The opposing roles of the transcription factor E2A and its antagonist Id3 that orchestrate and enforce the naive fate of T cells.
ABSTRACT: It is established that the transcription factor E2A and its antagonist Id3 modulate the checkpoints consisting of the precursor to the T cell antigen receptor (pre-TCR) and the TCR. Here we demonstrate that Id3 expression was higher beyond the pre-TCR checkpoint, remained high in naive T cells and showed a bimodal pattern in the effector-memory population. We show how E2A promoted T lineage specification and how pre-TCR-mediated signaling affected E2A genome-wide occupancy. Thymi in Id3-deficient mice had aberrant development of effector-memory cells, higher expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR5 and the transcriptional repressor Bcl-6 and, unexpectedly, T cell-B cell conjugates and B cell follicles. Collectively, our data show how E2A acted globally to orchestrate development into the T lineage and that Id3 antagonized E2A activity beyond the pre-TCR checkpoint to enforce the naive fate of T cells.
Project description:It is established that E2A and its antagonist, Id3, modulate developmental progression at the pre-TCR and TCR checkpoints. Here we show at a global scale how E2A promotes commitment to the T cell lineage and how pre-TCR mediated signalling affects E2A genome-wide occupancy. We find aberrant development of CD4 memory-like and TFH-like cells, T-B cell conjugates and, remarkably, B cell follicles in Id3-/-thymi. We also find that Id3-/-CD4 splenocytes exhibit increased numbers of TFH-like cells. We propose a model in which Id3 modulates the naive versus effector/memory cell fate. Collectively, these data show how E2A acts globally to orchestrate T-lineage development and that Id3 antagonizes E2A activity beyond the pre-TCR checkpoint to enforce the naive T cell fate. ChIP-Seq was performed in thymocytes isolated from either untreated Rag2-/-mice (DN3 cells) or Rag2-/- mice injected with anti-CD3e antibody (DN4 cells). ChIP used antibodies against either E2A or H3K4me1.
Project description:E2A proteins regulate multiple stages of thymocyte development and suppress T-cell lymphoma. The activity of E2A proteins throughout thymocyte development is modulated by signals emanating from the pre-TCR and TCR. Here we demonstrate that E2A is required for the complete arrest in both differentiation and proliferation observed in thymocytes with defects in proteins that mediate pre-TCR signaling, including LAT, Lck and Fyn. We show that E2A proteins are required to prevent the accumulation of TCRbeta negative cells beyond the pre-TCR checkpoint. E2A-deficient thymocytes also exhibit abnormal cell-cycle progression prior to pre-TCR expression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that E47 can act in concert with Bcl-2 to induce cell-cycle arrest in vitro. These observations indicate that E2A proteins function during early thymocyte development to block cell-cycle progression prior to the expression of TCRbeta. In addition, these data provide further insight into how deficiencies in E2A lead to T lymphoma.
Project description:Inhibitor of DNA binding protein 3 (ID3) has long been characterized as an oncogene that implicates its functional role through its Helix-Loop-Helix (HLH) domain upon protein-protein interaction. An insight into the dimerization brought by this domain helps in identifying the key residues that favor the mechanism behind it. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed for the HLH proteins ID3 and Transcription factor E2-alpha (E2A/E12) and their ensemble complex (ID3-E2A/E12) to gather information about the HLH domain region and its role in the interaction process. Further evaluation of the results by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Free Energy Landscape (FEL) helped in revealing residues of E2A/E12: Lys570, Ala595, Val598, and Ile599 and ID3: Glu53, Gln63, and Gln66 buried in their HLH motifs imparting key roles in dimerization process. Furthermore the T-pad analysis results helped in identifying the key fluctuations and conformational transitions using the intrinsic properties of the residues present in the domain region of the proteins thus specifying their crucial role towards molecular recognition. The study provides an insight into the interacting mechanism of the ID3-E2A/E12 complex and maps the structural transitions arising in the essential conformational space indicating the key structural changes within the helical regions of the motif. It thereby describes how the internal dynamics of the proteins might regulate their intrinsic structural features and its subsequent functionality.
