Antagonistic effects of cellular poly(C) binding proteins on vesicular stomatitis virus gene expression.
ABSTRACT: Immunoprecipitation and subsequent mass spectrometry analysis of the cellular proteins from cells expressing the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) P protein identified the poly(C) binding protein 2 (PCBP2) as one of the P protein-interacting proteins. To investigate the role of PCBP2 in the viral life cycle, we examined the effects of depletion or overexpression of this protein on VSV growth. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of PCBP2 promoted VSV replication. Conversely, overexpression of PCBP2 in transfected cells suppressed VSV growth. Further studies revealed that PCBP2 negatively regulates overall viral mRNA accumulation and subsequent genome replication. Coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence microscopic studies showed that PCBP2 interacts and colocalizes with VSV P protein in virus-infected cells. The P-PCBP2 interaction did not result in reduced levels of protein complex formation with the viral N and L proteins, nor did it induce degradation of the P protein. In addition, PCBP1, another member of the poly(C) binding protein family with homology to PCBP2, was also found to interact with the P protein and inhibit the viral mRNA synthesis at the level of primary transcription without affecting secondary transcription or genome replication. The inhibitory effects of PCBP1 on VSV replication were less pronounced than those of PCBP2. Overall, the results presented here suggest that cellular PCBP2 and PCBP1 antagonize VSV growth by affecting viral gene expression and highlight the importance of these two cellular proteins in restricting virus infections.
Project description:Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection of swine results in substantial economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Identification of cellular factors involved in PRRSV life cycle not only will enable a better understanding of virus biology but also has the potential for the development of antiviral therapeutics. The PRRSV nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) has been shown to be involved in at least two important functions in the infected hosts: (i) mediation of viral subgenomic (sg) mRNA transcription and (ii) suppression of the host's innate immune response mechanisms. To further our understanding of the role of the viral nsp1 in these processes, using nsp1?, a proteolytically processed functional product of nsp1 as bait, we have identified the cellular poly(C)-binding proteins 1 and 2 (PCBP1 and PCBP2) as two of its interaction partners. The interactions of PCBP1 and PCBP2 with nsp1? were confirmed both by coimmunoprecipitation in infected cells and/or in plasmid-transfected cells and also by in vitro binding assays. During PRRSV infection of MARC-145 cells, the cytoplasmic PCBP1 and PCBP2 partially colocalize to the viral replication-transcription complexes. Furthermore, recombinant purified PCBP1 and PCBP2 were found to bind the viral 5' untranslated region (5'UTR). Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of PCBP1 and PCBP2 in cells resulted in significantly reduced PRRSV genome replication and transcription without adverse effect on initial polyprotein synthesis. Overall, the results presented here point toward an important role for PCBP1 and PCBP2 in regulating PRRSV RNA synthesis.
Project description:Previous studies from our laboratory revealed that cellular poly(C) binding protein 2 (PCBP2) downregulates vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) gene expression. We show here that VSV infection induces the formation of granular structures in the cytoplasm containing cellular RNA-binding proteins, including PCBP2, T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen 1 (TIA1), and TIA1-related protein (TIAR). Depletion of TIA1 via small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), but not depletion of TIAR, results in enhanced VSV growth and gene expression. The VSV-induced granules appear to be similar to the stress granules (SGs) generated in cells triggered by heat shock or oxidative stress but do not contain some of the bona fide SG markers, such as eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) or eIF4A, or the processing body (PB) markers, such as mRNA-decapping enzyme 1A (DCP1a), and thus may not represent canonical SGs or PBs. Our results revealed that the VSV-induced granules, called SG-like structures here, contain the viral replicative proteins and RNAs. The formation and maintenance of the SG-like structures required viral replication and ongoing protein synthesis, but an intact cytoskeletal network was not necessary. These results suggest that cells respond to VSV infection by aggregating the antiviral proteins, such as PCBP2 and TIA1, to form SG-like structures. The functional significance of these SG-like structures in VSV-infected cells is currently under investigation.
Project description:Mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) is a key adaptor in cellular antiviral innate immunity. We previously identified poly(C)-binding protein 2 (PCBP2) as a feedback inhibitor of MAVS that facilitates its degradation after viral infection, but little is known about the regulatory potential of poly(C)-binding protein 1 (PCBP1), which highly resembles PCBP2. Here we report that PCBP1 mediates housekeeping degradation of MAVS using the same mechanism as PCBP2 employs. Overexpression of PCBP1 impairs MAVS-mediated antiviral responses, while knockdown of PCBP1 exerts the opposite effect. The suppression is due to PCBP1-induced MAVS degradation. We observe that PCBP1 and PCBP2 show synergy in MAVS inhibition, but their expression patterns are distinct: PCBP1 is stably and abundantly expressed, while PCBP2 shows low basal expression with rapid induction after infection. Individual knockdown and subcellular fractionation analyses reveal that unlike the postinfection inhibitor PCBP2, PCBP1 continuously eliminates cellular MAVS. Our findings unravel a critical role of PCBP1 in regulating MAVS for both fine-tuning the antiviral immunity and preventing inflammation.
