Pilot, randomized study assessing safety, tolerability and efficacy of simplified LPV/r maintenance therapy in HIV patients on the 1 PI-based regimen.
ABSTRACT: To compare the efficacy and safety of an individualized treatment-simplification strategy consisting of switching from a highly-active anti-retroviral treatment (HAART) with a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) and 2 nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) to lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy, with intensification by 2 NRTIs if necessary, to that of continuing their HAART.This is a one-year, randomized, open-label, multi-center study in virologically-suppressed HIV-1-infected adults on their first PI/r-containing treatment, randomized to either LPV/r-monotherapy or continue their current treatment. Treatment efficacy was determined by plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL), time-to-virologic rebound, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and CD4+T-cell-count changes. Safety was assessed with the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (AE).Forty-one patients were randomized to LPV/r and 39 to continue their HAART. No statistically-significant differences between the two study groups in demographics and baseline characteristics were observed. At day-360, 71(39:LPV/r;32:HAART) patients completed treatment, while 9(2:LPV/r;7:HAART) discontinued. In a Last Observation Carried Forward Intent-to-Treat analysis, 40(98%) patients on LPV/r and 37(95%) on HAART had VL<200 copies/mL (P?=?0.61). Time-to-virologic rebound, changes in PROs, CD4+ T-cell-count and VL from baseline, also exhibited no statistically-significant between-group differences. Most frequent AEs were diarrhea (19%), headache (18%) and influenza (16%). Four (10%) patients on LPV/r were intensified with 2 NRTIs, all regaining virologic control. Eight serious AEs were reported by 5(2:LPV/r;3:HAART) patients.At day-360, virologic efficacy and safety of LPV/r appears comparable to that of a PI+2NRTIs HAART. These results suggest that our individualized, simplified maintenance strategy with LPV/r-monotherapy and protocol-mandated NRTI re-introduction upon viral rebound, in virologically-suppressed patients merits further prospective long-term evaluation.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00159224.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Darunavir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (D/C/F/TAF) 800/150/200/10 mg is a once-daily, single-tablet regimen for treatment of HIV-1 infection. The efficacy/safety of switching to D/C/F/TAF versus continuing boosted protease inhibitor (bPI)?+?emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (control) were demonstrated in a phase 3, randomized study (EMERALD) of treatment-experienced, virologically suppressed adults through week 48. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate EMERALD outcomes across subgroups of patients based on demographic characteristics, prior treatment experience, and baseline antiretroviral regimen. METHODS:EMERALD patients were virologically suppressed (viral load [VL]?<?50 copies/mL for???2 months at screening). Prior non-darunavir virologic failure (VF) was allowed. Primary endpoint was proportion of patients with virologic rebound (confirmed VL???50 copies/mL) cumulative through week 48. Virologic response was VL?<?50 copies/mL (FDA snapshot). Safety was assessed by adverse events, renal proteinuria markers, and bone mineral density. Outcomes were examined for prespecified subgroups by age (?/>?50 years), gender, race (black/non-black), prior number of antiretrovirals used (4/5/6/7/>?7), prior VF (0/??1), baseline bPI (darunavir/atazanavir or lopinavir), and baseline boosting agent (ritonavir/cobicistat). RESULTS:Among 1141 patients in the D/C/F/TAF (n?=?763) and control (n?=?378) arms, virologic rebound rates (2.5% and 2.1%, respectively) were similar, and this was consistent across all subgroups. Virologic response rates ranged from 91 to 97% (D/C/F/TAF) and 89 to 99% (control) across all subgroups, with differences between treatment arms of 0 and 6%. Adverse event rates were low in both arms and across subgroups. Improvements in renal and bone parameters were observed with D/C/F/TAF across demographic subgroups. CONCLUSIONS:For treatment-experienced, virologically suppressed patients, switching to D/C/F/TAF was highly effective and safe, regardless of demographic characteristics, prior treatment experience, or pre-switch bPI. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02269917. Registered 21 October 2014. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02269917.
