Binding of avian coronavirus spike proteins to host factors reflects virus tropism and pathogenicity.
ABSTRACT: The binding of viruses to host cells is the first step in determining tropism and pathogenicity. While avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV) infection and avian influenza A virus (IAV) infection both depend on ?2,3-linked sialic acids, the host tropism of IBV is restricted compared to that of IAV. Here we investigated whether the interaction between the viral attachment proteins and the host could explain these differences by using recombinant spike domains (S1) of IBV strains with different pathogenicities, as well as the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of IAV H5N1. Protein histochemistry showed that S1 of IBV strain M41 and HA of IAV subtype H5N1 displayed sialic acid-dependent binding to chicken respiratory tract tissue. However, while HA bound with high avidity to a broad range of ?2,3-linked sialylated glycans, M41 S1 recognized only one particular ?2,3-linked disialoside in a glycan array. When comparing the binding of recombinant IBV S1 proteins derived from IBV strains with known differences in tissue tropism and pathogenicity, we observed that while M41 S1 displayed binding to cilia and goblet cells of the chicken respiratory tract, S1 derived from the vaccine strain H120 or the nonvirulent Beaudette strain had reduced or no binding to chicken tissues, respectively, in agreement with the reduced abilities of these viruses to replicate in vivo. While the S1 protein derived from the nephropathogenic IBV strain B1648 also hardly displayed binding to respiratory tract cells, distinct binding to kidney cells was observed, but only after the removal of sialic acid from S1. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the attachment patterns of the IBV S proteins correlate with the tropisms and pathogenicities of the corresponding viruses.
Project description:The infection of the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is initiated by the binding of the spike glycoprotein S to sialic acids on the chicken host cell. In this study we identified the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike of the prototype IBV strain M41. By analyzing the ability of recombinantly expressed chimeric and truncated spike proteins to bind to chicken tissues, we demonstrate that the N-terminal 253 amino acids of the spike are both required and sufficient for binding to chicken respiratory tract in an ?-2,3-sialic acid-dependent manner. Critical amino acids for attachment of M41 spike are present within the N-terminal residues 19-69, which overlap with a hypervariable region in the S1 gene. Our results may help to understand the differences between IBV S1 genotypes and the ultimate pathogenesis of IBV in chickens.
Project description:Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infects ciliated epithelial cells in the chicken respiratory tract. While some IBV strains replicate locally, others can disseminate to various organs, including the kidney. Here, we elucidate the determinants for kidney tropism by studying interactions between the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral attachment protein spike from two IBV strains with different tropisms. Recombinantly produced RBDs from the nephropathogenic IBV strain QX and from the nonnephropathogenic strain M41 bound to the epithelial cells of the trachea. In contrast, only QX-RBD binds more extensively to cells of the digestive tract, urogenital tract, and kidneys. While removal of sialic acids from tissues prevented binding of all proteins to all tissues, binding of QX-RBD to trachea and kidney could not be blocked by preincubation with synthetic alpha-2,3-linked sialic acids. The lack of binding of QX-RBD to a previously identified IBV-M41 receptor was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), demonstrating that tissue binding of QX-RBD is dependent on a different sialylated glycan receptor. Using chimeric RBD proteins, we discovered that the region encompassing amino acids 99 to 159 of QX-RBD was required to establish kidney binding. In particular, QX-RBD amino acids 110 to 112 (KIP) were sufficient to render IBV-M41 with the ability to bind to kidney, while the reciprocal mutations in IBV-QX abolished kidney binding completely. Structural analysis of both RBDs suggests that the receptor-binding site for QX is located at a different location on the spike than that of M41.IMPORTANCE Infectious bronchitis virus is the causative agent of infectious bronchitis in chickens. Upon infection of chicken flocks, the poultry industry faces substantial economic losses by diminished egg quality and increased morbidity and mortality of infected animals. While all IBV strains infect the chicken respiratory tract via the ciliated epithelial layer of the trachea, some strains can also replicate in the kidneys, dividing IBV into the following two pathotypes: nonnephropathogenic (example, IBV-M41) and nephropathogenic viruses (including IBV-QX). Here, we set out to identify the determinants for the extended nephropathogenic tropism of IBV-QX. Our data reveal that each pathotype makes use of a different sialylated glycan ligand, with binding sites on opposite sides of the attachment protein. This knowledge should facilitate the design of antivirals to prevent coronavirus infections in the field.
