Nanotherapeutics in angiogenesis: synthesis and in vivo assessment of drug efficacy and biocompatibility in zebrafish embryos.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Carbon nanotubes have shown broad potential in biomedical applications, given their unique mechanical, optical, and chemical properties. In this pilot study, carbon nanotubes have been explored as multimodal drug delivery vectors that facilitate antiangiogenic therapy in zebrafish embryos. METHODS: Three different agents, ie, an antiangiogenic binding site (cyclic arginine-glycin-easpartic acid), an antiangiogenic drug (thalidomide), and a tracking dye (rhodamine), were conjugated onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). The biodistribution, efficacy, and biocompatibility of these triple functionalized SWCNT were tested in mammalian cells and validated in transparent zebrafish embryos. RESULTS: Accumulation of SWCNT-associated nanoconjugates in blastoderm cells facilitated drug delivery applications. Mammalian cell xenograft assays demonstrated that these antiangiogenic SWCNT nanoconjugates specifically inhibited ectopic angiogenesis in the engrafted zebrafish embryos. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the potential of using SWCNT for generating efficient nanotherapeutics.
Project description:The synthesis, characterization, and the influence of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) modified with an anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOx) on the properties of model biological membrane as well as the comparison of the two modes of modification has been presented. The drug was covalently attached to the nanotubes either preferentially on the sides or at the ends of the nanotubes by the formation of hydrazone bond. The efficiency of the modification was proved by the results of FTIR, Raman, and thermogravimetric analysis. In order to characterize the influence of SWCNT-DOx conjugates on model biological membranes, Langmuir technique has been employed. The mixed monolayers composed of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-<i>sn</i>-glycero-3-phosphothioethanol (DPPTE) and SWCNT-DOx with different weight ratio have been prepared. It has been shown that changes in the isotherm characteristics depend on the SWCNTs content. While smaller amounts of SWCNTs do not exert significant differences, the introduction of the prevailing content of the nanotubes increases area per molecule and decreases the maximum value of compression modulus, leading to more fluid monolayer. However, upon increasing the surface pressure, the aggregation of carbon nanotubes within the thiolipid matrix has been observed. Mixed layers of DPPTE/SWCNT-DOx were also transferred onto gold electrodes by means of LB method. Cyclic voltammetry showed that SWCNT-DOx conjugates remain adsorbed at the electrode surface and are stable in time. Additionally, higher values of peak current and DOx surface concentration obtained for side modification prove that side modification allows for more efficient conjugation of the drug to carbon nanotubes. Graphical abstract?.
Project description:Although carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) have been increasingly studied for their biomedical applications, there is limited research on these novel materials for oral drug delivery. As such, this study aimed to explore the potential of CNMs in oral drug delivery, and the objectives were to evaluate CNM cytotoxicity and their abilities to modulate paracellular transport and the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump. Three types of functionalized CNMs were studied, including polyhydroxy small-gap fullerenes (OH-fullerenes), carboxylic acid functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (f SWCNT-COOH) and poly(ethylene glycol) functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (f SWCNT-PEG), using the well-established Caco-2 cell monolayer to represent the intestinal epithelium. All three CNMs had minimum cytotoxicity on Caco-2 cells, as demonstrated through lactose dehydrogenase release and 3-(4,5-dimethyliazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Of the three CNMs, f SWCNT-COOH significantly reduced transepithelial electrical resistance and enhanced transport of Lucifer Yellow across the Caco-2 monolayer. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that f SWCNT-COOH treated cells had the highest perturbation in the distribution of ZO-1, a protein marker of tight junction, suggesting that f SWCNT-COOH could enhance paracellular permeability via disruption of tight junctions. This modulating effect of f SWCNT-COOH can be reversed over time. Furthermore, cellular accumulation of the P-gp substrate, rhodamine-123, was significantly increased in cells treated with f SWCNT-COOH, suggestive of P-gp inhibition. Of note, f SWCNT-PEG could increase rhodamine-123 accumulation without modifying the tight junction. Collectively, these results suggest that the functionalized CNMs could be useful as modulators for oral drug delivery, and the differential effects on the intestinal epithelium imparted by different types of CNMs would create unique opportunities for drug-specific oral delivery applications.
Project description:Carbon nanotubes have many unique physical and chemical properties that are being widely explored for potential applications in biomedicine especially as transporters of drugs, proteins, DNA and RNA into cells. Specifically, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) have been shown to deliver siRNA to tumors in vivo. The low toxicity, the excellent membrane penetration ability, the protection afforded against blood breakdown of the siRNA payload and the good biological activity seen in vivo suggests that SWCNT may become universal transfection vehicles for siRNA and other RNAs for therapeutic applications. This paper will introduce a short review of a number of therapeutic applications for carbon nanotubes and provide recent data suggesting SWCNT are an excellent option for the delivery of siRNA clinically.
