?-1 and ?-2 adrenergic receptor polymorphism and association with cardiovascular response to orthostatic screening.
ABSTRACT: Variation in the beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptor genes (ADRB1 and ADRB2, respectively) may influence cardiovascular reactivity including orthostatic stress. We tested this hypothesis in a head-up tilt (HUT) screening protocol in healthy young adults without history of syncope. Following brachial arterial catheter insertion, 120 subjects (age 18-40, 72 females, Caucasian) underwent 5min 60° HUT. Polymorphisms tested were: Ser49/Gly and Arg389/Gly in ADRB1; and Arg16/Gly, Gln27/Glu, and Thr164/Ile in ADRB2. Three statistical models (recessive, dominant, additive) were evaluated using general linear models with analysis for each physiologic variable. A recessive model demonstrated a significant association between Arg16/Gly and: absolute supine and upright HR; HUT-induced change in cardiac index (CI), stroke index (SI) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR); and supine and upright norepinephrine values. Blood pressure was not influenced by genotype. Fewer associations were present for other polymorphisms: Ser49/Gly and the change in SI (dominant model), and Arg389/Gly and supine and HUT norepinephrine (additive model). We conclude that in this population, there is a robust association between Arg16/Gly and HUT responses, such that 2 copies of Arg16 increase supine and upright HR, and greater HUT-induced decreases in CI and SI, with greater increases in SVR and norepinephrine. ADRB1 gene variation appears to impact SI and plasma NE levels but not HR. Whether ADRB2 gene variation is ultimately disease-causing or disease-modifying, this study suggests an association between Arg16/Gly and postural hemodynamics, with sympathetic noradrenergic activity affected in a similar direction. This may have implications in the development of orthostatic disorders.
Project description:Numerous studies have demonstrated that beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB1 and ADRB2) variants influence cardiovascular risk and beta-blocker responses in hypertension and heart failure. We evaluated the relationship between ADRB1 and ADRB2 haplotypes, cardiovascular risk (death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), and nonfatal stroke), and atenolol-based vs. verapamil sustained-release (SR)-based antihypertensive therapy in 5,895 coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. After an average of 2.8 years, death rates were higher in patients carrying the ADRB1 Ser49-Arg389 haplotype (hazard ratio (HR) 3.66, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.68-7.99). This mortality risk was significant in patients randomly assigned to verapamil SR (HR 8.58, 95% CI 2.06-35.8) but not atenolol (HR 2.31, 95% CI 0.82-6.55), suggesting a protective role for the beta-blocker. ADRB2 haplotype associations were divergent within the treatment groups but did not remain significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. ADRB1 haplotype variation is associated with mortality risk, and beta-blockers may be preferred in subgroups of patients defined by ADRB1 or ADRB2 polymorphisms.
Project description:Genes involved in the regulation of catecholamine function may be important in obesity because of the role catecholamines play in energy expenditure and lipolysis. To determine if common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB1), beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2), beta(3)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3), and alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor (ADRA2A) genes associate with obesity and metabolic alterations, we recruited 74 healthy African American and 161 white men and women (age, 18-49 years) to participate in this case-control genetic association study. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Associations between genotype and body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (by measuring skinfold thickness in 7 different sites), fasting (12-hour) plasma glucose, insulin, potassium concentrations, glycated hemoglobin, and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment [HOMA(IR)] score) were performed. Among whites, the ADRB1 Arg389-->Gly variant associated with insulin concentrations and HOMA(IR): mean +/- SD values for insulin and HOMA(IR) in Arg389 homozygotes and carriers of the Gly were 10 +/- 7.0 and 12 +/- 9.4 micro IU/mL (P = .02) and 2.1 +/- 1.7 and 2.6 +/- 2.2 (P = .057), respectively. Systolic blood pressure was higher in whites for carriers of the ADBR1 Ser49 compared to Gly49 homozygotes (124 +/- 12.6 vs 119 +/- 11.3 mm Hg, respectively; P = .02). Subsequent analysis revealed that these associations were attributable to a higher BMI among obese participants. The ADRA2A G1780A SNP associated with BMI and percentage of body fat in African Americans (P = .05). Interactions were detected between ADRA2A C-1291G and ADRB2 Gln27-->Glu variants for obesity in African Americans and between ADRA2A C-1291G SNP and ADBR1 haplotype for obesity in whites. We conclude that common SNPs in adrenergic receptor genes may be important susceptibility loci for obesity and related alterations. Because of the limited size of our populations, our results should be interpreted with caution and should be replicated in larger populations.