Project description:The 5' noncoding region of poliovirus RNA contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) for cap-independent initiation of translation. Utilization of the IRES requires the participation of one or more cellular proteins that mediate events in the translation initiation reaction, but whose biochemical roles have not been defined. In this report, we identify a cellular RNA binding protein isolated from the ribosomal salt wash of uninfected HeLa cells that specifically binds to stem-loop IV, a domain located in the central part of the poliovirus IRES. The protein was isolated by specific RNA affinity chromatography, and 55% of its sequence was determined by automated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The sequence obtained matched that of poly(rC) binding protein 2 (PCBP2), previously identified as an RNA binding protein from human cells. PCBP2, as well as a related protein, PCBP1, was over-expressed in Escherichia coli after cloning the cDNAs into an expression plasmid to produce a histidine-tagged fusion protein. Specific interaction between recombinant PCBP2 and poliovirus stem-loop IV was demonstrated by RNA mobility shift analysis. The closely related PCBP1 showed no stable interaction with the RNA. Stem-loop IV RNA containing a three nucleotide insertion that abrogates translation activity and virus viability was unable to bind PCBP2.
Project description:Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which may lead to severe neurological disorders and mortality in children. EV71 genome is a positive single-stranded RNA containing a single open reading frame (ORF) flanked by 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR) and 3'UTR. The 5'UTR is fundamentally important for virus replication by interacting with cellular proteins. Here, we revealed that poly(C)-binding protein 1 (PCBP1) specifically binds to the 5'UTR of EV71. Detailed studies indicated that the RNA-binding K-homologous 1 (KH1) domain of PCBP1 is responsible for its binding to the stem-loop I and IV of EV71 5'UTR. Interestingly, we revealed that PCBP1 is distributed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of uninfected cells, but mainly localized in the cytoplasm of EV71-infected cells due to interaction and co-localization with the viral RNA. Furthermore, sub-cellular distribution analysis showed that PCBP1 is located in ER-derived membrane, in where virus replication occurred in the cytoplasm of EV71-infected cells, suggesting PCBP1 is recruited in a membrane-associated replication complex. In addition, we found that the binding of PCBP1 to 5'UTR resulted in enhancing EV71 viral protein expression and virus production so as to facilitate viral replication. Thus, we revealed a novel mechanism in which PCBP1 as a positive regulator involved in regulation of EV71 replication in the host specialized membrane-associated replication complex, which provides an insight into cellular factors involved in EV71 replication.
Project description:Although cells express hundreds of metalloenzymes, the mechanisms by which apoenzymes receive their metal cofactors are largely unknown. Poly(rC)-binding proteins PCBP1 and PCBP2 are multifunctional adaptor proteins that bind iron and deliver it to ferritin for storage or to prolyl and asparagyl hydroxylases to metallate the mononuclear iron center. Here, we show that PCBP1 and PCBP2 also deliver iron to deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH), the dinuclear iron enzyme required for hypusine modification of the translation factor eukaryotic initiation factor 5A. Cells depleted of PCBP1 or PCBP2 exhibited loss of DOHH activity and loss of the holo form of the enzyme in cells, particularly when cells were made mildly iron-deficient. Lysates containing PCBP1 and PCBP2 converted apo-DOHH to holo-DOHH in vitro with greater efficiency than lysates lacking PCBP1 or PCBP2. PCBP1 bound to DOHH in iron-treated cells but not in control or iron-deficient cells. Depletion of PCBP1 or PCBP2 had no effect on the cytosolic Fe-S cluster enzyme xanthine oxidase but led to loss of cytosolic aconitase activity. Loss of aconitase activity was not accompanied by gain of RNA-binding activity, a pattern suggesting the incomplete disassembly of the [4Fe-4S] cluster. PCBP depletions had minimal effects on total cellular iron, mitochondrial iron levels, and heme synthesis. Thus, PCBP1 and PCBP2 may serve as iron chaperones to multiple classes of cytosolic nonheme iron enzymes and may have a particular role in restoring metal cofactors that are spontaneously lost in iron deficient cells.