Project description:Carbon-based nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes and reduced graphene oxide are currently being evaluated for biomedical applications including in vivo drug delivery and tumor imaging. Several reports have studied the toxicity of carbon nanomaterials, but their effects on human male reproduction have not been fully examined. Additionally, it is not clear whether the nanomaterial exposure has any effect on sperm sorting procedures used in clinical settings. Here, we show that the presence of functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT-COOH) and reduced graphene oxide at concentrations of 1-25??g/mL do not affect sperm viability. However, SWCNT-COOH generate significant reactive superoxide species at a higher concentration (25??g/mL), while reduced graphene oxide does not initiate reactive species in human sperm. Further, we demonstrate that exposure to these nanomaterials does not hinder the sperm sorting process, and microfluidic sorting systems can select the sperm that show low oxidative stress post-exposure.
Project description:Synthesis of a new HKUST-1 composite based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) was successfully achieved (SWCNT@HKUST-1). SWCNTs were used as templates to grow rod-like HKUST-1 crystals over the surface of the nanotubes. N2 adsorption properties showed an increment on the surface area and pore volume for the SWCNT@HKUST-1 composite. Furthermore, the CO2 capture increased, from 7.92 to 8.75 mmol g-1 at 196 K up to 100 kPa, for the SWCNT@HKUST-1 composite. This enhancement was directly associated with the increase of the surface area of the composite. Additionally, an increase in the CO2 heat of adsorption was estimated, from 30 to 39.1 kJ mol-1 for the SWCNT@HKUST-1 composite. In situ Raman experiments corroborated the favored CO2 adsorption for the composite and provided an insight into the augmented hydrophobicity of the SWCNT@HKUST-1. Ethanol adsorption isotherms corroborated an increase in the hydrophobicity of the material upon the incorporation of carbon nanotubes.
Project description:There is currently a large difference of opinion in nanotoxicology studies of nanomaterials. There is concern about why some studies have indicated that there is strong toxicity, while others have not. In this study, the length of carbon nanotubes greatly affected their toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were sonicated in a nitric acid solution for 24 hours and 48 hours. The modified MWCNTs were tested in early developing zebrafish embryo. MWCNTs prepared with the longer sonication time resulted in severe developmental toxicity; however, the shorter sonication time did not induce any obvious toxicity in the tested developing zebrafish embryos. The cellular and molecular changes of the affected zebrafish embryos were studied and the observed phenotypes scored. This study suggests that length plays an important role in the in vivo toxicity of functionalized CNTs. This study will help in furthering the understanding on current differences in toxicity studies of nanomaterials.
Project description:Carbon nanotubes were among the earliest products of nanotechnology and have many potential applications in medicine, electronics, and manufacturing. The low density, small size, and biological persistence of carbon nanotubes create challenges for exposure control and monitoring and make respiratory exposures to workers likely. We have previously shown mitotic spindle aberrations in cultured primary and immortalized human airway epithelial cells exposed to 24, 48 and 96 ?g/cm(2) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). To investigate mitotic spindle aberrations at concentrations anticipated in exposed workers, primary and immortalized human airway epithelial cells were exposed to SWCNT for 24-72 h at doses equivalent to 20 weeks of exposure at the Permissible Exposure Limit for particulates not otherwise regulated. We have now demonstrated fragmented centrosomes, disrupted mitotic spindles and aneuploid chromosome number at those doses. The data further demonstrated multipolar mitotic spindles comprised 95% of the disrupted mitoses. The increased multipolar mitotic spindles were associated with an increased number of cells in the G2 phase of mitosis, indicating a mitotic checkpoint response. Nanotubes were observed in association with mitotic spindle microtubules, the centrosomes and condensed chromatin in cells exposed to 0.024, 0.24, 2.4 and 24 ?g/cm(2) SWCNT. Three-dimensional reconstructions showed carbon nanotubes within the centrosome structure. The lower doses did not cause cytotoxicity or reduction in colony formation after 24h; however, after three days, significant cytotoxicity was observed in the SWCNT-exposed cells. Colony formation assays showed an increased proliferation seven days after exposure. Our results show significant disruption of the mitotic spindle by SWCNT at occupationally relevant doses. The increased proliferation that was observed in carbon nanotube-exposed cells indicates a greater potential to pass the genetic damage to daughter cells. Disruption of the centrosome is common in many solid tumors including lung cancer. The resulting aneuploidy is an early event in the progression of many cancers, suggesting that it may play a role in both tumorigenesis and tumor progression. These results suggest caution should be used in the handling and processing of carbon nanotubes.