Project description:AIM: Pharmacogenetics can be used as a tool for stratified pharmacological therapy in cardiovascular medicine. We investigated whether a predefined combination of the Arg389Gly polymorphism in the adrenergic ?(1) -receptor gene (ADRB1) and the Gln27Glu polymorphism in the adrenergic ?(2) -receptor gene (ADRB2) could predict survival in carvedilol- and metoprolol-treated chronic heart failure (HF) patients. METHODS: Five hundred and eighty-six HF patients (carvedilol n= 82, metoprolol n= 195) were genotyped for ADRB1 Arg389Gly (rs1801253) and ADRB2 Gln27Glu (rs1042714). The end-point was all-cause mortality, and median follow-up time was 6.7 years. Patients were classified into two functional genotype groups: group 1 combination of Arg389-homozygous and Gln27-carrier (46%) and group 2 any other genotype combination (54%). Results were fitted in two multivariate Cox models. RESULTS: There was a significant interaction between functional genotype group and carvedilol treatment (adjusted(1) P= 0.033, adjusted(2) P= 0.040). Patients treated with carvedilol had shorter survival in functional genotype group 1 (P= 0.004; adjusted(1) hazard ratio (HR) 2.67, 95% CI 1.27, 5.59, P= 0.010; adjusted(2) HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.06, 3.95, P= 0.033). There was no interaction between genotype group and metoprolol treatment (P= 0.61), and there was no difference in overall survival between genotype groups (P= 0.69). CONCLUSIONS: A combination of ADRB1 Arg389-homozygous and ADRB2 Gln27-carrier in HF patients treated with carvedilol was associated with a two-fold increase in mortality relative to all other genotype combinations. There was no difference in survival in metoprolol-treated HF patients between genotype groups. Patients in genotype group 1 may benefit more from metoprolol than carvedilol treatment.
Project description:Genetic polymorphisms in ?1-, ?2- and ?3-adrenergic receptors (?-ARs) have been associated with chronic non-communicable disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obesity, as well as ?-agonists and antagonists response and toxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency distribution of ADRB1 genetic variants Ser49Gly and Arg389Gly, ADRB2 variants Gly16Arg and Gln27Glu, ADRB3 variant Trp64Arg in a Southeastern European Caucasian (SEC) population sample and to establish a comparison with existing data from other human populations. A sample of 431 men and 590 women volunteered to participate in this genotyping analysis after anonymization and de-identification. Real Time PCR (Melting Curve Analysis) followed DNA extraction from buccal swabs and statistical analysis of the results was performed. The allele frequencies in the SEC population were Ser49 (90.3%), Arg389 (69.49%), Gly16 (61.61%), Gln27 (65.72%), and Trp64 (94.52%), while a Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) was detected in the population studied. Comparisons for the Ser49Gly, Gln27Glu, and Trp64Arg allele distributions demonstrated significant differences between SEC and the European group. European subgroups comparisons showed that allele distributions were similar for four of the five SNPs between SEC and Southwestern European Caucasians (SWC), while they were quite distinct from the Northwestern European Caucasians (NWC). These data underline the importance of interethnic variability of ?-ARs genetic polymorphisms.
Project description:The role of the ?2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unclear. We investigated the association between ADRB2 variants and the risk of exacerbations in COPD patients treated with inhaled ?2-agonists. Within the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort study, we followed 1,053 COPD patients until the first COPD exacerbation or end of follow-up and extracted rs1042713 (16Arg > Gly) and rs1042714 (27Gln > Glu) in ADRB2. Exposure to inhaled ?2-agonists was categorised into current, past or non-use on the index date (date of COPD exacerbation for cases and on the same day of follow-up for controls). COPD exacerbations were defined as acute episodes of worsening symptoms requiring systemic corticosteroids and/or antibiotics (moderate exacerbations), or hospitalization (severe exacerbations). The associations between ADRB2 variants and COPD exacerbations were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, sex, use of inhaled corticosteroids, daily dose of ?2-agonists, and smoking. In current users of ?2-agonists, the risk of COPD exacerbation decreased by 30% (hazard ratio (HR); 0.70, 95% CI: 0.59-0.84) for each copy of the Arg allele of rs1042713 and by 20% (HR; 0.80, 95% CI: 0.69-0.94) for each copy of the Gln allele of rs1042714. Furthermore, current users carrying the Arg16/Gln27 haplotype had a significantly lower risk (HR; 0.70, 95% CI: 0.59-0.85) of COPD exacerbation compared to the Gly16/Glu27 haplotype. In conclusion, we observed that the Arg16/Gln27 haplotype in ADRB2 was associated with a reduced risk of COPD exacerbation in current users of inhaled ?2-agonists.