Project description:Antiretroviral (ARV) regimens used for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV have evolved over time. We evaluated the contribution of different ARV regimens on the reduction of the plasma HIV RNA viral load (VL) during pregnancy.A total of 1,833 VL measurements from ARV-naive pregnant women participating in perinatal prevention trials in Thailand were included. Women received either zidovudine (ZDV) monotherapy, ZDV plus lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), or ZDV plus lamivudine (3TC) plus LPV/r. VL time-course during pregnancy was described as a function of pretreatment VL and treatment duration using an Emax non-linear mixed-effect model. VL reduction and median time to achieve a VL<50 copies/ml were estimated for each regimen.Among 745 women, 279 (37%), 145 (20%) and 321 (43%) received ZDV monotherapy, ZDV+LPV/r and ZDV+3TC+LPV/r, respectively. The predicted VL reduction from baseline to delivery after a median of 10 weeks of treatment were 0.5, 2.7 and 2.9 log10 copies/ml with ZDV monotherapy, ZDV+LPV/r and ZDV+3TC+LPV/r, respectively. At delivery, 1%, 57% and 63% of women receiving ZDV monotherapy, ZDV+LPV/r or ZDV+3TC+LPV/r had a VL<50 copies/ml. The addition of 3TC to ZDV+LPV/r reduced the time to achieve a VL<50 copies/ml and the higher the pretreatment VL, the larger the effect 3TC had on reducing the time to VL<50 copies/ml.The addition of 3TC to ZDV+LPV/r was associated with a slight further VL reduction but the time to reach a VL<50 copies/ml was shorter. This beneficial effect of 3TC is crucial for prevention of mother-to-child transmission in women who receive ARVs late and with high pretreatment VL.
Project description:Epidemiological studies suggest that some antiretroviral drugs may contribute to increase cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients. However, data from Latin American countries are limited, as impact of HAART on cardiovascular risk remains understudied. In this context, we aimed to evaluate if 10-year Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Score (FCRS) increases in patients following exposure to EFV- and LPV/r-based HAART in a Latin American cohort.Retrospective 48-week cohort study. We reviewed clinical charts of randomly selected samples of patients initiating (according to national guidelines) EFV first-line HAART and LPV/r first- or second-line (but first PI-based) HAART assisted at a reference HIV centre in Buenos Aires, Argentina (period 2004-2012). Each patient could only be included in one arm. FCRS was calculated according to National Institutes of Health risk assessment tool (http://cvdrisk.nhlbi.nih.gov/).A total of 357 patients were included: 249 in EFV arm and 108 in LPV/r arm (80 as first line and 28 as second line, but first PI-based HAART). Baseline characteristics (median, interquartile range): age, 38 (33-45) years; male, 247 (69%); viral load, 98200 (20550-306000) copies/mL; CD4 T-cell count, 115 (60-175) cel/µL; total cholesterol, 159 (135-194) mg/dL; HDL: 39 (31-41) mg/dL; LDL: 94 (72-123) mg/dL; current smoker, 29%; on antihypertensive drugs: 14 (4%), diabetic: 4 (1%). Most frequent accompanying nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) were 3TC (92%) and zidovudine (AZT; 76%). Baseline FCRS was low, moderate and high for 93%, 7% and 0% of patients on EFV arm and 96.7%, 1.7% and 1.7% on LPV/r arm. On EFV arm, an increase in FCRS category (low to moderate or moderate to high) was observed in 1 patient (0.9%) at 24 weeks and 6 (5,6%) at 48 weeks; 5 (4.7%) decreased category. On LPV/r arm no one varied FCRS category at 24 weeks and 2 (3.4%) increased from low to moderate at 48 weeks (no patient decreased FCRS category). Cumulative incidence of overall cardiovascular events was 1.6% on EFV and 1.8% on LPV/r arms respectively. Probability of increasing FCRS category or having a cardiovascular event did not differ between arms at a significance level of 5%.Probability of increasing FCRS category and cardiovascular events was low and similar in patients exposed to EFV versus LPV/r-based HAART in a Latin American cohort. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01705873.
Project description:Background:The NEVEREST-3 (South Africa) and MONOD-ANRS-12206 (Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso) randomized trials found that switching to efavirenz (EFV) in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children >3 years old who were virologically suppressed by ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) was noninferior to continuing o LPV/r. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of this strategy using the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications-Pediatric model. Methods:We examined 3 strategies in South African children aged ?3 years who were virologically suppressed by LPV/r: (1) continued LPV/r, even in case of virologic failure, without second-line regimens; continued on LPV/r with second-line option after observed virologic failure; and preemptive switch to EFV-based antiretroviral therapy (ART), with return to LPV/r after observed virologic failure. We derived data on 24-week suppression (<1000 copies/mL) after a switch to EFV (98.4%) and the subsequent risk of virologic failure (LPV/r, 0.23%/mo; EFV, 0.15%/mo) from NEVEREST-3 data; we obtained ART costs (LPV/r, $6-$20/mo; EFV, $3-$6/mo) from published sources. We projected discounted life expectancy (LE) and lifetime costs per person. A secondary analysis used data from MONOD-ANRS-12206 in Côte d'Ivoire. Results:Continued LPV/r led to the shortest LE (18.2 years) and the highest per-person lifetime cost ($19 470). LPV/r with second-line option increased LE (19.9 years) and decreased per-person lifetime costs($16 070). Switching led to the longest LE (20.4 years) and the lowest per-person lifetime cost ($15 240); this strategy was cost saving under plausible variations in key parameters. Using MONOD-ANRS-12206 data in Côte d'Ivoire, the Switch strategy remained cost saving only compared with continued LPV/r, but the LPV/r with second-line option strategy was cost-effective compared with switching. Conclusion:For children ?3 years old and virologically suppressed by LPV/r-based ART, preemptive switching to EFV can improve long-term clinical outcomes and be cost saving. Clinical Trials Registration:NCT01127204.
