Genetics of sputum gene expression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
ABSTRACT: Previous expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies have performed genetic association studies for gene expression, but most of these studies examined lymphoblastoid cell lines from non-diseased individuals. We examined the genetics of gene expression in a relevant disease tissue from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients to identify functional effects of known susceptibility genes and to find novel disease genes. By combining gene expression profiling on induced sputum samples from 131 COPD cases from the ECLIPSE Study with genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data, we found 4315 significant cis-eQTL SNP-probe set associations (3309 unique SNPs). The 3309 SNPs were tested for association with COPD in a genomewide association study (GWAS) dataset, which included 2940 COPD cases and 1380 controls. Adjusting for 3309 tests (p<1.5e-5), the two SNPs which were significantly associated with COPD were located in two separate genes in a known COPD locus on chromosome 15: CHRNA5 and IREB2. Detailed analysis of chromosome 15 demonstrated additional eQTLs for IREB2 mapping to that gene. eQTL SNPs for CHRNA5 mapped to multiple linkage disequilibrium (LD) bins. The eQTLs for IREB2 and CHRNA5 were not in LD. Seventy-four additional eQTL SNPs were associated with COPD at p<0.01. These were genotyped in two COPD populations, finding replicated associations with a SNP in PSORS1C1, in the HLA-C region on chromosome 6. Integrative analysis of GWAS and gene expression data from relevant tissue from diseased subjects has located potential functional variants in two known COPD genes and has identified a novel COPD susceptibility locus.
Project description:Nicotine dependence is influenced by chromosome 15q25.1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including the missense SNP rs16969968 that alters function of the ?5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRNA5) and noncoding SNPs that regulate CHRNA5 mRNA expression. We tested for cis-methylation quantitative trait loci (cis-meQTLs) using SNP genotypes and DNA methylation levels measured across the IREB2-HYKK-PSMA4-CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 genes on chromosome 15q25.1 in the BrainCloud and Brain QTL cohorts [total N = 175 European-Americans and 65 African-Americans (AAs)]. We identified eight SNPs that were significantly associated with CHRNA5 methylation in prefrontal cortex: P ranging from 6.0 × 10(-10) to 5.6 × 10(-5). These SNP-methylation associations were also significant in frontal cortex, temporal cortex and pons: P ranging from 4.8 × 10(-12) to 3.4 × 10(-3). Of the eight cis-meQTL SNPs, only the intronic CHRNB4 SNP rs11636753 was associated with CHRNA5 methylation independently of the known SNP effects in prefrontal cortex, and it was the most significantly associated SNP with nicotine dependence across five independent cohorts (total N = 7858 European ancestry and 3238 AA participants): P = 6.7 × 10(-4), odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1.11 (1.05-1.18). The rs11636753 major allele (G) was associated with lower CHRNA5 DNA methylation, lower CHRNA5 mRNA expression and increased nicotine dependence risk. Haplotype analyses showed that rs11636753-G and the functional rs16969968-A alleles together increased risk of nicotine dependence more than each variant alone: P = 3.1 × 10(-12), OR (95% CI) = 1.32 (1.22-1.43). Our findings identify a novel regulatory SNP association with nicotine dependence and connect, for the first time, previously observed differences in CHRNA5 mRNA expression and nicotine dependence risk to underlying DNA methylation differences.