Project description:The spike protein is the major viral attachment protein of the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and ultimately determines viral tropism. The S1 subunit of the spike is assumed to be required for virus attachment. However, we have previously shown that this domain of the embryo- and cell culture adapted Beaudette strain, in contrast to that of the virulent M41 strain, is not sufficient for binding to chicken trachea (Wickramasinghe et al., 2011). In the present study, we demonstrated that the lack of binding of Beaudette S1 was not due to absence of virus receptors on this tissue nor due to the production of S1 from mammalian cells, as S1 proteins expressed from chicken cells also lacked the ability to bind IBV-susceptible embryonic tissue. Subsequently, we addressed the contribution of the S2 subunit of the spike in IBV attachment. Recombinant IBV Beaudette spike ectodomains, comprising the entire S1 domain and the S2 ectodomain, were expressed and analyzed for binding to susceptible embryonic chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) in our previously developed spike histochemistry assay. We observed that extension of the S1 domain with the S2 subunit of the Beaudette spike was sufficient to gain binding to CAM. A previously suggested heparin sulfate binding site in Beaudette S2 was not required for the observed binding to CAM, while sialic acids on the host tissues were essential for the attachment. To further elucidate the role of S2 the spike ectodomains of virulent IBV M41 and chimeras of M41 and Beaudette were analyzed for their binding to CAM, chicken trachea and mammalian cell lines. While the M41 spike ectodomain showed increased attachment to both CAM and chicken trachea, no binding to mammalian cells was observed. In contrast, Beaudette spike ectodomain had relatively weak ability to bind to chicken trachea, but displayed marked extended host range to mammalian cells. Binding patterns of chimeric spike ectodomains to these tissues and cells indicate that S2 subunits most likely do not contain an additional independent receptor-binding site. Rather, the interplay between S1 and S2 subunits of spikes from the same viral origin might finally determine the avidity and specificity of virus attachment and thus viral host range.
Project description:Infection of chicken coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is initiated by binding of the viral heavily N-glycosylated attachment protein spike to the alpha-2,3-linked sialic acid receptor Neu5Ac. Previously, we have shown that N-glycosylation of recombinantly expressed receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike of IBV-M41 is of critical importance for binding to chicken trachea tissue. Here we investigated the role of N-glycosylation of the RBD on receptor specificity and virus replication in the context of the virus particle. Using our reverse genetics system we were able to generate recombinant IBVs for nine-out-of-ten individual N-glycosylation mutants. In vitro growth kinetics of these viruses were comparable to the virus containing the wild-type M41-S1. Furthermore, Neu5Ac binding by the recombinant viruses containing single N-glycosylation site knock-out mutations matched the Neu5Ac binding observed with the recombinant RBDs. Five N-glycosylation mutants lost the ability to bind Neu5Ac and gained binding to a different, yet unknown, sialylated glycan receptor on host cells. These results demonstrate that N-glycosylation of IBV is a determinant for receptor specificity.
