Structure of triosephosphate isomerase from Cryptosporidium parvum.
ABSTRACT: Cryptosporidium parvum is one of several Cryptosporidium spp. that cause the parasitic infection cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidiosis is a diarrheal infection that is spread via the fecal-oral route and is commonly caused by contaminated drinking water. Triosephosphate isomerase is an enzyme that is ubiquitous to all organisms that perform glycolysis. Triosephosphate isomerase catalyzes the formation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate from dihydroxyacetone phosphate, which is a critical step to ensure the maximum ATP production per glucose molecule. In this paper, the 1.55 Å resolution crystal structure of the open-loop form of triosephosphate isomerase from C. parvum Iowa II is presented. An unidentified electron density was found in the active site.
Project description:Kinetoplastid protozoa compartmentalize the first seven enzymes of glycolysis and two enzymes of glycerol metabolism in a microbody, the glycosome. While in its mammalian host, Trypanosoma brucei depends entirely on glucose for ATP generation. Under aerobic conditions, most of the glucose is metabolized to pyruvate. Aerobic metabolism depends on the activities of glycosomal triosephosphate isomerase and a mitochondrial glycerophosphate oxidase, and on glycerophosphate<-->dihydroxyacetone phosphate exchange across the glycosomal membrane. Using a combination of genetics and computer modelling, we show that triosephosphate isomerase is probably essential for bloodstream trypanosome survival, but not for the insect-dwelling procyclics, which preferentially use amino acids as an energy source. When the enzyme level decreased to about 15% of that of the wild-type, the growth rate was halved. Below this level, a lethal rise in dihydroxyacetone phosphate was predicted. Expression of cytosolic triosephosphate isomerase inhibited cell growth. Attempts to knockout the trypanosome alternative oxidase genes (which are needed for glycerophosphate oxidase activity) were unsuccessful, but when we lowered the level of the corresponding mRNA by expressing a homologous double-stranded RNA, oxygen consumption was reduced fourfold and the rate of trypanosome growth was halved.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium and Giardia are important causes of diarrhea diseases in humans and animals worldwide, and both of them are transmitted by the fecal-oral route, either by direct contact or by the ingestion of contaminated food or water. The role of flies in the mechanical transmission of Cryptosporidium and Giardia has been receiving increasing attention. To date, no information is available in China about the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in flies. We here investigated Cryptosporidium and Giardia in flies on dairy farms in Henan Province, China, at the genotype and subtype levels. METHODS: Eight hundred flies were randomly collected from two dairy farms from July 2010 to September 2010 and were divided evenly into 40 batches. The fly samples were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia with nested PCR. Cryptosporidium was genotyped and subtyped by analyzing the DNA sequences of small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) and 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) genes, respectively. The identity of Giardia was determined by sequence analyzing of the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and ?-giardin (bg) genes. RESULTS: Forty batches of flies had 10% of contamination with Cryptosporidium or Giardia, with a mixed infection of the two parasites in one batch of flies. The Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. parvum at the SSU rRNA locus, and all belonged to subtype IIdA19G1 at the gp60 locus. The Giardia isolates were all identified as assemblage E of G. duodenalis at the tpi, gdh, and bg loci. One novel subtype of assemblage E was identified based on the gdh and bg loci. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first molecular study of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in flies identified at both genotype and subtype levels. SSU rRNA and gp60 sequences of C. parvum in flies was 100% homologous with those derived from humans, suggesting flies act as an epidemiological vector of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis. The variable PCR efficiencies observed in the analysis of Giardia at different loci suggest that we should use the multilocus genotyping tool in future studies to increase the detection rate, and importantly, to obtain more complete genetic information on Giardia isolates.
