Global organization of protein complexome in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Proteins in organisms, rather than act alone, usually form protein complexes to perform cellular functions. We analyze the topological network structure of protein complexes and their component proteins in the budding yeast in terms of the bipartite network and its projections, where the complexes and proteins are its two distinct components. Compared to conventional protein-protein interaction networks, the networks from the protein complexes show more homogeneous structures than those of the binary protein interactions, implying the formation of complexes that cause a relatively more uniform number of interaction partners. In addition, we suggest a new optimization method to determine the abundance and function of protein complexes, based on the information of their global organization. Estimating abundance and biological functions is of great importance for many researches, by providing a quantitative description of cell behaviors, instead of just a "catalogues" of the lists of protein interactions. RESULTS: With our new optimization method, we present genome-wide assignments of abundance and biological functions for complexes, as well as previously unknown abundance and functions of proteins, which can provide significant information for further investigations in proteomics. It is strongly supported by a number of biologically relevant examples, such as the relationship between the cytoskeleton proteins and signal transduction and the metabolic enzyme Eno2's involvement in the cell division process. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that our methods and findings are applicable not only to the specific area of proteomics, but also to much broader areas of systems biology with the concept of optimization principle.
Project description:Differential gene expression profiles for detecting disease genes have been studied intensively in systems biology. However, it is known that various biological functions achieved by proteins follow from the ability of the protein to form complexes by physically binding to each other. In other words, the functional units are often protein complexes rather than individual proteins. Thus, we seek to replace the perspective of disease-related genes by disease-related complexes, exemplifying with data on 39 human solid tissue cancers and their original normal tissues. To obtain the differential abundance levels of protein complexes, we apply an optimization algorithm to genome-wide differential expression data. From the differential abundance of complexes, we extract tissue- and cancer-selective complexes, and investigate their relevance to cancer. The method is supported by a clustering tendency of bipartite cancer-complex relationships, as well as a more concrete and realistic approach to disease-related proteomics.
Project description:Complexome profiling is a novel technique which uses shotgun proteomics to establish protein migration profiles from fractionated blue native electrophoresis gels. Here we present a dataset of blue native electrophoresis migration profiles for 953 proteins by complexome profiling. By analysis of mitochondrial ribosomal complexes we demonstrate its potential to verify putative protein-protein interactions identified by affinity purification-mass spectrometry studies. Protein complexes were extracted in their native state from a HEK293 mitochondrial fraction and separated by blue native gel electrophoresis. Gel lanes were cut into gel slices of even size and analyzed by shotgun proteomics. Subsequently, the acquired protein migration profiles were analyzed for co-migration via hierarchical cluster analysis. This dataset holds great promise as a comprehensive resource for de novo identification of protein-protein interactions or to underpin and prioritize candidate protein interactions from other studies. To demonstrate the potential use of our dataset we focussed on the mitochondrial translation machinery. Our results show that mitoribosomal complexes can be analyzed by blue native gel electrophoresis, as at least four distinct complexes. Analysis of these complexes confirmed that 24 proteins that had previously been reported to co-purify with mitoribosomes indeed co-migrated with subunits of the mitochondrial ribosome. Co-migration of several proteins involved in biogenesis of inner mitochondrial membrane complexes together with mitoribosomal complexes suggested the possibility of co-translational assembly in human cells. Our data also highlighted a putative ribonucleotide complex that potentially contains MRPL10, MRPL12 and MRPL53 together with LRPPRC and SLIRP.
Project description:Legumes (Fabaceae, Leguminosae) are unique in their ability to carry out an elaborate endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation process with rhizobia proteobacteria. The symbiotic nitrogen fixation enables the host plants to grow almost independently of any other nitrogen source. Establishment of symbiosis requires adaptations of the host cellular metabolism, here foremost of the energy metabolism mainly taking place in mitochondria. Since the early 1990s, the galegoid legume Medicago truncatula Gaertn. is a well-established model for studying legume biology, but little is known about the protein complement of mitochondria from this species. An initial characterization of the mitochondrial proteome of M. truncatula (Jemalong A17) was published recently. In the frame of this study, mitochondrial protein complexes were characterized using Two-dimensional (2D) Blue native (BN)/SDS-PAGE. From 139 detected spots, the "first hit" (=most abundant) proteins of 59 spots were identified by mass spectrometry. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the mitochondrial "complexome" (the "protein complex proteome") of M. truncatula via 2D BN/SDS-PAGE in combination with highly sensitive MS protein identification. In total, 1,485 proteins were identified within 158 gel spots, representing 467 unique proteins. Data evaluation by the novel GelMap annotation tool allowed recognition of protein complexes of low abundance. Overall, at least 36 mitochondrial protein complexes were found. To our knowledge several of these complexes were described for the first time in Medicago. The data set is accessible under http://www.gelmap.de/medicago/. The mitochondrial protein complex proteomes of Arabidopsis available at http://www.gelmap.de/arabidopsis/ and Medicago are compared.