Project description:The AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5230 study evaluated lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy following virologic failure (VF) on first-line human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) regimens in Africa and Asia.Eligible subjects had received first-line regimens for at least 6 months and had plasma HIV-1 RNA levels 1000-200 000 copies/mL. All subjects received LPV/r 400/100 mg twice daily. VF was defined as failure to suppress to <400 copies/mL by week 24, or confirmed rebound to >400 copies/mL at or after week 16 following confirmed suppression. Subjects with VF added emtricitabine 200 mg/tenofovir 300 mg (FTC/TDF) once daily. The probability of continued HIV-1 RNA <400 copies/mL on LPV/r monotherapy through week 104 was estimated with a 95% confidence interval (CI); predictors of treatment success were evaluated with Cox proportional hazards models.One hundred twenty-three subjects were enrolled. Four subjects died and 2 discontinued prematurely; 117 of 123 (95%) completed 104 weeks. Through week 104, 49 subjects met the primary endpoint; 47 had VF, and 2 intensified treatment without VF. Of the 47 subjects with VF, 41 (33%) intensified treatment, and 39 of 41 subsequently achieved levels <400 copies/mL. The probability of continued suppression <400 copies/mL over 104 weeks on LPV/r monotherapy was 60% (95% CI, 50%-68%); 80%-85% maintained levels <400 copies/mL with FTC/TDF intensification as needed. Ultrasensitive assays on specimens with HIV-1 RNA level <400 copies/mL at weeks 24, 48, and 104 revealed that 61%, 62%, and 65% were suppressed to <40 copies/mL, respectively.LPV/r monotherapy after first-line VF with FTC/TDF intensification when needed provides durable suppression of HIV-1 RNA over 104 weeks.NCT00357552.
Project description:The activities of protease inhibitors in vivo may depend on plasma concentrations and viral susceptibility. This nonrandomized, open-label study evaluated the relationship of the inhibitory quotient (IQ [the ratio of drug exposure to viral phenotypic susceptibility]) to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral load (VL) change for ritonavir-enhanced protease inhibitors (PIs). Subjects on PI-based regimens replaced their PIs with ritonavir-enhanced indinavir (IDV/r) 800/200 mg, fosamprenavir (FPV/r) 700/100 mg, or lopinavir (LPV/r) 400/200 mg twice daily. Pharmacokinetics were assessed at day 14; follow-up lasted 24 weeks. Associations between IQ and VL changes were examined. Fifty-three subjects enrolled, 12 on IDV/r, 33 on FPV/r, and 8 on LPV/r. Median changes (n-fold) (FC) of 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) to the study PI were high. Median 2-week VL changes were -0.7, -0.1, and -1.0 log(10) for IDV/r, FPV/r, and LPV/r. With FPV/r, correlations between the IQ and the 2-week change in VL were significant (Spearman's r range, -0.39 to -0.50; P < or = 0.029). The strongest correlation with response to FPV/r was the IC(50) FC (r = 0.57; P = 0.001), which improved when only adherent subjects were included (r = 0.68; P = 0.001). In multivariable analyses of the FPV/r arm that included FC, one measure of the drug concentration, corresponding IQ, baseline VL, and CD4, the FC to FPV was the only significant predictor of VL decline (P < 0.001). In exploratory analyses of all arms, the area under the concentration-time curve IQ was correlated with the week 2 VL change (r = -0.72; P < 0.001). In conclusion, in PI-experienced subjects with highly resistant HIV-1, short-term VL responses to RTV-enhanced FPV/r correlated best with baseline susceptibility. The IQ improved correlation in analyses of all arms where a greater range of virologic responses was observed.
Project description:Viral load (VL) rebound timing and set point were analyzed in 235 participants undergoing analytic treatment interruption (ATI) in 6 AIDS Clinical Trials Group studies. There was no significant association between rebound timing and ATI VL set point for those who rebounded ?12 weeks. VL set points were lower in participants with rebound >12 weeks (P < 0.001) and participants treated during early infection (P < 0.001). Pre-antiretroviral therapy VL correlated with set point, though 68% of participants had a set point lower than pre-antiretroviral therapy VL. These results illustrate complex relationships between post-ATI virologic outcomes and the potential presence of biological factors mediating rebound timing and set point.