Project description:To obtain information about the occurrence and genotype distribution of G. intestinalis and C. parvum in Austrian cattle, faecal samples from diarrhoeic calves younger than 180 days of age originating from 70 farms were examined. Of the 177 faecal samples, 27.1% were positive for Giardia cysts (immunofluorescence microscopy) and 55.4% for Cryptosporidium oocysts (phase-contrast microscopy). Positive samples were characterized by nested PCR for Giardia, 83.3% (triosephosphate isomerase; tpi) and 89.6% (?-giardin; bg) were positive, while the Cryptosporidium nested PCR returned 92.5% (60-kDa glycoprotein) positive results. Sequence analysis revealed one assemblage A-positive sample and 30 (bg) respectively 29 (tpi) assemblage E-positive samples for G. intestinalis. For C. parvum four subtypes within the IIa family (IIaA15G2R1, n?=?29; IIaA19G2R2, n?=?3; IIaA21G2R1, n?=?2; IIaA14G1R1, n?=?1) could be differentiated. Validation of two immunochromatographic point-of-care tests resulted in a sensitivity of 29.2% and 77.6%; a specificity of 98.4% and 91.1% for the detection of Giardia intestinalis and Cryptosporidium parvum, respectively. Results confirm the widespread occurrence of both protozoa in diarrhoeic calves in Austria.
Project description:ABSTRACT Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) catalyzes the interconversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P). This reaction is required for glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, and tpi has been predicted to be essential for growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, when studying a conditionally regulated tpi knockdown mutant, we noticed that depletion of TPI reduced growth of M. tuberculosis in media containing a single carbon source but not in media that contained both a glycolytic and a gluconeogenic carbon source. We used such two-carbon-source media to isolate a tpi deletion (?tpi) mutant. The ?tpi mutant did not survive with single carbon substrates but grew like wild-type (WT) M. tuberculosis in the presence of both a glycolytic and a gluconeogenic carbon source. (13)C metabolite tracing revealed the accumulation of TPI substrates in ?tpi and the absence of alternative triosephosphate isomerases and metabolic bypass reactions, which confirmed the requirement of TPI for glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in M. tuberculosis. The ?tpi strain was furthermore severely attenuated in the mouse model of tuberculosis, suggesting that M. tuberculosis cannot simultaneously access sufficient quantities of glycolytic and gluconeogenic carbon substrates to establish infection in mice. IMPORTANCE The importance of central carbon metabolism for the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis has recently been recognized, but the consequences of depleting specific metabolic enzymes remain to be identified for many enzymes. We investigated triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) because it is central to both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis and had been predicted to be essential for growth of M. tuberculosis. This work identified metabolic conditions that make TPI dispensable for M. tuberculosis growth in culture and proved that M. tuberculosis relies on a single TPI enzyme and has no metabolic bypass for the TPI-dependent interconversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Finally, we demonstrate that TPI is essential for growth of the pathogen in mouse lungs.
Project description:Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the major species causing mild to severe cryptosporidiosis in humans and animals. We have previously observed that 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG) could inhibit both the enzyme activity of C. parvum hexokinase (CpHK) and the parasite growth in vitro. However, the action and fate of 2DG in C. parvum was not fully investigated. In the present study, we showed that, although 2DG could be phosphorylated by CpHK to form 2DG-6-phosphate (2DG6P), the anti-cryptosporidial activity of 2DG was mainly attributed to the action of 2DG on CpHK, rather than the action of 2DG or 2DG6P on the downstream enzyme glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (CpGPI) nor 2DG6P on CpHK. These observations further supported the hypothesis that CpHK could serve as a drug target in the parasite. We also screened 1,200 small molecules consisting of marketed drugs against CpHK, from which four drugs were identified as CpHK inhibitors with micromolar level of anti-cryptospordial activities at concentrations nontoxic to the host cells (i.e. hexachlorphene, thimerosal, alexidine dihydrochloride, and ebselen with EC50 = 0.53, 1.77, 8.1 and 165 ?M, respectively). The anti-CpHK activity of the four existing drugs provided us new reagents for studying the enzyme properties of the parasite hexokinase.
Project description:Cryptosporidium parvum calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CpCDPK1) is a promising target for drug development against cryptosporidiosis. We report a series of low-nanomolar CpCDPK1 5-aminopyrazole-4-carboxamide (AC) scaffold inhibitors that also potently inhibit C. parvum growth in vitro Correlation between anti-CpCDPK1 and C. parvum growth inhibition, as previously reported for pyrazolopyrimidines, was not apparent. Nonetheless, lead AC compounds exhibited a substantial reduction of parasite burden in the neonatal mouse cryptosporidiosis model when dosed at 25 mg/kg.