Project description:The majority of cellular processes are carried out by protein complexes. Various size fractionation methods have previously been combined with mass spectrometry to identify protein complexes. However, most of these approaches lack the quantitative information which is required to understand how changes of protein complex abundance and composition affect metabolic fluxes. In this paper we present a proof of concept approach to quantitatively study the complexome in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana at the end of the day (ED) and the end of the night (EN). We show that size-fractionation of native protein complexes by Clear-Native-PAGE (CN-PAGE), coupled with mass spectrometry can be used to establish abundance profiles along the molecular weight gradient. Furthermore, by deconvoluting complex protein abundance profiles, we were able to drastically improve the clustering of protein profiles. To identify putative interaction partners, and ultimately protein complexes, our approach calculates the Euclidian distance between protein profile pairs. Acceptable threshold values are based on a cut-off that is optimized by a receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Our approach shows low technical variation and can easily be adapted to study in the complexome in any biological system.
Project description:MOTIVATION:Complexome profiling combines native gel electrophoresis with mass spectrometry to obtain the inventory, composition and abundance of multiprotein assemblies in an organelle. Applying complexome profiling to determine the effect of a mutation on protein complexes requires separating technical and biological variations from the variations caused by that mutation. RESULTS:We have developed the COmplexome Profiling ALignment (COPAL) tool that aligns multiple complexome profiles with each other. It includes the abundance profiles of all proteins on two gels, using a multi-dimensional implementation of the dynamic time warping algorithm to align the gels. Subsequent progressive alignment allows us to align multiple profiles with each other. We tested COPAL on complexome profiles from control mitochondria and from Barth syndrome (BTHS) mitochondria, which have a mutation in tafazzin gene that is involved in remodeling the inner mitochondrial membrane phospholipid cardiolipin. By comparing the variation between BTHS mitochondria and controls with the variation among either, we assessed the effects of BTHS on the abundance profiles of individual proteins. Combining those profiles with gene set enrichment analysis allows detecting significantly affected protein complexes. Most of the significantly affected protein complexes are located in the inner mitochondrial membrane (mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system, prohibitins), or are attached to it (the large ribosomal subunit). AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION:COPAL is written in python and is available from http://github.com/cmbi/copal. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Project description:Treatment options for toxoplasmosis in humans are generally limited to the use of sulfonamide and/or pyrimethamine-based compounds. However, there is increasing evidence for clinical therapy failures in patients suggesting the existence of drug resistance in these classes of drug. In vitro resistance to sulfadiazine has been detected in three strains of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from clinical cases. In order to begin to understand the mechanisms of resistance, we undertook a difference-gel electrophoresis (DIGE) approach combined with mass spectrometry to identify proteins that are differentially expressed in sulfadiazine-resistance strains of the parasite. Naturally resistant strains TgA 103001 (Type I), TgH 32006 (Type II) and TgH 32045 (Type II variant) were compared to sensitive strains RH (Type I) and ME-49 (Type II) using DIGE and the modulated proteins analyzed using LC-MS/MS. In total, 68 differentially expressed protein spots were analyzed by mass spectrometer and 31 unique proteins, including four hypothetical proteins, were identified. Among the differentially expressed proteins, 44% were over-expressed in resistant strains and 56% were over-expressed in sensitive strains. The virulence-associated rhoptry protein, ROP2A, was found in greater abundance in both naturally resistant Type II strains TgH 32006 and TgH 32045 compared to the sensitive strain ME-49. Enolase 2 and IMC1 were found to be in greater abundance in sensitive strains RH and ME-49, and MIC2 was found to be more abundant in the sensitive strain ME-49. Proteins regulation of ROP2, MIC2, ENO2, IMC1 and GRA7 were confirmed by Western blot analysis. In addition, gene expression patterns of ROP2, MIC2, ENO2 and IMC1 were analyzed with qRT-PCR. This study provides the first proteomics insights into sulfadiazine resistance in T. gondii resistant strains isolated from clinical cases.
