Petal abscission in rose is associated with the differential expression of two ethylene-responsive xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase genes, RbXTH1 and RbXTH2.
ABSTRACT: Abscission is a process that involves shedding of plant organs from the main plant body. In this study it is shown that the process of petal separation in the fragrant rose, Rosa bourboniana, is accompanied by the expression of two xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase genes, RbXTH1 and RbXTH2. The sequences of the two genes show 52% amino acid identity but are conserved at the catalytic site. The genes are up-regulated soon after the initiation of the abscission process and their transcription is associated with the progression of abscission, being faster in ethylene-treated flowers but slower during field abscission. Transcription is ethylene responsive, with the ethylene response being tissue-specific for RbXTH1 but largely tissue-independent for RbXTH2. Expression is correlated with an increase in xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) action in petal abscission zones of both ethylene-treated and field abscising flowers. Proximal promoters of both the genes drive β-glucuronidase expression in an ethylene-responsive and abscission-related manner in agrobacteria-infiltrated rose petals, indicating that cis-elements governing ethylene-responsive and abscission-related expression probably lie within the first 700 nucleotides upstream of the translational initiation codon. The results show that cell wall remodelling of the xyloglucan moieties through the XET action of XTHs may be important for cell separation during abscission.
Project description:Growth of petal cells is a basis for expansion and morphogenesis (outward bending) of petals during opening of carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). Petal growth progressed through elongation in the early stage, expansion with outward bending in the middle stage, and expansion of the whole area in the late stage of flower opening. In the present study, four cDNAs encoding xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) (DcXTH1-DcXTH4) and three cDNAs encoding expansin (DcEXPA1-DcEXPA3) were cloned from petals of opening carnation flowers and characterized. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses showed that transcript levels of XTH and expansin genes accumulated differently in floral and vegetative tissues of carnation plants with opening flowers, indicating regulated expression of these genes. DcXTH2 and DcXTH3 transcripts were detected in large quantities in petals as compared with other tissues. DcEXPA1 and DcEXPA2 transcripts were markedly accumulated in petals of opening flowers. The action of XTH in growing petal tissues was confirmed by in situ staining of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity using a rhodamine-labelled xyloglucan nonasaccharide as a substrate. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that two XTH genes (DcXTH2 and DcXTH3) and two expansin genes (DcEXPA1 and DcEXPA2) are associated with petal growth and development during carnation flower opening.
Project description:Roses are one of the most important cut flowers among ornamental plants. Rose flower longevity is largely dependent on the timing of petal shedding occurrence. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying petal abscission in rose, we performed transcriptome profiling of the petal abscission zone during petal shedding using Illumina technology. We identified a total of 2592 differentially transcribed genes (DTGs) during rose petal shedding. Gene ontology term enrichment and pathway analysis revealed that major biochemical pathways the DTGs were involved in included ethylene biosynthesis, starch degradation, superpathway of cytosolic glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase and TCA cycle, photorespiration and the lactose degradation III pathway. This suggests that alterations in carbon metabolism are an important part of rose petal abscission. Among these DTGs, approximately 150 genes putatively encoding transcription factors were identified in rose abscission zone. These included zinc finger, WRKY, ERF, and Aux/IAA gene families, suggesting that petal abscission involves complex transcriptional reprogramming. Approximately 108 DTGs were related to hormone pathways, of which auxin and ethylene related DTGs were the largest groups including 52 and 41 genes, respectively. These also included 12 DTGs related to gibberellin and 6 DTGs in jasmonic acid pathway. Surprisingly, no DTGs involved in the biosynthesis/signaling of abscisic acid, cytokinin, brassinosteroid, and salicylic acid pathways were detected. Moreover, among DTGs related to auxin, we identified an Aux/IAA gene RhIAA16 that was up-regulated in response to petal shedding. Down-regulation of RhIAA16 by virus-induced gene silencing in rose promoted petal abscission, suggesting that RhIAA16 plays an important role in rose petal abscission.
Project description:Cysteine proteases play an important role in several developmental processes in plants, particularly those related to senescence and cell death. A cysteine protease gene, RbCP1, has been identified that encodes a putative protein of 357 amino acids and is expressed in the abscission zone (AZ) of petals in rose. The gene was responsive to ethylene in petals, petal abscission zones, leaves, and thalamus. The expression of RbCP1 increased during both ethylene-induced as well as natural abscission and was inhibited by 1-MCP. Transcript accumulation of RbCP1 was accompanied by the appearance of a 37 kDa cysteine protease, a concomitant increase in protease activity and a substantial decrease in total protein content in the AZ of petals. Agro-injection of rose petals with a 2.0 kb region upstream of the RbCP1 gene could drive GUS expression in an abscission zone-specific manner and was blocked by 1-MCP. It is concluded that petal abscission is associated with a decrease in total protein content resulting from rapid transcription of RbCP1 and the expression of a 37 kDa protease.
