Modification of norfloxacin by a Microbacterium sp. strain isolated from a wastewater treatment plant.
ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial residues found in municipal wastewater may increase selective pressure on microorganisms for development of resistance, but studies with mixed microbial cultures derived from wastewater have suggested that some bacteria are able to inactivate fluoroquinolones. Medium containing N-phenylpiperazine and inoculated with wastewater was used to enrich fluoroquinolone-modifying bacteria. One bacterial strain isolated from an enrichment culture was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as a Microbacterium sp. similar to a plant growth-promoting bacterium, Microbacterium azadirachtae (99.70%), and a nematode pathogen, "M. nematophilum" (99.02%). During growth in medium with norfloxacin, this strain produced four metabolites, which were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses as 8-hydroxynorfloxacin, 6-defluoro-6-hydroxynorfloxacin, desethylene norfloxacin, and N-acetylnorfloxacin. The production of the first three metabolites was enhanced by ascorbic acid and nitrate, but it was inhibited by phosphate, amino acids, mannitol, formate, and thiourea. In contrast, N-acetylnorfloxacin was most abundant in cultures supplemented with amino acids. This is the first report of defluorination and hydroxylation of a fluoroquinolone by an isolated bacterial strain. The results suggest that some bacteria may degrade fluoroquinolones in wastewater to metabolites with less antibacterial activity that could be subject to further degradation by other microorganisms.
Project description:Microbacterium sp. 4N2-2, isolated from a wastewater treatment plant, converts the antibacterial fluoroquinolone norfloxacin to N-acetylnorfloxacin and three other metabolites. Because N-acetylation results in loss of antibacterial activity, identification of the enzyme responsible is important for understanding fluoroquinolone resistance. The enzyme was identified as glutamine synthetase (GS); N-acetylnorfloxacin was produced only under conditions associated with GS expression. The GS gene (glnA) was cloned, and the protein (53 kDa) was heterologously expressed and isolated. Optimal conditions and biochemical properties (K(m) and V(max)) of purified GS were characterized; the purified enzyme was inhibited by Mn(2+), Mg(2+), ATP, and ADP. The contribution of GS to norfloxacin resistance was shown by using a norfloxacin-sensitive Escherichia coli strain carrying glnA derived from Microbacterium sp. 4N2-2. The GS of Microbacterium sp. 4N2-2 was shown to act as an N-acetyltransferase for norfloxacin, which produced low-level norfloxacin resistance. Structural and docking analysis identified potential binding sites for norfloxacin at the ADP binding site and for acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) at a cleft in GS. The results suggest that environmental bacteria whose enzymes modify fluoroquinolones may be able to survive in the presence of low fluoroquinolone concentrations.
Project description:Whereas fluoroquinolone resistance mainly results from target modifications in gram-positive bacteria, it is primarily due to active efflux in Listeria monocytogenes. The aim of this study was to dissect a novel molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance in this important human pathogen. Isogenic L. monocytogenes clinical isolates BM4715 and BM4716, respectively susceptible and resistant to fluoroquinolones, were studied. MICs of norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin were determined in the presence or in the absence of reserpine (10 mg/L). Strain BM4715 was susceptible to norfloxacin (MIC, 4 mg/L) and ciprofloxacin (MIC, 0.5 mg/L) whereas BM4716 was highly resistant to both drugs (MICs 128 and 32 mg/L, respectively). Reserpine was responsible for a 16-fold decrease in both norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin MICs against BM4716 suggesting efflux associated resistance. Whole-genome sequencing of the strains followed by comparative genomic analysis revealed a single point mutation in the gene for a transcriptional regulator, designated fepR (for fluoroquinolone efflux protein regulator) belonging to the TetR family. The frame-shift mutation was responsible for the introduction of a premature stop codon resulting in an inactive truncated protein. Just downstream from fepR, the structural gene for an efflux pump of the MATE family (named FepA) was identified. Gene expression was quantified by qRT-PCR and demonstrated that fepA expression was more than 64-fold higher in BM4716 than in BM4715. The clean deletion of the fepR gene from BM4715 was responsible for an overexpression of fepA with resistance to norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin, confirming the role of FepR as a local repressor of fepA. In conclusion, we demonstrated that overexpression of the new MATE efflux pump FepA is responsible for fluoroquinolone resistance in L. monocytogenes and secondary to inactivation of the FepR repressor.