Project description:Previous work demonstrated that maternal haplotypes of the ??-adrenoceptor gene (ADRB2) influence ephedrine requirements during cesarean delivery. The use of ephedrine versus a pure ?-adrenergic agonist such as phenylephrine has been associated with lower umbilical artery (UA) pH, thought to be secondary to increased fetal metabolism. There are no data evaluating the effect of fetal/neonatal genotypes on the metabolic response to maternally administered vasopressors. We hypothesized that neonatal ADRB2 genotype would affect the extent of neonatal acidemia. We also examined the effect of maternal ADRB2 and the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3) on ephedrine and phenylephrine requirements for treatment of maternal hypotension.The study was performed on 104 Chinese women scheduled for cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia who were participating in a double-blind randomized clinical trial evaluating the maternal and neonatal effects of ephedrine versus phenylephrine infusions. Blood samples were drawn from the UA, umbilical vein, and maternal radial artery to measure blood gas values and lactate, ephedrine, and phenylephrine concentrations, and to determine maternal and neonatal genotype at nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms at codons 16 (rs1042713) and 27 (rs1042714) of ADRB2 and codon 298 (rs1799983) of NOS. Clinical variables (UA pH, UA lactate, and dose of vasopressors) among genotypes were compared, and regression models were created to assess the effect of genotype on vasopressor dose and fetal acid-base status.Maternal ADRB2 genotype did not affect the ephedrine dose. Neonatal genotype at codon 16 influenced fetal acid-base status. UA pH was higher in Arg16 homozygous neonates (7.31 ± 0.03 in p.16Arg/Arg vs. 7.25 ± 0.11 in p.16 Arg/Gly and p.16 Gly/Gly; P < 0.001, 95%confidence interval (CI) of difference 0.03 ~ 0.09) and UA lactate was lower (2.67 mmol/L ± 0.99 in p.16Arg/Arg vs 4.28 mmol/L ± 2.79 in. p.16 Arg/Gly and p.16 Gly/Gly; P < 0.001, 95% CI of difference -2.40 ~ -0.82). In neonates born to mothers receiving ephedrine, the magnitude of the difference among genotypes was even greater (pH 7.30 ± 0.02 in p.16Arg/Arg vs. 7.19 ± 0.10 in p.16 Arg/Gly and p.16 Gly/Gly; P < 0.001, 95% CI of difference 0.07 ~ 0.14) and UA lactate was lower (3.66 mmol/L ± 1.30 in p.16Arg/Arg vs. 5.79 mmol/L ± 2.88 in p.16 Arg/Gly and p.16 Gly/Gly; P = 0.003, 95% CI of difference -3.48 ~ -0.80). In a multiple linear regression model (R² = 63.6%; P = 0.03), neonatal ADRB2 genotypes (p.16Arg/Arg and p.27Gln/Glu) and lower neonatal birth weight predicted lower UA lactate concentrations. Phenylephrine dose was not affected by maternal ADRB2 or NOS3 genotypes, and neonatal NOS3 genotype did not affect UA pH or UA lactate.In contrast to previous findings in a North American cohort, maternal ADRB2 genotype did not affect ephedrine requirements during elective cesarean delivery in a Chinese cohort. However, our findings suggest that neonatal ADRB2 p.Arg16 homozygosity confers a protective effect against developing ephedrine-induced fetal acidemia.
Project description:Two common genetic polymorphisms in the beta-1 adrenergic receptor (ADRB1 Ser49Gly [rs1801252] and Arg389Gly [rs1801253]) significantly affect receptor function in vitro. The objective of this study was to determine whether ADRB1 Ser49Gly and Arg389Gly are associated with recovery of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in patients with heart failure. Patients with heart failure and baseline LVEF???40% were genotyped (n?=?98), and retrospective chart review assessed the primary outcome of LVEF recovery to ??40%. Un/adjusted logistic regression models revealed that Ser49Gly, but not Arg389Gly, was significantly associated with LVEF recovery in a dominant genetic model. The adjusted odds ratio for Ser49 was 8.2 (95% CI?=?2.1-32.9; p?=?0.003), and it was the strongest predictor of LVEF recovery among multiple clinical variables. In conclusion, patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction that are homozygous for ADRB1 Ser49 were significantly more likely to experience LVEF recovery than Gly49 carriers.
