinoid receptors are present on circulating platelets, but there has been conflicting evidence on their contribution to platelet function.<h4>Objectives</h4>Our aim was to examine the role of endocannabinoids in platelet function in vitro and in vivo.<h4>Methods and results</h4>We studied the effects of the well-characterized endogenous endocannabinoid anandamide on platelet aggregation in suspension, ?-granule release, calcium mobilization, Syk phosphorylation, as well as platelet spreading and aggregate formation under flow. Anandamide inhibits platelet aggregation and ?-granule release by collagen, collagen-derived peptide CRP-XL, ADP, arachidonic acid and thromboxane A2 analogue U46619. However, activation via thrombin receptor PAR-1 stays largely unaffected. Calcium mobilization is significantly impaired when platelets are stimulated with collagen or CRP-XL, but remains normal in the presence of the other agonists. In line with this finding, we found that anandamide prevents collagen-induced Syk phosphorylation. Furthermore, anandamide-treated platelets exhibit reduced spreading on immobilized fibrinogen, have a decreased capacity for binding fibrinogen in solution and show perturbed platelet aggregate formation under flow over collagen. Finally, we investigated the influence of Cannabis sativa consumption by human volunteers on platelet activation. Similar to our in vitro findings with anandamide, ex vivo collagen-induced platelet aggregation and aggregate formation on immobilized collagen under flow were impaired in whole blood of donors that had consumed Cannabis sativa.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Endocannabinoid receptor agonists reduce platelet activation and aggregate formation both in vitro and ex vivo after Cannabis sativa consumption. Further elucidation of this novel regulatory mechanism for platelet function may prove beneficial in the search for new antithrombotic therapies.
Project description:Platelet hyperreactivity associates with cardiovascular events in humans. Studies in mice and humans suggest that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) regulates platelet activation. In mice, activation of the PGE2 receptor subtype 3 (EP3) promotes thrombosis, but the significance of EP3 in humans is less well understood.To characterize the regulation of thromboxane-dependent human platelet activation by PGE2.Platelets collected from nineteen healthy adults were studied using an agonist of the thromboxane receptor (U46,619), PGE2, and selective agonists and/or antagonists of the EP receptor subtypes. Platelet activation was assayed by (1) optical aggregometry, (2) measurement of dense granule release, and (3) single-platelet counting.Healthy volunteers demonstrated significant interindividual variation in platelet response to PGE2. PGE2 completely inhibited U46,619-induced platelet aggregation and ATP release in 26% of subjects; the remaining 74% had partial or no response to PGE2. Antagonism of EP4 abolished the inhibitory effect of PGE2. In all volunteers, a selective EP2 agonist inhibited U46,619-induced aggregation. Furthermore, the selective EP3 antagonist DG-041 converted all PGE2 nonresponders to full responders.There is significant interindividual variation of platelet response to PGE2 in humans. The balance between EP2, EP3, and EP4 activation determines its net effect. PGE2 can prevent thromboxane-induced platelet aggregation in an EP4-dependent manner. EP3 antagonism converts platelets of nonresponders to a PGE2-responsive phenotype. These data suggest that therapeutic targeting of EP pathways may have cardiovascular benefit by decreasing platelet reactivity.
Project description:In an earlier study we reported the effect of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] in releasing Ca2+ from highly purified human platelet intracellular membrane vesicles. [Authi & Crawford (1985) Biochem. J. 230, 247-253]. We have now investigated the metabolic and functional consequences of introducing Ins(1,4,5)P3 into saponin-permeabilized platelets. Washed human platelets when resuspended in a suitable medium were permeabilized with saponin (10-14 micrograms/ml) to allow entry of low-Mr water-soluble molecules without significant release of the cytoplasmic marker enzyme protein lactate dehydrogenase. Saponin-permeabilized platelets show identical platelet responses (shape change, aggregation and release of 5-hydroxy[14C]tryptamine) to both collagen (5 micrograms/ml) and thrombin (0.1 unit/ml) as obtained with intact cells, indicating that there is minimal disturbance to the surface membrane receptor topography for these two agonists. Ins(1,4,5)P3 (1-10 microM) added to saponin-treated platelets (but not to intact platelets) induced dose-related shape change, aggregation and release of 5-hydroxy[14C]tryptamine which at maximal doses was comparable with responses obtained with thrombin or collagen. The cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors indomethacin and aspirin, if added prior to saponization and Ins(1,4,5)P3 addition, completely inhibited both aggregation and release of 5-hydroxy[14C]tryptamine (EC50 for indomethacin, 50 nM; for aspirin, 30 microM). We believe that Ins(1,4,5)P3 induces the release of Ca2+ from intracellular storages sites which stimulates the Ca2+-dependent phospholipase A2 releasing arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids. Arachidonic acid is then converted to the aggregatory prostanoids (prostaglandin H2 and thromboxane A2) resulting in the observed responses. This concept is supported by the use of the thromboxane receptor antagonists EPO 45 and EPO 92, both of which also completely inhibit Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced responses in saponin-permeabilized platelets. Electron microscopy of the platelet preparations revealed that thrombin- and collagen-induced platelet aggregates of intact and saponized cells were identical, showing extensive pseudopod formation and dense granule release. The Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced aggregates also showed similar dense granule release but an almost total absence of pseudopod formation. These results are discussed in the light of the second messenger role of Ins(1,4,5)P3 in stimulus-response coupling in platelets.