Project description:The development of COPD in subjects with alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is likely to be influenced by modifier genes. Genome-wide association studies and integrative genomics approaches in COPD have demonstrated significant associations with SNPs in the chromosome 15q region that includes CHRNA3 (cholinergic nicotine receptor alpha3) and IREB2 (iron regulatory binding protein 2).We investigated whether SNPs in the chromosome 15q region would be modifiers for lung function and COPD in AAT deficiency.The current analysis included 378 PIZZ subjects in the AAT Genetic Modifiers Study and a replication cohort of 458 subjects from the UK AAT Deficiency National Registry. Nine SNPs in LOC123688, CHRNA3 and IREB2 were selected for genotyping. FEV1 percent of predicted and FEV1/FVC ratio were analyzed as quantitative phenotypes. Family-based association analysis was performed in the AAT Genetic Modifiers Study. In the replication set, general linear models were used for quantitative phenotypes and logistic regression models were used for the presence/absence of emphysema or COPD.Three SNPs (rs2568494 in IREB2, rs8034191 in LOC123688, and rs1051730 in CHRNA3) were associated with pre-bronchodilator FEV1 percent of predicted in the AAT Genetic Modifiers Study. Two SNPs (rs2568494 and rs1051730) were associated with the post-bronchodilator FEV1 percent of predicted and pre-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio; SNP-by-gender interactions were observed. In the UK National Registry dataset, rs2568494 was significantly associated with emphysema in the male subgroup; significant SNP-by-smoking interactions were observed.IREB2 and CHRNA3 are potential genetic modifiers of COPD phenotypes in individuals with severe AAT deficiency and may be sex-specific in their impact.
Project description:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory system affecting primarily distal respiratory pathways and lung parenchyma. This study was aimed at investigating the association of COPD with IREB2, CHRNA5, CHRNA3, FAM13A and hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) genes in a Tatar population from Russia.Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs13180, rs16969968, rs1051730, rs6495309, rs7671167, rs13118928) were genotyped by the real-time polymerase chain reaction in this study (511 COPD patients and 508 controls). Logistic regression was used to detect the association of SNPs and haplotypes of linked loci in different models. Linear regression analyses were performed to estimate the relationship between SNPs and lung function parameters and pack-years.The rs13180 (IREB2), rs16969968 (CHRNA5) and rs1051730 (CHRNA3) were significantly associated with COPD in additive model [Padj =0.00001, odds ratio (OR)=0.64; Padj =0.0001, OR=1.41 and Padj =0.0001, OR=1.47]. The C-G haplotype by rs13180 and rs1051730 was a protective factor for COPD in our population (Padj =0.0005, OR=0.61). These results were confirmed only in smokers. The rs16969968 and rs1051730 were associated with decrease of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec % predicted (Padj =0.005 and Padj =0.0019).Our study showed the association of rs13180, rs16969968 and rs1051730 with COPD and lung function in Tatar population from Russia. Further studies need to be done in other ethnic populations.
Project description:Recent studies identified three genetic loci reproducibly associated with lung cancer in populations of European ancestry, namely 15q25, 5p15 and 6p21. The goals of this study are first to confirm whether these loci are associated with lung cancer in a French Canadian population and second to identify disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influencing messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of genes in the lung, that is expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). SNPs were genotyped in 420 patients undergoing lung cancer surgery and compared with 3151 controls of European ancestry. Genome-wide gene expression levels in non-tumor lung tissues of the same 420 patients were also measured to identify eQTLs. Significant eQTLs were then followed-up in two replication sets (n = 339 and 363). SNPs found in the three susceptibility loci were associated with lung cancer in the French Canadian population. Strong eQTLs were found on chromosome 15q25 with the expression levels of CHRNA5 (P = 2.23 × 10(-) (22) with rs12907966). The CHRNA5-rs12907966 eQTL was convincingly validated in the two replication sets (P = 3.46 × 10(-) (16) and 2.01 × 10(-) (15)). On 6p21, a trend was observed for rs3131379 to be associated with the expression of APOM (P = 3.58 × 10(-) (4)) and validated in the replication sets (P = 1.11 × 10(-) (8) and 6.84 × 10(-) (4)). On 5p15, no significant eQTLs were found. This study confirmed that chromosomes 15q25, 5p15 and 6p21 harbored susceptibility loci for lung cancer in French Canadians. Most importantly, this study suggests that the risk alleles at 15q25 and 6p21 may mediate their effect by regulating the mRNA expression levels of CHRNA5 and APOM in the lung.