Project description:The use of exogenous electrical stimulation to promote nerve regeneration has achieved only limited success. Conditions impeding optimized outgrowth may arise from inadequate stimulus presentation due to differences in injury geometry or signal attenuation. Implantation of an electrically-conductive biomaterial may mitigate this attenuation and provide a more reproducible signal. In this study, a conductive nanofiller (single-walled carbon nanotubes [SWCNT]) was selected as one possible material to manipulate the bulk electrical properties of a collagen type I-10% Matrigel™ composite hydrogel. Neurite outgrowth within hydrogels (SWCNT or nanofiller-free controls) was characterized to determine if: (1) nanofillers influence neurite extension and (2) electrical stimulation of the nanofiller composite hydrogel enhances neurite outgrowth. Increased SWCNT loading (10-100-?g/mL) resulted in greater bulk conductivity (up to 1.7-fold) with no significant changes to elastic modulus. Neurite outgrowth increased 3.3-fold in 20-?g/mL SWCNT loaded biomaterials relative to the nanofiller-free control. Electrical stimulation promoted greater outgrowth (2.9-fold) within SWCNT-free control. The concurrent presentation of electrical stimulation and SWCNT-loaded biomaterials resulted in a 7.0-fold increase in outgrowth relative to the unstimulated, nanofiller-free controls. Local glia residing within the DRG likely contribute, in part, to the observed increases in outgrowth; but it is unknown which specific nanofiller properties influence neurite extension. Characterization of neuronal behavior in model systems, such as those described here, will aid the rational development of biomaterials as well as the appropriate delivery of electrical stimuli to support nerve repair.Novel biomedical devices delivering electrical stimulation are being developed to mitigate symptoms of Parkinson's, treat drug-resistant depression, control movement or enhance verve regeneration. Carbon nanotubes and other novel materials are being explored for novel nano-neuro devices based on their unique properties. Neuronal growth on carbon nanotubes has been studied in 2D since the early 2000s demonstrating increased outgrowth, synapse formation and network activity. In this work, single-walled carbon nanotubes were selected as one possible electrically-conductive material, dispersed within a 3D hydrogel containing primary neurons; extending previous 2D work to 3D to evaluate outgrowth within nanomaterial composites with electrical stimulation. This is the first study to our knowledge that stimulates neurons in 3D composite nanomaterial-laden hydrogels. Examination of electrically conductive biomaterials may serve to promote regrowth following injury or in long term stimulation.
Project description:Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are often suspended in Pluronic® surfactants by sonication, which may confound toxicity studies because sonication of surfactants can create degradation products that are toxic to mammalian cells. Here, we present a toxicity assessment of Pluronic® F-108 with and without suspended CNTs using embryonic zebrafish as an in vivo model. Pluronic® sonolytic degradation products were toxic to zebrafish embryos just as they were to mammalian cells. When the toxic Pluronic® fragments were removed, there was little effect of pristine multi-walled CNTs (pMWNTs), carboxylated MWNTs (cMWNTs) or pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (pSWNTs) on embryo viability and development, even at high concentrations. A gel electrophoretic method coupled with Raman imaging was developed to measure the bioaccumulation of CNTs by zebrafish embryos, and dose-dependent uptake of CNTs was observed. These data indicate that embryos accumulate pMWNTs, cMWNTs and pSWNTs yet there is very little embryo toxicity.
Project description:With rising environmental levels of carbon-based nanoparticles (CBNs), there is an urgent need to develop an understanding of their biological effects in order to generate appropriate risk assessment strategies. Herein, we exposed zebrafish via their diet to one of four different CBNs: C60 fullerene (C60), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), short multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or long MWCNTs. Lipid alterations in male and female zebrafish were explored post-exposure in three target tissues (brain, gonads and gastrointestinal tract) using 'omic' procedures based in liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data files. These tissues were chosen as they are often target tissues following environmental exposure. Marked alterations in lipid species are noted in all three tissues. To further explore CBN-induced brain alterations, Raman microspectroscopy analysis of lipid extracts was conducted. Marked lipid alterations are observed with males responding differently to females; in addition, there also appears to be consistent elevations in global genomic methylation. This latter observation is most profound in female zebrafish brain tissues post-exposure to short MWCNTs or SWCNTs (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that even at low levels, CBNs are capable of inducing significant cellular and genomic modifications in a range of tissues. Such alterations could result in modified susceptibility to other influences such as environmental exposures, pathology and, in the case of brain, developmental alterations.