Project description:Mass spectrometry (MS)-based shotgun proteomics is an enabling technology for the study of C. elegans proteins. When coupled with co-immunoprecipitation (CoIP), new interactions and functions among proteins can be discovered. We provide a general background on protein complexes and methods for their analysis, along with the lifecycle and interaction types of proteins that ultimately define the identifiable components of protein complexes. We highlight traditional biochemical methods to evaluate whether the complexes are sufficiently pure and abundant for analysis with shotgun proteomics. We present two CoIP-MS case studies of protein complexes from C. elegans, using both endogenous and fusion protein antibodies to illustrate the important aspects of their analyses. We discuss results from mass spectrometers with differences in mass accuracy and resolution, along with the relevant information that can be extracted from the data generated, such as protein relative abundance, post-translational modifications, and identification confidence. Finally, we illustrate how comparative analysis can reveal candidate binding partners for biological follow-up and validation. This chapter should act as a complement and extension to the WormBook chapter Biochemistry and molecular biology, which describes tandem affinity purification (TAP) of protein complexes for analysis by mass spectrometry.
Project description:Blue native (BN) gel electrophoresis is a powerful method for protein separation. Combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), it enables large scale identification of protein complexes and their subunits. Current BN-MS approaches, however, are limited in size resolution, comprehensiveness, and quantification. Here, we present a new methodology combining defined sub-millimeter slicing of BN gels by a cryo-microtome with high performance LC-MS/MS and label-free quantification of protein amounts. Application of this cryo-slicing BN-MS approach to mitochondria from rat brain demonstrated a high degree of comprehensiveness, accuracy, and size resolution. The technique provided abundance-mass profiles for 774 mitochondrial proteins, including all canonical subunits of the oxidative respiratory chain assembled into 13 distinct (super-)complexes. Moreover, the data revealed COX7R as a constitutive subunit of distinct super-complexes and identified novel assemblies of voltage-dependent anion channels/porins and TOM proteins. Together, cryo-slicing BN-MS enables quantitative profiling of complexomes with resolution close to the limits of native gel electrophoresis.
Project description:Plasmodium falciparum enolase (Pfeno) localizes to the cytosol, nucleus, cell membrane and cytoskeletal elements, suggesting multiple non-glycolytic functions for this protein. Our recent observation of association of enolase with the food vacuole (FV) in immuno-gold electron microscopic images of P. falciparum raised the possibility for yet another moonlighting function for this protein. Here we provide additional support for this localization by demonstrating the presence of Pfeno in purified FVs by immunoblotting. To examine the potential functional role of FV-associated Pfeno, we assessed the ability of Pfeno to complement a mutant Saccharomyces cervisiae strain deficient in enolase activity. In this strain (Tetr-Eno2), the enolase 1 gene is deleted and expression of the enolase 2 gene is under the control of a tetracycline repressible promoter. Enolase deficiency in this strain was previously shown to cause growth retardation, vacuolar fragmentation and altered expression of certain vacuolar proteins. Expression of Pfeno in the enolase-deficient yeast strain restored all three phenotypic effects. However, transformation of Tetr-eno2 with an enzymatically active, monomeric mutant form of Pfeno (?(5)Pfeno) fully restored cell growth, but only partially rescued the fragmented vacuolar phenotype, suggesting that the dimeric structure of Pfeno is required for the optimal vacuolar functions. Bioinformatic searches revealed the presence of Plasmodium orthologs of several yeast vacuolar proteins that are predicted to form complexes with Pfeno. Together, these observations raise the possibility that association of Pfeno with food vacuole in Plasmodium may have physiological function(s).
Project description:The three tandem-arrayed protocadherin (Pcdh) gene clusters, namely Pcdh-alpha, Pcdh-beta, and Pcdh-gamma, play important roles in the development of the vertebrate central nervous system. To gain insight into the molecular action of PCDHs, we performed a systematic proteomics analysis of PCDH-gamma-associated protein complexes. We identified a list of 154 non-redundant proteins in the PCDH-gamma complexes. This list includes nearly 30 members of clustered Pcdh-alpha, -beta, and -gamma families as core components of the complexes and additionally over 120 putative PCDH-associated proteins. We validated a selected subset of PCDH-gamma-associated proteins using specific antibodies. Analysis of the identities of PCDH-associated proteins showed that the majority of them overlap with the proteomic profile of postsynaptic density preparations. Further analysis of membrane protein complexes revealed that several validated PCDH-gamma-associated proteins exhibit reduced levels in Pcdh-gamma-deficient brain tissues. Therefore, PCDH-gamma s are required for the integrity of the complexes. However, the size of the overall complexes and the abundance of many other proteins remained unchanged, raising a possibility that PCDH-alphas and PCDH-betas might compensate for PCDH-gamma function in complex formation. As a test of this idea, RNA interference knockdown of both PCDH-alphas and PCDH-gamma s showed that PCDHs have redundant functions in regulating neuronal survival in the chicken spinal cord. Taken together, our data provide evidence that clustered PCDHs coexist in large protein complexes and have overlapping functions during vertebrate neural development.