Project description:Plasmid-encoded quinolone resistance was previously reported for different bacteria isolated from patients not only in the United States and Asia but also in Europe. Here we describe the isolation, by applying a new selection strategy, of the quinolone resistance plasmid pGNB2 from an activated sludge bacterial community of a wastewater treatment plant in Germany. The hypersensitive Escherichia coli strain KAM3 carrying a mutation in the multidrug efflux system genes acrAB was transformed with total plasmid DNA preparations isolated from activated sludge bacteria and subsequently selected on medium containing the fluoroquinolone norfloxacin. This approach resulted in the isolation of plasmid pGNB2 conferring decreased susceptibility to nalidixic acid and to different fluoroquinolones. Analysis of the pGNB2 nucleotide sequence revealed that it is 8,469 bp in size and has a G+C content of 58.2%. The plasmid backbone is composed of a replication initiation module (repA-repC) belonging to the IncQ-family and a two-component mobilization module that confers horizontal mobility to the plasmid. In addition, plasmid pGNB2 carries an accessory module consisting of a transposon Tn1721 remnant and the quinolone resistance gene, qnrS2, that is 92% identical to the qnrS gene located on plasmid pAH0376 from Shigella flexneri 2b. QnrS2 belongs to the pentapeptide repeat protein family and is predicted to protect DNA-gyrase activity against quinolones. This is not only the first report on a completely sequenced plasmid mediating quinolone resistance isolated from an environmental sample but also on the first qnrS-like gene detected in Europe.
Project description:In Enterobacteriaceae, the permeability of the outer membrane to hydrophilic antibiotics is associated with the presence of pore-forming proteins. We tested the diffusion of the fluoroquinolone norfloxacin in four Enterobacter cloacae strains: a clinical isolate and three derivatives variously producing or lacking the D and F porins. We analysed the entry of norfloxacin into E. cloacae cells in the presence of either the polyamine spermine or the recently developed cefepime, which are known to penetrate through the Escherichia coli OmpF porin. Uptake of the fluoroquinolone was decreased in both cases; the initial rate of penetration decreased as more spermine blocked the channel. Our results indicate that, like beta-lactam molecules, fluoroquinolones translocate through the outer membrane via the F porin and that cefepime and norfloxacin entries are polyamine-sensitive. This suggests that the closure of the F porin channel by polyamines might modulate the susceptibility of E. cloacae to both fluoroquinolone and cephalosporin antibiotics.
Project description:Fluoroquinolone resistance affects toxin production of Clostridium perfringens strains differently. To investigate the effect of fluoroquinolone resistance selection on global changes in metabolic activities and drug susceptibilities, four C. perfringens strains and their norfloxacin-, ciprofloxacin-, and gatifloxacin-resistant mutants were compared in nearly 2000 assays, using phenotype microarray plates. Variations among mutant strains resulting from resistance selection were observed in all aspects of metabolism. Carbon utilization, pH range, osmotic tolerance, and chemical sensitivity of resistant strains were affected differently in the resistant mutants depending on both the bacterial genotype and the fluoroquinolone to which the bacterium was resistant. The susceptibilities to gentamicin and erythromycin of all resistant mutants except one increased, but some resistant strains were less susceptible to amoxicillin, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, and metronidazole than their wild types. Sensitivity to ethidium bromide decreased in some resistant mutants and increased in others. Microarray analysis of two gatifloxacin-resistant mutants showed changes in metabolic activities that were correlated with altered expression of various genes. Both the chemical structures of fluoroquinolones and the genomic makeup of the wild types influenced the changes found in resistant mutants, which may explain some inconsistent reports of the effects of therapeutic use of fluoroquinolones on clinical isolates of bacteria.
Project description:Genomic response of C. elegans after infection with Microbacterium nematophilum.<br><br>The interaction between the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen, Microbacterium nematophilum, provides a model for an innate immune response in nematodes. This pathogen adheres to the rectal and post-anal cuticle of the worm, causing slowed growth, constipation, and a defensive swelling response of rectal hypodermal cells. To explore the genomic responses that the worm activates after pathogenic attack we used microarray analysis of transcriptional changes induced after 6 hr infection, comparing virulent with avirulent infection.
