Water-soluble 2-hydroxyisophthalamides for sensitization of lanthanide luminescence.
ABSTRACT: A series of octadentate ligands featuring the 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) antenna chromophore to sensitize Tb(III) and Eu(III) luminescence has been prepared and characterized. The length of the alkyl amine scaffold that links the four IAM moieties has been varied to investigate the effect of the ligand backbone on the stability and photophysical properties of the Ln(III) complexes. The amine backbones utilized in this study are N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-ethane-1,2-diamine [H(2,2)-], N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-propane-1,3-diamine [H(3,2)-], and N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-butane-1,4-diamine [H(4,2)-]. These ligands also incorporate methoxyethylene [MOE] groups on each of the IAM chromophores to increase their water solubility. The aqueous ligand protonation constants and Tb(III) and Eu(III) formation constants were determined from solution thermodynamic studies. The resulting values indicate that at physiological pH the Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes of H(2,2)-IAM-MOE and H(4,2)-IAM-MOE are sufficiently stable to prevent dissociation at nanomolar concentrations. The photophysical measurements for the Tb(III) complexes gave overall quantum yield values of 0.56, 0.39, and 0.52 respectively for the complexes with H(2,2)-IAM-MOE, H(3,2)-IAM-MOE, and H(4,2)-IAM-MOE, while the corresponding Eu(III) complexes displayed significantly weaker luminescence, with quantum yield values of 0.0014, 0.0015, and 0.0058, respectively. Analysis of the steady state Eu(III) emission spectra provides insight into the solution symmetries of the complexes. The combined solubility, stability, and photophysical performance of the Tb(III) complexes in particular make them well suited to serve as the luminescent reporter group in high sensitivity time-resolved fluoroimmunoassays.
Project description:Ligand-sensitized, luminescent lanthanide(III) complexes are of considerable importance because their unique photophysical properties (microsecond to millisecond lifetimes, characteristic and narrow emission bands, and large Stokes shifts) make them well suited as labels in fluorescence-based bioassays. The long-lived emission of lanthanide(III) cations can be temporally resolved from scattered light and background fluorescence to vastly enhance measurement sensitivity. One challenge in this field is the design of sensitizing ligands that provide highly emissive complexes with sufficient stability and aqueous solubility for practical applications. In this Account, we give an overview of some of the general properties of the trivalent lanthanides and follow with a summary of advances made in our laboratory in the development of highly luminescent Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes for applications in biotechnology. A focus of our research has been the optimization of these compounds as potential commercial agents for use in homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF) technology. Our approach involves developing high-stability octadentate Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes that rely on all-oxygen donor atoms and using multichromophore chelates to increase molar absorptivity; earlier examples utilized a single pendant chromophore (that is, a single "antenna"). Ligands based on 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) provide exceptionally emissive Tb(III) complexes with quantum yield values up to approximately 60% that are stable at the nanomolar concentrations required for commercial assays. Through synthetic modification of the IAM chromophore and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations, we have developed a method to predict absorption and emission properties of these chromophores as a tool to guide ligand design. Additionally, we have investigated chiral IAM ligands that yield Tb(III) complexes possessing both high quantum yield values and strong circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) activity. To efficiently sensitize Eu(III) emission, we have used the 1-hydroxypyridin-2-one (1,2-HOPO) chelate to create remarkable ligands that combine excellent photophysical properties and exceptional aqueous stabilities. A more complete understanding of this chromophore has been achieved by combining low-temperature phosphorescence measurements with the same TD-DFT approach used with the IAM system. Eu(III) complexes with strong CPL activity have also been obtained with chiral 1,2-HOPO ligands. We have also undertaken kinetic analysis of radiative and nonradiative decay pathways for a series of Eu(III) complexes; the importance of the metal ion symmetry on the ensuing photophysical properties is clear. Lastly, we describe a Tb(III)-IAM compound--now carried through to commercial availability--that offers improved performance in the common HTRF platform and has the potential to vastly improve sensitivity.
Project description:A series of [H3O](+)[LnL4](-)·nH2O complexes (n = 1-3, Ln = Nd, (1), Sm (2), Eu (3), Tb (4); HL = 3-methyl-1-phenyl-4-formylpyrazole-5-one) were synthesized and characterized. The structures of the Sm(III) and Eu(III) complexes were investigated by X-ray diffraction. The isostructutal crystalls 2 and 3 consist the tetrakis [LnL4](-) anions which are linked by H-bonding with the hydroxonium counter-ion and water molecules. The lanthanide ion is situated in the center of distorted tetragonal antiprism formed by eight oxygen atoms of 4-formyl-5-hydroxypyrazolonate anions. The Tb(III) and Sm(III) complexes show strong luminescence in solid state, whereas the Eu(III) and Nd(III) complexes show low luminescence activity.