Project description:The genetic risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are still largely unknown. To date, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of limited size have identified several novel risk loci for COPD at CHRNA3/CHRNA5/IREB2, HHIP and FAM13A; additional loci may be identified through larger studies. We performed a GWAS using a total of 3499 cases and 1922 control subjects from four cohorts: the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE); the Normative Aging Study (NAS) and National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT); Bergen, Norway (GenKOLS); and the COPDGene study. Genotyping was performed on Illumina platforms with additional markers imputed using 1000 Genomes data; results were summarized using fixed-effect meta-analysis. We identified a new genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 19q13 (rs7937, OR = 0.74, P = 2.9 × 10(-9)). Genotyping this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and another nearby SNP in linkage disequilibrium (rs2604894) in 2859 subjects from the family-based International COPD Genetics Network study (ICGN) demonstrated supportive evidence for association for COPD (P = 0.28 and 0.11 for rs7937 and rs2604894), pre-bronchodilator FEV(1) (P = 0.08 and 0.04) and severe (GOLD 3&4) COPD (P = 0.09 and 0.017). This region includes RAB4B, EGLN2, MIA and CYP2A6, and has previously been identified in association with cigarette smoking behavior.
Project description:Background Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and COPD severity. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and a dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) locus associated with smoking cessation in multiple populations. Objective To identify SNPs associated with lifetime average and current CPD, age at smoking initiation, and smoking cessation in patients with COPD. Methods GWAS were conducted in four independent cohorts encompassing 3441 ever-smoking patients with COPD (Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease stage II or higher). Untyped SNPs were imputed using the HapMap (phase II) panel. Results from all cohorts were meta-analysed. Results Several SNPs near the HLA region on chromosome 6p21 and in an intergenic region on chromosome 2q21 showed associations with age at smoking initiation, both with the lowest p=2×10(-7). No SNPs were associated with lifetime average CPD, current CPD or smoking cessation with p<10(-6). Nominally significant associations with candidate SNPs within cholinergic receptors, nicotinic, alpha 3/5 (CHRNA3/CHRNA5; eg, p=0.00011 for SNP rs1051730) and cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily A, polypeptide 6 (CYP2A6; eg, p=2.78×10(-5) for a non-synonymous SNP rs1801272) regions were observed for lifetime average CPD, however only CYP2A6 showed evidence of significant association with current CPD. A candidate SNP (rs3025343) in DBH was significantly (p=0.015) associated with smoking cessation. Conclusion The authors identified two candidate regions associated with age at smoking initiation in patients with COPD. Associations of CHRNA3/CHRNA5 and CYP2A6 loci with CPD and DBH with smoking cessation are also likely of importance in the smoking behaviours of patients with COPD.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Genetic factors are known to contribute to COPD susceptibility and these factors are not fully understood. Conflicting results have been reported for many genetic studies of candidate genes based on their role in the disease. Genome-wide association studies in combination with expression profiling have identified a number of new candidates including IREB2. A meta-analysis has implicated transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFbeta1) as a contributor to disease susceptibility. METHODS: We have examined previously reported associations in both genes in a collection of 1017 white COPD patients and 912 non-diseased smoking controls. Genotype information was obtained for seven SNPs in the IREB2 gene, and for four SNPs in the TGFbeta1 gene. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared between COPD cases and controls, and odds ratios were calculated. The analysis was adjusted for age, sex, smoking and centre, including interactions of age, sex and smoking with centre. RESULTS: Our data replicate the association of IREB2 SNPs in association with COPD for SNP rs2568494, rs2656069 and rs12593229 with respective adjusted p-values of 0.0018, 0.0039 and 0.0053. No significant associations were identified for TGFbeta1. CONCLUSIONS: These studies have therefore confirmed that the IREB2 locus is a contributor to COPD susceptibility and suggests a new pathway in COPD pathogenesis invoking iron homeostasis.