Project description:Notch and basic helix-loop-helix E2A pathways specify cell fate and regulate neoplastic transformation in a variety of cell types. Whereas Notch enhances tumorigenesis, E2A suppresses it. However, whether and how Notch and E2A interact functionally in an integrative mechanism for regulating neoplastic transformation remains to be understood. It has been shown that Notch3-induced T-cell leukaemia is abrogated by the inactivation of pTalpha/pre-T-cell antigen receptor (pre-TCR). We report here that Notch3-induced transcriptional activation of pTalpha/pre-TCR is responsible for the downregulation of E2A DNA binding and transcriptional activity. Further, the E2A messenger RNA and protein levels remain unaltered but the E2A inhibitor Id1 expression is augmented in thymocytes and T lymphoma cells derived from Notch3 transgenic mice. The increase in Id1 expression is achieved by pre-TCR-induced extracellular-signalling-regulated kinase 1/2. These observations support a model in which the upregulation of pre-TCR signalling seems to be the prerequi-site for Notch3-induced inhibition of E2A, thus leading to the development of lymphoma in Notch3 transgenic mice.
Project description:The invariant NKT (iNKT) cells represent a unique group of ?? T cells that have been classified based on their exclusive usage of the invariant V?14J?18 TCR?-chain and their innate-like effector function. Thus far, the transcriptional programs that control V?14J?18 TCR? rearrangements and the population size of iNKT cells are still incompletely defined. E protein transcription factors have been shown to play necessary roles in the development of multiple T cell lineages, including iNKT cells. In this study, we examined E protein functions in T cell development through combined deletion of genes encoding E protein inhibitors Id2 and Id3. Deletion of Id2 and Id3 in T cell progenitors resulted in a partial block at the pre-TCR selection checkpoint and a dramatic increase in numbers of iNKT cells. The increase in iNKT cells is accompanied with a biased rearrangement involving V?14 to J?18 recombination at the double-positive stage and enhanced proliferation of iNKT cells. We further demonstrate that a 50% reduction of E proteins can cause a dramatic switch from iNKT to innate-like ?? T cell fate in Id2- and Id3-deficient mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that Id2- and Id3-mediated inhibition of E proteins controls iNKT development by restricting lineage choice and population expansion.
Project description:Id proteins have been shown to promote the differentiation of conventional αβ and γδT cells, and to suppress the expansion of invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells and innate-like γδNKT within their respective cell lineages. However, it remains to be determined whether Id proteins regulate lineage specification in developing T cells that give rise to these distinct cell fates. Here we report that in the absence of Id2 and Id3 proteins, E2A prematurely activates genes critical for the iNKT cell lineage prior to TCR expression. Lack of Id proteins also promotes a biased TCR rearrangement in favor of iNKT cell fate prior to selection at the CD4+CD8+ double positive (DP) stage. Enhanced iNKT development in Id3-deficient mice lacking γδNKT cells suggests that Id3 regulates the lineage competition between these populations. RNA-Seq analysis establishes E2A as the transcriptional regulator of both iNKT and γδNKT development. In the absence of pre-TCR signaling, Id2/Id3 deletion gives rise to a large population of iNKT cells and a unique innate-like DP population, despite the block in conventional αβ T cell development. The transcriptional profile of these unique DP cells reflects enrichment of innate-like signature genes, including PLZF (Zbtb16) and Granzyme A (Gzma). Results from these genetic models and genome-wide analyses suggest that Id proteins suppress E2A-driven innate-like T cell programs prior to TCR selection to enforce predominance of conventional T cells. Overall design: The ChIP-Seq experiment included E2A ChIP-Seq of DP and iNKT cells from L-DKO mice (deficient in Id2 and Id3). Each sample consisted of pooled cells from 3-4 mice. Input controls (i.e. not immunoprecipitated with E2A antibody) were included for each sample. The mouse strains for these experiments were either C57BL/6, or C57BL/6 and 129 hybrids.