Project description:The impact of viral load (VL) decay and cumulative VL on CD4 recovery and AIDS after highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is unknown.Three virologic kinetic parameters (first year and overall exponential VL decay constants, and first year VL slope) and cumulative VL during HAART were estimated for 2,278 patients who initiated HAART in the U.S. Military HIV Natural History Study. CD4 and VL trajectories were computed using linear and nonlinear Generalized Estimating Equations models. Multivariate Poisson and linear regression models were used to determine associations of VL parameters with CD4 recovery, adjusted for factors known to correlate with immune recovery. Cumulative VL higher than the sample median was independently associated with an increased risk of AIDS (relative risk 2.38, 95% confidence interval 1.56-3.62, p<0.001). Among patients with VL suppression, first year VL decay and slope were independent predictors of early CD4 recovery (p?=?0.001) and overall gain (p<0.05). Despite VL suppression, those with slow decay during the first year of HAART as well as during the entire therapy period (overall), in general, gained less CD4 cells compared to the other subjects (133 vs. 195.4 cells/µL; p?=?0.001) even after adjusting for potential confounders.In a cohort with free access to healthcare, independent of established predictors of AIDS and CD4 recovery during HAART, cumulative VL and virologic decay patterns were associated with AIDS and distinct aspects of CD4 reconstitution.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Two-drug regimens (2-DR) have the potential to be a viable solution to the challenges of treatment complexity, cost, adverse effects and contraindications. We sought to describe the real-world use and effectiveness of 2-DR among persons living with HIV (PLHIV) in the United States. METHODS:We analysed data for 10,190 treatment-experienced patients from the OPERA® Observational Database initiating a new 2-DR or three-drug regimen (3-DR) between 1 January 2010 and 30 June 2016. Multivariate Cox Proportional Hazards models were used to estimate the association among 2-DR or 3-DR initiation and virologic suppression (viral load (VL) <50 copies/mL), virologic failure (2 VLs > 200 copies/mL or 1 VL > 200 copies/mL + discontinuation) or regimen discontinuation. RESULTS:Patients initiating a 2-DR (n = 1337, 13%) were older, and more likely to have a lower CD4 count, a history of AIDS and comorbid conditions than patients initiating a 3-DR. There was no difference between groups in time to virologic suppression (aHR: 1.00 (95% CI: 0.88, 1.13)) among viraemic patients (baseline VL ? 50 copies/mL, n = 4180), or time to virologic failure (aHR: 1.15 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.48)) among virologically stable patients (baseline VL < 50 copies/mL, n = 6010). However, time to discontinuation was shorter following 2-DR than 3-DR initiation (aHR: 1.51 (95% CI: 1.41, 1.61)). CONCLUSIONS:In this large cohort of treatment-experienced patients, 2-DR prescriptions were common and more frequent among patients with significant comorbidity. Virologic response was similar, but duration of use was shorter with a 2-DR than a 3-DR, suggesting that 2-DRs may be a virologically effective treatment strategy for treatment-experienced PLHIV with existing comorbidities.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The primary objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of treatment failure (TF) to protease inhibitor monotherapies (PI/r-MT) with lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) or darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r). DESIGN:A multicenter cohort of HIV-infected patients with viral load (VL) ?50 copies/mL, who underwent a switch from any triple combination therapy to PI/r-MT with either LPV/r or DRV/r. METHODS:VL was assessed in each center according to local procedures. Residual viremia was defined by any HIV-RNA value detectable below 50 copies/mL by a Real-Time PCR method. Standard survival analysis was used to estimate the rate of TF (defined by virological failure or interruption of monotherapy or reintroduction of combination therapy). A multivariable Cox regression analysis with automatic stepwise procedures was used to identify factors independently associated with TF among nadir and baseline CD4+ counts, residual viremia, time spent with <50 HIV-RNA copies/mL before switch, history of virological failure, HCV co-infection, being on a PI/r and hemoglobin concentrations at baseline. RESULTS:Six hundred ninety patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this analysis. Their median follow-up was 20 (10-37) months. By month 36, TF occurred in 176 (30.2%; 95% CI:25.9-34.5) patients. Only CD4+ nadir counts (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 2.03 [95% CI: 1.35, 3.07] for counts ?100 vs. >100 cells/?L) and residual viremia (aHR = 1.48 [95% CI: 1.01-2.17] vs. undetectable VL) were independently associated to TF. CONCLUSIONS:Residual viremia and nadir CD4+ counts <100 cells/?L should be regarded as the main factors to be taken into account before considering switching to a PI/r-MT.