Project description:Thrombopoietin (TPO), also known as the c-mpl ligand, stimulates rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple proteins in human platelets including the Janus family kinases JAK2 and TYK2. On its own, TPO has no effect on platelet aggregation and dense-granule secretion but induces a general potentiation of these responses by other stimuli. The most dramatic effect is observed against threshold concentrations of agonists for aggregation. Shape change or weak reversible aggregation induced by low concentrations of thrombin, collagen and the thromboxane mimetic, U46619, are converted into irreversible aggregation in the presence of TPO. A similar result is obtained in the presence of the ADP scavenger apyrase and cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. TPO also induces potentiation of dense-granule secretion measured through release of 5-hydroxy[3H]-tryptamine. This effect is most striking against low concentrations of stimuli and is independent of aggregation as it is observed in the presence of chelation of extracellular Ca2+ with EGTA. TPO potentiates activation of phospholipase C and elevation of intracellular Ca2+, providing a molecular explanation for potentiation of functional responses. TPO may have an important physiological role in priming platelet activation in thrombocytopenia, an action that may help to compensate for the reduced platelet density.
Project description:AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) ?1 is activated in platelets on thrombin or collagen stimulation, and as a consequence, phosphorylates and inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). Because ACC is crucial for the synthesis of fatty acids, which are essential for platelet activation, we hypothesized that this enzyme plays a central regulatory role in platelet function. To investigate this, we used a double knock-in (DKI) mouse model in which the AMPK phosphorylation sites Ser79 on ACC1 and Ser212 on ACC2 were mutated to prevent AMPK signaling to ACC. Suppression of ACC phosphorylation promoted injury-induced arterial thrombosis in vivo and enhanced thrombus growth ex vivo on collagen-coated surfaces under flow. After collagen stimulation, loss of AMPK-ACC signaling was associated with amplified thromboxane generation and dense granule secretion. ACC DKI platelets had increased arachidonic acid-containing phosphatidylethanolamine plasmalogen lipids. In conclusion, AMPK-ACC signaling is coupled to the control of thrombosis by specifically modulating thromboxane and granule release in response to collagen. It appears to achieve this by increasing platelet phospholipid content required for the generation of arachidonic acid, a key mediator of platelet activation.
Project description:Bacterial adhesion to platelets is mediated via a range of strain-specific bacterial surface proteins that bind to a variety of platelet receptors. It is unclear how these interactions lead to platelet activation. We demonstrate a critical role for the immune receptor Fc?RIIA, ?IIb?3, and Src and Syk tyrosine kinases in platelet activation by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Fc?RIIA activation is dependent on immunoglobulin G (IgG) and ?IIb?3 engagement. Moreover, feedback agonists adenosine 5'-diphosphate and thromboxane A2 are mandatory for platelet aggregation. Additionally, platelet factor 4 (PF4) binds to bacteria and reduces the lag time for aggregation, and gray platelet syndrome ?-granule-deficient platelets do not aggregate to 4 of 5 bacterial strains. We propose that Fc?RIIA-mediated activation is a common response mechanism used against a wide range of bacteria, and that release of secondary mediators and PF4 serve as a positive feedback mechanism for activation through an IgG-dependent pathway.
Project description:RUNX1 haplodeficiency is associated with thrombocytopenia, platelet dysfunction and a predisposition to acute leukaemia. Platelets possess three distinct types of granules and secretory processes involving dense granules (DG), ?-granules and vesicles or lysosomes containing acid hydrolases (AH). Dense granules and granule deficiencies have been reported in patients with RUNX1 mutations. Little is known regarding the secretion from AH-containing vesicles.We studied two related patients with a RUNX1 mutation, easy bruising, and mild thrombocytopenia. Platelet aggregation and 14 C serotonin in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) were impaired in response to ADP, epinephrine, collagen and arachidonic acid. Contents of DG (ATP, ADP), ?-granules (?-thromboglobulin) and AH-containing vesicles (?-glucuronidase, ?-hexosaminidase, ?-mannosidase) were normal or minimally decreased. Dense granules secretion on stimulation of gel-filtered platelets with thrombin and divalent ionophore A23187 (4-12 ?mol L-1 ) were diminished. ?-thromboglobulin and AH secretion was impaired in response to thrombin or A23187. We studied thromboxane-related pathways. The incorporation of 14 C -arachidonic acid into phospholipids and subsequent arachidonic acid release on thrombin activation was normal. Platelet thromboxane A2 production in whole blood serum and on thrombin stimulation of PRP was normal, suggesting that the defective secretion was not due to impaired thromboxane production.These studies provide the first evidence in patients with a RUNX1 mutation for a defect in AH (lysosomal) secretion, and for a global defect in secretion involving all three types of platelet granules that is unrelated to a granule content deficiency. They highlight the pleiotropic effects and multiple platelet defects associated with RUNX1 mutations.
Project description:Pimpinellin is a coumarin-like compound extracted from the root of <i>Toddalia asiatica</i>. Its effects on platelet function has not been investigated. This study found that pimpinellin pretreatment effectively inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation, but did not alter ADP- and thrombin-induced aggregation. Platelets pretreated with pimpinellin showed reduced α granule (CD62) level and secretion of dense granule (ATP release). Pimpinellin-treated platelets also exhibited decreased clot reaction and TxB2 production. Pimpinellin pretreatment suppressed adhesion and spreading of human platelets on the fibrinogen coated surface. Analysis of tail bleeding time of mice administered with pimpinellin (40 mg/kg) revealed that pimpinellin did not change tail bleeding time significantly, number of blood cells, and APTT and PT levels. Pimpinellin inhibited collagen-induced <i>ex vivo</i> aggregation of mice platelets. Immunoblotting results showed that pimpinellin suppressed collagen-induced phosphorylation of PI3K-Akt-Gsk3β and PKC/MAPK in platelets.