Project description:The spike (S) glycoprotein of the avian gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is comprised of two subunits (S1 and S2), has a role in virulence in vivo, and is responsible for cellular tropism in vitro We have previously demonstrated that replacement of the S glycoprotein ectodomain from the avirulent Beaudette strain of IBV with the corresponding region from the virulent M41-CK strain resulted in a recombinant virus, BeauR-M41(S), with the in vitro cell tropism of M41-CK. The IBV Beaudette strain is able to replicate in both primary chick kidney cells and Vero cells, whereas the IBV M41-CK strain replicates in primary cells only. In order to investigate the region of the IBV S responsible for growth in Vero cells, we generated a series of recombinant IBVs expressing chimeric S glycoproteins, consisting of regions from the Beaudette and M41-CK S gene sequences, within the genomic background of Beaudette. The S2, but not the S1, subunit of the Beaudette S was found to confer the ability to grow in Vero cells. Various combinations of Beaudette-specific amino acids were introduced into the S2 subunit of M41 to determine the minimum requirement to confer tropism for growth in Vero cells. The ability of IBV to grow and produce infectious progeny virus in Vero cells was subsequently narrowed down to just 3 amino acids surrounding the S2' cleavage site. Conversely, swapping of the 3 Beaudette-associated amino acids with the corresponding ones from M41 was sufficient to abolish Beaudette growth in Vero cells.IMPORTANCE Infectious bronchitis remains a major problem in the global poultry industry, despite the existence of many different vaccines. IBV vaccines, both live attenuated and inactivated, are currently grown on embryonated hen's eggs, a cumbersome and expensive process due to the fact that most IBV strains do not grow in cultured cells. The reverse genetics system for IBV creates the opportunity for generating rationally designed and more effective vaccines. The observation that IBV Beaudette has the additional tropism for growth on Vero cells also invokes the possibility of generating IBV vaccines produced from cultured cells rather than by the use of embryonated eggs. The regions of the IBV Beaudette S glycoprotein involved in the determination of extended cellular tropism were identified in this study. This information will enable the rational design of a future generation of IBV vaccines that may be grown on Vero cells.
Project description:Avian coronaviruses, including infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), are important respiratory pathogens of poultry. The heavily glycosylated IBV spike protein is responsible for binding to host tissues. Glycosylation sites in the spike protein are highly conserved across viral genotypes, suggesting an important role for this modification in the virus life cycle. Here, we analyzed the N-glycosylation of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of IBV strain M41 spike protein and assessed the role of this modification in host receptor binding. Ten single Asn-to-Ala substitutions at the predicted N-glycosylation sites of the M41-RBD were evaluated along with two control Val-to-Ala substitutions. CD analysis revealed that the secondary structure of all variants was retained compared with the unmodified M41-RBD construct. Six of the 10 glycosylation variants lost binding to chicken trachea tissue and an ELISA-presented ?2,3-linked sialic acid oligosaccharide ligand. LC/MSE glycomics analysis revealed that glycosylation sites have specific proportions of N-glycan subtypes. Overall, the glycosylation patterns of most variant RBDs were highly similar to those of the unmodified M41-RBD construct. In silico docking experiments with the recently published cryo-EM structure of the M41 IBV spike protein and our glycosylation results revealed a potential ligand receptor site that is ringed by four glycosylation sites that dramatically impact ligand binding. Combined with the results of previous array studies, the glycosylation and mutational analyses presented here suggest a unique glycosylation-dependent binding modality for the M41 spike protein.
Project description:Although infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the first coronavirus identified, little is known about which membrane protein of host cells could interact with IBV spike protein and facilitate the infection by the virus. In this study, by using a monoclonal antibody to the S1 protein of IBV M41 strain, we found that heat shock protein member 8 (HSPA8) could interact with spike protein of IBV. HSPA8 was found to be present on the cell membrane and chicken tissues, with highest expression level in the kidney. Results of co-IP and GST-pull-down assays indicated that the receptor binding domain (RBD) of IBV M41 could interact with HSPA8. The results of binding blocking assay and infection inhibition assay showed that recombinant protein HSPA8 and antibody to HSPA8 could inhibit IBV M41 infection of chicken embryonic kidney (CEK) cells. Further, we found that HSPA8 interacted with the N-terminal 19-272 amino acids of S1 of IBV Beaudette, H120 and QX strains and HSPA8 from human and pig also interacted with IBV M41-RBD. Finally the results of binding blocking assay and infection inhibition assay showed that recombinant HSPA8 protein and antibody to HSPA8 could inhibit IBV Beaudette strain infection of Vero cells that were treated with heparanase to remove heparan sulfate from the cell surface. Taken together, our results indicate that HSPA8 is a novel host factor involved in IBV infection.