Project description:The molecular mechanisms by which signaling via transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) control the differentiation of CD4(+) IL-9-producing helper T cells (TH9 cells) remain incompletely understood. We found here that the DNA-binding inhibitor Id3 regulated TH9 differentiation, as deletion of Id3 increased IL-9 production from CD4(+) T cells. Mechanistically, TGF-?1 and IL-4 downregulated Id3 expression, and this process required the kinase TAK1. A reduction in Id3 expression enhanced binding of the transcription factors E2A and GATA-3 to the Il9 promoter region, which promoted Il9 transcription. Notably, Id3-mediated control of TH9 differentiation regulated anti-tumor immunity in an experimental melanoma-bearing model in vivo and also in human CD4(+) T cells in vitro. Thus, our study reveals a previously unrecognized TAK1-Id3-E2A-GATA-3 pathway that regulates TH9 differentiation.
Project description:The transcriptional repressor Blimp-1 promotes the differentiation of CD8(+) T cells into short-lived effector cells (SLECs) that express the lectin-like receptor KLRG-1, but how it operates remains poorly defined. Here we show that Blimp-1 bound to and repressed the promoter of the gene encoding the DNA-binding inhibitor Id3 in SLECs. Repression of Id3 by Blimp-1 was dispensable for SLEC development but limited the ability of SLECs to persist as memory cells. Enforced expression of Id3 was sufficient to restore SLEC survival and enhanced recall responses. Id3 function was mediated in part through inhibition of the transcriptional activity of E2A and induction of genes regulating genome stability. Our findings identify the Blimp-1-Id3-E2A axis as a key molecular switch that determines whether effector CD8(+) T cells are programmed to die or enter the memory pool.
Project description:The transcription factors E2A and HEB (members of the E protein family) have been shown to play essential roles in lymphocyte development, while their negative regulators, the Id proteins, have been implicated in both lymphocyte development and in the CD8(+) T-cell immune response. Here, we show that E proteins also influence CD8(+) T cells responding to infection. E protein expression was upregulated by CD8(+) T cells during the early stages of infection and increased E protein DNA-binding activity could be detected upon TCR stimulation. Deficiency in the E proteins, E2A and HEB, led to increased frequency of terminally differentiated effector KLRG1(hi) CD8(+) T cells in mice during infection, and decreased generation of longer-lived memory-precursor cells during the immune response. These data suggest a model whereby E protein transcription factor activity favors rapid memory-precursor T-cell formation while their negative regulators, Id2 and Id3, are both required for robust effector CD8(+) T-cell response during infection.
Project description:Gene knockout experiments in mice have suggested a hierarchical model of early B cell commitment wherein E2A proteins (E47 and E12) activate early B cell factor (Ebf1), which in turn activates expression of the B cell commitment factor, Pax5. In IL-7 receptor alpha (IL-7Ralpha) knockout mice, B cell development is blocked before B-lineage commitment at the prepro-B cell stage in adult animals. In IL-7Ralpha(-/-) prepro-B cells, E47 is expressed and yet is insufficient to transcriptionally activate the putative downstream target gene, Ebf1. In this study, we show that further increases of E47 expression in IL-7Ralpha(-/-) prepro-B cells fails to activate Ebf1, but rather leads to a dramatic induction of the E2A inhibitory factors, Id2 and Id3. In contrast, enforced expression of Ebf1 in IL-7Ralpha(-/-) bone marrow potently down-regulates Id2 and Id3 mRNA expression and restores B cell differentiation in vivo. Down-regulation of both Id2 and Id3 during B cell specification is essential in that overexpression of either Id2 or Id3 in wild-type bone marrow blocks B cell specification at the prepro-B cell stage. Collectively, these studies suggest a model where Ebf1 induction specifies the B cell fate by dramatically increasing activity of E47 at the posttranslational level.