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Binding of avian coronavirus spike proteins to host factors reflects virus tropism and pathogenicity.

ABSTRACT: The binding of viruses to host cells is the first step in determining tropism and pathogenicity. While avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV) infection and avian influenza A virus (IAV) infection both depend on ?2,3-linked sialic acids, the host tropism of IBV is restricted compared to that of IAV. Here we investigated whether the interaction between the viral attachment proteins and the host could explain these differences by using recombinant spike domains (S1) of IBV strains with different pathogenicities, as well as the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of IAV H5N1. Protein histochemistry showed that S1 of IBV strain M41 and HA of IAV subtype H5N1 displayed sialic acid-dependent binding to chicken respiratory tract tissue. However, while HA bound with high avidity to a broad range of ?2,3-linked sialylated glycans, M41 S1 recognized only one particular ?2,3-linked disialoside in a glycan array. When comparing the binding of recombinant IBV S1 proteins derived from IBV strains with known differences in tissue tropism and pathogenicity, we observed that while M41 S1 displayed binding to cilia and goblet cells of the chicken respiratory tract, S1 derived from the vaccine strain H120 or the nonvirulent Beaudette strain had reduced or no binding to chicken tissues, respectively, in agreement with the reduced abilities of these viruses to replicate in vivo. While the S1 protein derived from the nephropathogenic IBV strain B1648 also hardly displayed binding to respiratory tract cells, distinct binding to kidney cells was observed, but only after the removal of sialic acid from S1. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the attachment patterns of the IBV S proteins correlate with the tropisms and pathogenicities of the corresponding viruses.

SUBMITTER: Wickramasinghe IN 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC3165808 | BioStudies | 2011-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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