Project description:The intracellular accumulation of norfloxacin and pefloxacin in Klebsiella pneumoniae was evaluated. The roles of lipopolysaccharide, capsule, and outer membrane proteins were not important for the intrabacterial accumulation of fluoroquinolones in isogenic strains with known outer membrane alterations. In fluoroquinolone-resistant clinical isolates also expressing GyrA alterations, an active efflux leading to decreased accumulation of the drugs enhanced their resistance to these agents.
Project description:Thirty-four ciprofloxacin-resistant (MIC > or = 2 microg/ml) and 12 ciprofloxacin-susceptible clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were divided into four groups based upon susceptibility to norfloxacin and the effect of reserpine (20 microg/ml). The quinolone-resistance-determining regions of parC, parE, gyrA, and gyrB of all ciprofloxacin-resistant clinical isolates were sequenced, and the activities of eight other fluoroquinolones, acriflavine, ethidium bromide, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline in the presence and absence of reserpine were determined. Despite a marked effect of reserpine upon the activity of norfloxacin, there were only a few isolates for which the activity of another fluoroquinolone was enhanced by reserpine. For most isolates the MICs of acriflavine and ethidium bromide were lowered in the presence of reserpine despite the lack of effect of this efflux pump inhibitor on fluoroquinolone activity. The strains that were most resistant to the fluoroquinolones were predominantly those with mutations in three genes. Expression of the gene encoding the efflux pump PmrA was examined by Northern blotting (quantified by quantitative competitive reverse transcriptase PCR) and compared with that of S. pneumoniae R6 and R6N. Within each group there were isolates that had high-, medium-, and low-level expression of this gene; however, increased expression was not exclusively associated with those isolates with a phenotype suggestive of an efflux mutant. These data suggest that there is another reserpine-sensitive efflux pump in S. pneumoniae that extrudes ethidium bromide and acriflavine but not fluoroquinolones.
Project description:Fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants of Mycoplasma hominis were selected in vitro from the PG21 susceptible reference strain either by multistep selection on increasing concentrations of various fluoroquinolones or by one-step selection on agar medium with ofloxacin. The quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of the structural genes encoding the A and b subunits of DNA gyrase were amplified by PCR, and the nucleotide sequences of eight multistep-selected resistant strains were compared to those of susceptible strain PG21. Four high-level resistant mutants that were selected on norfloxacin or ofloxacin contained a C-to-T transition in the gyrA QRDR, leading to substitution of Ser-83 by Leu in the GyrA protein. Analysis of the sequence of the gyrB QRDR of the eight multistep-selected mutants did not reveal any difference compared to that of the gyrB QRDR of the reference strain M. hominis PG21. Similar analyses of eight one-step-selected mutants did not reveal any base change in the gyrA and gyrB QRDRs. These results suggest that in M. hominis, like in other bacterial species, a gyrA mutation at Ser-83 is associated with fluoroquinolone resistance.
Project description:Plasmids that carry the multidrug efflux genes qacA and qacB are widely distributed in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Although the QacA and QacB proteins are similar to each other, their respective substrate specificities may differ. We investigated the variability and structure-function relationships of QacA and QacB in MRSA isolates. The amino acid sequences of 7 QacA and 25 QacB proteins showed that QacB was present in three variants, designated QacBII, QacBIII, and QacBIV, that were different from the prototypic QacB variant encoded by plasmid pSK23, which was named QacBI, while QacA was present in two variants. When cloned and expressed in S. aureus, the strain carrying qacBIII exhibited higher susceptibility to dyes and decreased susceptibility to norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin compared to strains carrying the other QacB variants. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that the residue at position 320 in QacB plays an important role in the resistance phenotypes to dyes and fluoroquinolones. Furthermore, the accumulation of norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin in the strain carrying qacBIII was significantly decreased. Our data demonstrate that the plasmid-mediated multidrug efflux pump QacB variant QacBIII confers the capability for fluoroquinolone efflux on S. aureus.