Project description:The modular syntheses of three new octadentate, enantiopure ligands are reported, one with the bidentate chelating unit 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) and two with bidentate 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (1,2-HOPO) units. A new design principle is introduced for the chiral, non-racemic hexamines which constitute the central backbones for the presented class of ligands. The terbium(III) complex of the IAM ligand, as well as the europium(III) complexes of the 1,2-HOPO ligands, are synthesized and characterized by various techniques (NMR, UV, CD, luminescence spectroscopy). All species exhibit excellent stability and moderate to high luminescence efficiency (quantum yields Phi(Eu) = 0.05-0.08 and Phi(Tb) = 0.30-0.57) in aqueous solution at physiological pH. Special focus is put onto the properties of the complexes in regard to circularly polarized luminescence (CPL). The maximum luminescence dissymmetry factors (g(lum)) in aqueous solution are high with |g(lum)|(max) = 0.08-0.40. Together with the very favorable general properties (good stability, high quantum yields, long lifetimes), the presented lanthanide complexes can be considered as good candidates for analytical probes based on CPL in biologically relevant environments.
Project description:Lanthanide(III) complexes of macrocycles 1,4,7,10-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (THED) and (1S,4S,7S,10S)-1,4,7,10-tetrakis(2-hydroxypropyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (S-THP) were studied as chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications. The four hyperfine-shifted alcohol protons of these Ln(III) complexes gave rise to a single (1)H resonance in wet d(3)-acetonitrile that was separated from the bulk water resonance (Delta omega) by 8 ppm (Ce), 2 ppm (Nd), 7 ppm (Eu), or 17 ppm (Yb). A CEST peak corresponding to the alcohol protons was observed for all Ln(THED)(3+) or Ln(S-THP)(3+) complexes except Nd(III) at low water concentrations (<1%). In 100% aqueous buffered solutions, the CEST hydroxyl peak is observed for the Eu(III), Ce(III), and Yb(III) complexes over a range of pH values. The optimal pH range for the CEST effect of each complex is related to the pK(a) of the hydroxyl/water ligands of the complex. Optimum pH values for the CEST effect from alcohol proton exchange are pH = 6.0 for Ce(S-THP)(3+), pH = 4.5 for Eu(THED)(3+), and pH = 3.0 for Yb(S-THP)(3+).
Project description:Studies concerning synthesis, structure and luminescence of eight-coordinate Eu, Tb, Sm and Dy complexes of the type [Ln(acac)2(L)]Cl (Hacac = pentanedione-2,4 and L = bis(5-(pyridine-2-yl)-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)propane) are reported in detail. The obtained complexes were investigated by various means including elemental- and thermogravimetric analysis, IR- and electron transition spectroscopy. The structure of the Tb complex was determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography: Tb is eight-coordinate, and L acting only as a tetradentate chelate together with two bidentate acac ligands. Photophysical studies of the complexes were carried out. The Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes show strong emissions both in solid state and solution. The intensity of the luminescence of Dy(III) and Sm(III) are relatively weak. The factors determining the intensity of the photoluminescence are discussed.
Project description:The coordination compounds of the trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln(III)) have unique photophysical properties. Ln(III) excitation is usually performed through a light-harvesting antenna. To enable Ln(III)-based emitters to reach their full potential, an understanding of how complex structure affects sensitization and quenching processes is necessary. Here, the role of the linker between the antenna and the metal binding fragment was studied. Four macrocyclic ligands carrying coumarin 2 or 4-methoxymethylcarbostyril sensitizing antennae linked to an octadentate macrocyclic ligand binding site were synthesized. Complexation with Ln(III) (Ln = La, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb and Lu) yielded species with overall -1, 0, or +2 and +3-charge. Paramagnetic <sup>1</sup>H NMR spectroscopy indicated subtle differences between the coumarin- and carbostyril-carrying Eu(III) and Yb(III) complexes. Cyclic voltammetry showed that the effect of the linker on the Eu(III)/Eu(II) apparent reduction potential was dependent on the electronic properties of the N-substituent. The Eu(III), Tb(III) and Sm(III) complexes were all luminescent. Coumarin-sensitized complexes were poorly emissive; photoinduced electron transfer was not a major quenching pathway in these species. These results show that seemingly similar emitters can undergo very different photophysical processes, and highlight the crucial role the linker can play.