Project description:Influenza A virus (IAV) and influenza B virus (IBV) cause substantial morbidity and mortality during annual epidemics. Two distinct lineages of IBV are distinguished, based on variation in hemagglutinin (HA): B/Victoria/2/87-like (B/Vic) and B/Yamagata/16/88-like (B/Yam). Here, we show that, in humans, primary IBV infection with either lineage induces HA-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)-mediating antibodies. IBV infection induced antibodies specific to the HA head and stalk, but only HA stalk-specific antibodies mediated ADCC efficiently and displayed cross-reactivity with IBV of both lineages. This corresponds to recent findings that 2 points of contact between the effector and target cell (ie, HA and sialic acid, respectively, and the fragment crystallizable [Fc] domain and Fc? receptor III?, respectively) are required for efficient ADCC activity and that antibodies specific for the receptor-binding site located in the head domain of HA therefore fail to mediate ADCC. Potentially, ADCC-mediating antibodies directed to the HA stalk of IBV contribute to cross-protective immunity to IBV of both lineages.
Project description:Bioinformatic analysis was used to predict antigenic B-cell and T-cell epitopes within the S1 glycoprotein of M41 and CR88 IBV strains. A conserved linear B-cell epitope peptide, YTSNETTDVTS(175-185), was identified in M41 IBV strains while three such epitopes types namely, VSNASPNSGGVD(279-290), HPKCNFRPENI(328-338), and NETNNAGSVSDCTAGT(54-69), were predicted in CR88 IBV strains. Analysis of MHCI binding peptides in M41 IBV strains revealed the presence of 15 antigenic peptides out of which 12 were highly conserved in 96-100% of the total M41 strains analysed. Interestingly three of these peptides, GGPITYKVM(208), WFNSLSVSI(356), and YLADAGLAI(472), relatively had high antigenicity index (>1.0). On the other hand, 11 MHCI binding epitope peptides were identified in CR88 IBV strains. Of these, five peptides were found to be highly conserved with a range between 90% and 97%. However, WFNSLSVSL(358), SYNISAASV(88), and YNISAASVA(89) peptides comparably showed high antigenicity scores (>1.0). Combination of antigenic B-cells and T-cells peptides that are conserved across many strains as approach to evoke humoral and CTL immune response will potentially lead to a broad-based vaccine that could reduce the challenges in using live attenuated vaccine technology in the control of IBV infection in poultry.
Project description:Influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. Most pandemics occurred upon adaptation of avian IAVs to humans. This adaptation includes a hallmark receptor-binding specificity switch of hemagglutinin (HA) from avian-type ?2,3- to human-type ?2,6-linked sialic acids. Complementary changes of the receptor-destroying neuraminidase (NA) are considered to restore the precarious, but poorly described, HA-NA-receptor balance required for virus fitness. In comparison to the detailed functional description of adaptive mutations in HA, little is known about the functional consequences of mutations in NA in relation to their effect on the HA-NA balance and host tropism. An understudied feature of NA is the presence of a second sialic acid-binding site (2SBS) in avian IAVs and absence of a 2SBS in human IAVs, which affects NA catalytic activity. Here we demonstrate that mutation of the 2SBS of avian IAV H5N1 disturbs the HA-NA balance. Passaging of a 2SBS-negative H5N1 virus on MDCK cells selected for progeny with a restored HA-NA balance. These viruses obtained mutations in NA that restored a functional 2SBS and/or in HA that reduced binding of avian-type receptors. Importantly, a particular HA mutation also resulted in increased binding of human-type receptors. Phylogenetic analyses of avian IAVs show that also in the field, mutations in the 2SBS precede mutations in HA that reduce binding of avian-type receptors and increase binding of human-type receptors. Thus, 2SBS mutations in NA can drive acquisition of mutations in HA that not only restore the HA-NA balance, but may also confer increased zoonotic potential.