Project description:Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important gastrointestinal protists in humans and animals worldwide. In China, bovine cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are of increasing concern because cattle are important reservoirs of these parasites, which have become potential threats to public health and to large numbers of cattle in recent years.A total of 1366 fecal samples from the Ningxia Autonomous Region were examined. The overall infection rates for Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis were 1.61% and 2.12%, respectively. Cryptosporidium was only detected in preweaned calves and adults older than 2 years, whereas G. duodenalis was only detected in calves aged less than 11 months. Cryptosporidium spp. were characterized with a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and DNA sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene. Three Cryptosporidium species were identified: C. parvum (n = 15) and C. bovis (n = 4) in preweaned calves, and C. andersoni (n = 4) in adults aged over 2 years. A DNA sequence analysis of the gp60 gene suggested that the 15 C. parvum isolates all belonged to subtype IIdA15G1. Twenty-nine G. duodenalis isolates were analyzed by DNA sequencing of the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes. Two G. duodenalis assemblages were identified, assemblages E (n = 15) and B (n = 4, one subtype B1 and three subtype B2) in preweaned calves, and assemblage E (n = 10) in 3-11-month-old calves.The predominance of C. parvum detected in preweaned calves and the first identified subtype IIdA15G1 in dairy cattle, and the dominant G. duodenalis assemblage E in this study differed considerably from those found in Henan, Heilongjiang, and Shannxi Provinces. Our findings further confirm the dominance of C. parvum IId subtypes in China.
Project description:This study investigated the role of L-arginine supplementation to undernourished and Cryptosporidium parvum-infected suckling mice.The following regimens were initiated on the fourth day of life and injected subcutaneously daily. The C. parvum-infected controls received L-arginine (200 mmol/L) or phosphate buffered saline. The L-arginine-treated mice were grouped to receive NG-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (20 mmol/L) or phosphate buffered saline. The infected mice received orally 10(6) excysted C. parvum oocysts on day 6 and were euthanized on day 14 at the infection peak.L-arginine improved weight gain compared with the untreated infected controls. L-NAME profoundly impaired body weight gain compared with all other groups. Cryptosporidiosis was associated with ileal crypt hyperplasia, villus blunting, and inflammation. L-arginine improved mucosal histology after the infection. L-NAME abrogated these arginine-induced improvements. The infected control mice showed an intense arginase expression, which was even greater with L-NAME. L-arginine decreased the parasite burden, an effect that was reversed by L-NAME. Cryptosporidium parvum infection increased urine NO(3)(-)/NO(2)(-) concentrations compared with the uninfected controls, which was increased by L-arginine supplementation, an effect that was also reversed by L-NAME.These findings show a protective role of L-arginine during C. parvum infection in undernourished mice, with involvement of arginase I and nitric oxide synthase enzymatic actions.
Project description:Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite responsible for gastroenteritis, especially in immunocompromised patients. Laboratory diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis relies on microscopy, antigen detection, and nucleic acid detection and analysis. Among the numerous molecular targets available, the 18S rRNA gene displays the best sensitivity and sequence variations between species and can be used for molecular typing assays. This paper presents a new real-time PCR assay for the detection and quantification of all Cryptosporidium species associated with the identification of Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. The sensitivity and specificity of this new PCR assay were assessed on a multicentric basis, using well-characterized Cryptosporidium-positive and -negative human stool samples, and the efficiencies of nine extraction methods were comparatively assessed using Cryptosporidium-seeded stool samples and phosphate-buffered saline samples. A comparison of extraction yields showed that the most efficient extraction method was the Boom technique in association with mechanical grinding, and column extraction showed higher binding capacity than extraction methods based on magnetic silica. Our PCR assay was able to quantify at least 300 oocysts per gram of stool. Satisfactory reproducibility between laboratories was observed. The two main species causing human disease, Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum, were identified using a duplex real-time PCR assay with specific TaqMan minor-groove-binding ligand (MGB) probes for the same amplicon. To conclude, this one-step quantitative PCR is well suited to the routine diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis since practical conditions, including DNA extraction, quantification using well-defined standards, and identification of the two main species infecting humans, have been positively assessed.
Project description:Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that causes food and waterborne gastrointestinal disease and whose major animal reservoirs are cattle and small ruminants. We report here on a draft whole-genome sequence of a zoonotic isolate of C. parvum isolated from a person with cryptosporidiosis.