Project description:?-blockers are widely used to improve symptoms and prolong life in heart disease primarily by inhibiting the actions of endogenous catecholamines at the ?1-adrenoceptor. There are two common naturally occurring polymorphisms within the human ?1-adrenoceptor sequence: Ser or Gly at position 49 in the N-terminus and Gly or Arg at position 389 in the C-terminus and some clinical studies have suggested that expression of certain variants may be associated with disease and affect response to treatment with ?-blockers. The ?1-adrenoceptor also exists in two agonist conformations - a high affinity catecholamine conformation and a low affinity secondary agonist conformation. Receptor-effector coupling and intracellular signalling from the different conformations may be affected by the polymorphic variants. Here, we examine in detail the molecular pharmacology of the ?1-adrenoceptor polymorphic variants with respect to ligand affinity, efficacy, activation of the different agonist conformations and signal transduction and determine whether the polymorphic variants do indeed affect this secondary conformation. Stable cell lines expressing the wildtype and polymorphic variants were constructed and receptor pharmacology examined using whole cell binding and intracellular secondary messenger techniques. There was no difference in affinity for agonists and antagonists at the human wildtype ?1-adrenoceptor (Ser49/Gly389) and the polymorphic variants Gly49/Gly389 and Ser49/Arg389. Furthermore, the polymorphic variant receptors both have two active agonist conformations with pharmacological properties similar to the wildtype receptor. Although the polymorphism at position 389 is thought to occur in an intracellular domain important for Gs-coupling, the two agonist conformations of the polymorphic variants stimulate intracellular signalling pathways, including Gs-cAMP intracellular signalling, in a manner very similar to that of the wildtype receptor.
Project description:Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive neuromuscular disease resulting in severe respiratory derangements. As such, DMD patients are at a high risk of nocturnal hypoventilation, thereby requiring nocturnal ventilation (NV). To this end, NV is an important clinical milestone in the management of DMD. Emerging evidence suggests that ß2 adrenergic receptors (ADRB2) may play a role in determining respiratory function, whereby more functional ADRB2 genotype variants (e.g., Gly16) are associated with improved pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength. These findings suggest that the more functional ADRB2 genotype may help to preserve respiratory function in patients with DMD. The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of ADRB2 genotype on the risk of NV use in DMD. Data from the CINRG Duchenne Natural History Study including 175 DMD patients (3-25?yrs) were analyzed focusing on ADRB2 genotype variants. Time-to-event analyses were used to examine differences in the age at prescription of full-time NV use between genotypes. There were no differences between genotype groups in age, height, weight, corticosteroid use, proportion of ambulatory patients, or age at loss of ambulation. DMD patients expressing the Gly16 polymorphism had a significantly (P?<?0.05) lower mean age at NV prescription compared with those patients expressing the Arg16 polymorphism (21.80?±?0.59?yrs. vs 25.91?±?1.31?yrs., respectively). In addition, a covariate-adjusted Cox model revealed that the Gly16 variant group possessed a 6.52-fold higher risk of full-time NV use at any given age compared with the Arg16 polymorphism group. These data suggest that genetic variations in the ADRB2 gene may influence the age at which DMD patients are first prescribed NV, whereby patients with the Gly16 polymorphism are more likely to require NV assistance at an earlier age than their Arg16 counterparts.
Project description:This study sought to identify genetic modifiers of beta-blocker response and long-term survival in heart failure (HF).Differences in beta-blocker treatment effect between Caucasians and African Americans with HF have been reported.This was a prospective cohort study of 2,460 patients (711 African American, 1,749 Caucasian) enrolled between 1999 and 2007; 2,039 patients (81.7%) were treated with a beta-blocker. Each was genotyped for beta1-adrenergic receptor (ADRB1) Arg389>Gly and G-protein receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) Gln41>Leu polymorphisms, which are more prevalent among African Americans than Caucasians. The primary end point was survival time from HF onset.There were 765 deaths during follow-up (median 46 months). beta-blocker treatment increased survival in Caucasians (log-rank p = 0.00038) but not African Americans (log-rank p = 0.327). Among patients not taking beta-blockers, ADRB1 Gly389 was associated with decreased survival in Caucasians (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.98, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1 to 3.7, p = 0.03) whereas GRK5 Leu41 was associated with improved survival in African Americans (HR: 0.325, CI: 0.133 to 0.796, p = 0.01). African Americans with ADRB1 Gly389Gly GRK5 Gln41Gln derived a similar survival benefit from beta-blocker therapy (HR: 0.385, 95% CI: 0.182 to 0.813, p = 0.012) as Caucasians with the same genotype (HR: 0.529, 95% CI: 0.326 to 0.858, p = 0.0098).These data show that differences caused by beta-adrenergic receptor signaling pathway gene polymorphisms, rather than race, are the major factors contributing to apparent differences in the beta-blocker treatment effect between Caucasians and African Americans; proper evaluation of treatment response should account for genetic variance.