Project description:The chiral nonaazamacrocyclic amine L, which is a reduction product of the 3 + 3 Schiff base macrocycle, wraps around the lanthanide(III) ions to form enantiopure helical complexes. These Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Er(III), Yb(III) and Lu(III) complexes have been isolated in enantiopure form and have been characterized by spectroscopic methods. X-ray crystal structures of the Ln(III) complexes with L show that the thermodynamic product of the complexation of the RRRRRR-isomer of the macrocycle is the (M)-helical complex in the case of Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III) and Eu(III). In contrast, the (P)-helical complex is the thermodynamic product in the case of Yb(III) and Lu(III). The NMR and CD spectra show that the (M)-helicity for the kinetic complexation product of the RRRRRR-isomer of the macrocycle is preferred for all investigated lanthanide(III) ions, while the preferred helicity of the thermodynamic product is (M) for the early lanthanide(III) ions and (P) for the late lanthanide(III) ions. In the case of the late lanthanide(III) ions, a slow inversion of helicity between the kinetic (M)-helical product and the thermodynamic (P)-helical product is observed in solution. For Er(III), Yb(III) and Lu(III) both forms have been isolated in pure form and characterized by NMR and CD. The analysis of 2D NMR spectra of the Lu(III) complex reveals the NOE correlations that prove that the helical structure is retained in solution. The NMR spectra also reveal large isotopic effect on the 1H NMR shifts of paramagnetic Ln(III) complexes, related to NH/ND exchange. Photophysical measurements show that L(RRRRRR) appears to favor an efficient 3pipi*-to-Ln energy transfer process taking place for Eu(III) and Tb(III), but these Eu(III)- and Tb(III)-containing complexes with L(RRRRRR) lead to small luminescent quantum yields due to an incomplete intersystem crossing (isc) transfer, a weak efficiency of the luminescence sensitization by the ligand, and/or efficient nonradiative deactivation processes. Circularly polarized luminescence on the MeOH solutions of Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes confirms the presence of stable chiral emitting species and the observation of almost perfect mirror-image CPL spectra for these compounds with both enantiomeric forms of L.
Project description:The largest CPL activity ever measured was observed for cesium tetrakis(3-heptafluoro-butylryl-(+)-camphorato) Eu(III) complexes in EtOH and CHCl3 solutions substantiating the stereospecific formation of chiral Delta-SAPR-(C4) configuration with the aid of Cs+...FC (fluorocarbon) interactions more clearly than the exciton CD spectra.
Project description:In the present work, we attempted to develop new metal coordination complexes of the natural flavonoid 5-hydroxyflavone with Sm(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III). The resultant hydroxo complexes have been characterized by a variety of spectroscopic techniques, including fluorescence, FT-IR, UV-Vis, EPR and mass spectral studies. The general chemical formula of the complexes is [Ln(C<sub>15</sub>H?O?)?(OH)?(H?O)<sub>x</sub>]·<i>n</i>H?O, where Ln is the lanthanide cation and x = 0 for Sm(III), x = 1 for Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III) and <i>n</i> = 0 for Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), <i>n</i> = 1 for Eu(III), respectively. The proposed structures of the complexes were optimized by DFT calculations. Theoretical calculations and experimental determinations sustain the proposed structures of the hydroxo complexes, with two molecules of 5-hydroxyflavone acting as monoanionic bidentate chelate ligands. The interaction of the complexes with calf thymus DNA has been explored by fluorescence titration and UV-Vis absorption binding studies, and revealed that the synthesized complexes interact with DNA with binding constants (K<sub>b</sub>) ~ 10?. Human serum albumin (HSA) and transferrin (Tf) binding studies have also been performed by fluorescence titration techniques (fluorescence quenching studies, synchronous fluorescence spectra). The apparent association constants (K<sub>a</sub>) and thermodynamic parameters have been calculated from the fluorescence quenching experiment at 299 K, 308 K, and 318 K. The quenching curves indicate that the complexes bind to HSA with smaller affinity than the ligand, but to Tf with higher binding affinities than the ligand.
Project description:The title compound, (C(8)H(20)N)[Tb(C(5)HF(6)O(2))(4)], is a tetrakis ?-diketonate complex of hexa-fluoro-acetyl-acetone with terbium(III), and tetra-ethyl-ammonium as the counter-ion. This compound shows typical green terbium(III) luminescence upon excitation at about 335?nm. The coordination geometry around the Tb(III) atom is a slightly distorted square anti-prism. One hexa-fluoro-acetyl-acetone ligand has a disordered CF(3) group [occupancies of 0.575?(4) and 0.425?(4)]. A three-dimensional network is built up by linkage of Tb(III) complexes via C-H?F inter-actions.