Project description:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of mortality worldwide. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified robust susceptibility loci associated with COPD. However, the mechanisms mediating the risk conferred by these loci remain to be found. The goal of this study was to identify causal genes/variants within susceptibility loci associated with COPD. In the discovery cohort, genome-wide gene expression profiles of 500 non-tumor lung specimens were obtained from patients undergoing lung surgery. Blood-DNA from the same patients were genotyped for 1,2 million SNPs. Following genotyping and gene expression quality control filters, 409 samples were analyzed. Lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) were identified and overlaid onto three COPD susceptibility loci derived from GWAS; 4q31 (HHIP), 4q22 (FAM13A), and 19q13 (RAB4B, EGLN2, MIA, CYP2A6). Significant eQTLs were replicated in two independent datasets (n?=?363 and 339). SNPs previously associated with COPD and lung function on 4q31 (rs1828591, rs13118928) were associated with the mRNA expression of HHIP. An association between mRNA expression level of FAM13A and SNP rs2045517 was detected at 4q22, but did not reach statistical significance. At 19q13, significant eQTLs were detected with EGLN2. In summary, this study supports HHIP, FAM13A, and EGLN2 as the most likely causal COPD genes on 4q31, 4q22, and 19q13, respectively. Strong lung eQTL SNPs identified in this study will need to be tested for association with COPD in case-control studies. Further functional studies will also be needed to understand the role of genes regulated by disease-related variants in COPD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Over the relatively short history of Genome Wide Association Studies (GWASs), hundreds of GWASs have been published and thousands of disease risk-associated SNPs have been identified. Summary statistics from the conducted GWASs are often available and can be used to identify SNP features associated with the level of GWAS statistical significance. Those features could be used to select SNPs from gray zones (SNPs that are nominally significant but do not reach the genome-wide level of significance) for targeted analyses. METHODS:We used summary statistics from recently published breast and lung cancer and scleroderma GWASs to explore the association between the level of the GWAS statistical significance and the expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) status of the SNP. Data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project (GTEx) were used to identify eQTL SNPs. RESULTS:We found that SNPs reported as eQTLs were more significant in GWAS (higher -log10p) regardless of the tissue specificity of the eQTL. Pan-tissue eQTLs (those reported as eQTLs in multiple tissues) tended to be more significant in the GWAS compared to those reported as eQTL in only one tissue type. eQTL density in the ±5?kb adjacent region of a given SNP was also positively associated with the level of GWAS statistical significance regardless of the eQTL status of the SNP. We found that SNPs located in the regions of high eQTL density were more likely to be located in regulatory elements (transcription factor or miRNA binding sites). When SNPs were stratified by the level of statistical significance, the proportion of eQTLs was positively associated with the mean level of statistical significance in the group. The association curve reaches a plateau around -log10p???5. The observed associations suggest that quasi-significant SNPs (10-?5?<?p?<?5?×?10-?8) and SNPs at the genome wide level of statistical significance (p?<?5?×?10-?8) may have a similar proportions of risk associated SNPs. CONCLUSIONS:The results of this study indicate that the SNP's eQTL status, as well as eQTL density in the adjacent region are positively associated with the level of statistical significance of the SNP in GWAS.
Project description:Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) mapping and linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis have been widely employed to interpret findings of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). With the availability of deep sequencing data of 423 lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from six global populations and the microarray expression data, we performed eQTL analysis, identified more than 228?K SNP cis-eQTLs and 21?K indel cis-eQTLs and generated a LCL cis-eQTL database. We demonstrate that the percentages of population-shared and population-specific cis-eQTLs are comparable; while indel cis-eQTLs in the population-specific subsection make more contribution to gene expression variations than those in the population-shared subsection. We found cis-eQTLs, especially the population-shared cis-eQTLs are significantly enriched toward transcription start site. Moreover, the National Human Genome Research Institute cataloged GWAS SNPs are enriched for LCL cis-eQTLs. Specifically, 32.8% GWAS SNPs are LCL cis-eQTLs, among which 12.5% can be tagged by indel cis-eQTLs, suggesting the fundamental contribution of indel cis-eQTLs to GWAS association signals. To search for functional indels and SNPs tagging GWAS SNPs, a pipeline Post-GWAS Explorer for Functional Indels and SNPs (PExFInS) has been developed, integrating LD analysis, functional annotation from public databases, cis-eQTL mapping with our LCL cis-eQTL database and other published cis-eQTL datasets.