Project description:RNA-binding proteins participate in a complex array of posttranscriptional controls essential to cell type specification and somatic development. Despite their detailed biochemical characterizations, the degree to which each RNA-binding protein impacts mammalian embryonic development remains incompletely defined, and the level of functional redundancy among subsets of these proteins remains open to question. The poly(C) binding proteins, PCBPs (?CPs and hnRNP E proteins), are encoded by a highly conserved and broadly expressed gene family. The two major Pcbp isoforms, Pcbp2 and Pcbp1, are robustly expressed in a wide range of tissues and exert both nuclear and cytoplasmic controls over gene expression. Here, we report that Pcbp1-null embryos are rendered nonviable in the peri-implantation stage. In contrast, Pcbp2-null embryos undergo normal development until midgestation (12.5 to 13.5 days postcoitum), at which time they undergo a dramatic loss in viability associated with combined cardiovascular and hematopoietic abnormalities. Mice heterozygous for either Pcbp1 or Pcbp2 null alleles display a mild and nondisruptive defect in initial postpartum weight gain. These data reveal that Pcbp1 and Pcbp2 are individually essential for mouse embryonic development and have distinct impacts on embryonic viability and that Pcpb2 has a nonredundant in vivo role in hematopoiesis. These data further provide direct evidence that Pcbp1, a retrotransposed derivative of Pcpb2, has evolved an essential function(s) in the mammalian genome.
Project description:Ferroportin 1 (FPN1) is an iron export protein found in mammals. FPN1 is important for the export of iron across the basolateral membrane of absorptive enterocytes and across the plasma membrane of macrophages. The expression of FPN1 is regulated by hepcidin, which binds to FPN1 and then induces its degradation. Previously, we demonstrated that divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) interacts with the intracellular iron chaperone protein poly(rC)-binding protein 2 (PCBP2). Subsequently, PCBP2 receives iron from DMT1 and then disengages from the transporter. In this study, we investigated the function of PCBP2 in iron export. Mammalian genomes encode four PCBPs (i.e. PCBP1-4). Here, for the first time, we demonstrated using both yeast and mammalian cells that PCBP2, but not PCBP1, PCBP3, or PCBP4, binds with FPN1. Importantly, iron-loaded, but not iron-depleted, PCBP2 interacts with FPN1. The PCBP2-binding domain of FPN1 was identified in its C-terminal cytoplasmic region. The silencing of PCBP2 expression suppressed FPN1-dependent iron export from cells. These results suggest that FPN1 exports iron received from the iron chaperone PCBP2. Therefore, it was found that PCBP2 modulates cellular iron export, which is an important physiological process.
Project description:Sequences and structures within the terminal genomic regions of plus-strand RNA viruses are targets for the binding of host proteins that modulate functions such as translation, RNA replication, and encapsidation. Using murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), we describe the presence of long-range RNA-RNA interactions that were stabilized by cellular proteins. The proteins potentially responsible for the stabilization were selected based on their ability to bind the MNV-1 genome and/or having been reported to be involved in the stabilization of RNA-RNA interactions. Cell extracts were preincubated with antibodies against the selected proteins and used for coprecipitation reactions. Extracts treated with antibodies to poly(C) binding protein 2 (PCBP2) and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 significantly reduced the 5'-3' interaction. Both PCBP2 and hnRNP A1 recombinant proteins stabilized the 5'-3' interactions and formed ribonucleoprotein complexes with the 5' and 3' ends of the MNV-1 genomic RNA. Mutations within the 3' complementary sequences (CS) that disrupt the 5'-3'-end interactions resulted in a significant reduction of the viral titer, suggesting that the integrity of the 3'-end sequence and/or the lack of complementarity with the 5' end is important for efficient virus replication. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of PCBP2 or hnRNP A1 resulted in a reduction in virus yield, confirming a role for the observed interactions in efficient viral replication. PCBP2 and hnRNP A1 induced the circularization of MNV-1 RNA, as revealed by electron microscopy. This study provides evidence that PCBP2 and hnRNP A1 bind to the 5' and 3' ends of the MNV-1 viral RNA and contribute to RNA circularization, playing a role in the virus life cycle.
Project description:RNA-binding proteins and corresponding post-transcriptional controls play critical roles in gene expression. The poly-(C) binding proteins, PCBPs (?CPs, hnRNPEs), comprise a well-characterized family of abundant RNA-binding proteins that impact on RNA processing in the nucleus as well as mRNA stability and translation in the cytoplasm. Here we demonstrate that PCBP1 and PCBP2 are abundantly expressed in the gastric epithelium with prominent enrichment in specific cell types within the gastric glandular mucosa. The spatial and intracellular patterns of PCBP1 and PCBP2 expression in these regions are highly correlated. Remarkably, we observe that these proteins are present in the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments of zymogenic chief cells while they are restricted to the nuclear compartment in acid-secreting parietal cells and poorly expressed in pit cells that line the gland exit. This specificity of expression patterns and subcellular localization of PCBP1 and PCBP2, along with their appearance in the precursor tissues of the gastric epithelium during early postnatal development, suggests these RNA-binding proteins play specific roles in cell differentiation and organismal development within the gastric glandular epithelium.