Project description:Petal wilting and/or abscission terminates the life of the flower. However, how wilting and abscission are coordinated is not fully understood. There is wide variation in the extent to which petals wilt before abscission, even between cultivars of the same species. For example, tepals of Lilium longiflorum wilt substantially, while those of the closely related Lilium longiflorum×Asiatic hybrid (L.A.) abscise turgid. Furthermore, close comparison of petal death in these two Lilium genotypes shows that there is a dramatic fall in fresh weight/dry weight accompanied by a sharp increase in ion leakage in late senescent L. longiflorum tepals, neither of which occur in Lilium L.A. Despite these differences, a putative abscission zone was identified in both lilies, but while the detachment force was reduced to zero in Lilium L.A., wilting of the fused tepals in L. longiflorum occurred before abscission was complete. Abscission is often negatively regulated by auxin, and the possible role of auxin in regulating tepal abscission relative to wilting was tested in the two lilies. There was a dramatic increase in auxin levels with senescence in L. longiflorum but not in Lilium L.A. Fifty auxin-related genes were expressed in early senescent L. longiflorum tepals including 12 ARF-related genes. In Arabidopsis, several ARF genes are involved in the regulation of abscission. Expression of a homologous transcript to Arabidopsis ARF7/19 was 8-fold higher during senescence in L. longiflorum compared with abscising Lilium L.A., suggesting a conserved role for auxin-regulated abscission in monocotyledonous ethylene-insensitive flowers.
Project description:Flowers of fragrant roses such as Rosa bourboniana are ethylene-sensitive and undergo rapid petal abscission while hybrid roses show reduced ethylene sensitivity and delayed abscission. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying these differences, a comparative transcriptome of petal abscission zones (AZ) of 0 h and 8 h ethylene-treated flowers from R. bourboniana was performed. Differential regulation of 3700 genes (1518 up, 2182 down) representing 8.5% of the AZ transcriptome was observed between 0 and 8 h ethylene-treated R. bourboniana petal AZ. Abscission was associated with large scale up-regulation of the ethylene pathway but prominent suppression of the JA, auxin and light-regulated pathways. Regulatory genes encoding kinases/phosphatases/F-box proteins and transcription factors formed the major group undergoing differential regulation besides genes for transporters, wall modification, defense and phenylpropanoid pathways. Further comparisons with ethylene-treated petals of R. bourboniana and 8 h ethylene-treated AZ (R. hybrida) identified a core set of 255 genes uniquely regulated by ethylene in R. bourboniana AZ. Almost 23% of these encoded regulatory proteins largely conserved with Arabidopsis AZ components. Most of these were up-regulated while an entire set of photosystem genes was prominently down-regulated. The studies provide important information on regulation of petal abscission in roses.
Project description:Depending on the species, the end of flower life span is characterized by petal wilting or by abscission of petals that are still fully turgid. Wilting at the end of petal life is due to programmed cell death (PCD). It is not known whether the abscission of turgid petals is preceded by PCD. We studied some parameters that indicate PCD: chromatin condensation, a decrease in nuclear diameter, DNA fragmentation, and DNA content per nucleus, using Prunus yedoensis and Delphinium belladonna which both show abscission of turgid petals at the end of floral life. No DNA degradation, no chromatin condensation, and no change in nuclear volume was observed in P. yedoensis petals, prior to abscission. In abscising D. belladonna petals, in contrast, considerable DNA degradation was found, chromatin was condensed and the nuclear volume considerably reduced. Following abscission, the nuclear area in both species drastically increased, and the chromatin became unevenly distributed. Similar chromatin changes were observed after dehydration (24 h at 60 degrees C) of petals severed at the time of flower opening, and in dehydrated petals of Ipomoea nil and Petunia hybrida, severed at the time of flower opening. In these flowers the petal life span is terminated by wilting rather than abscission. It is concluded that the abscission of turgid petals in D. belladonna was preceded by a number of PCD indicators, whereas no such evidence for PCD was found at the time of P. yedoensis petal abscission. Dehydration of the petal cells, after abscission, was associated with a remarkable nuclear morphology which was also found in younger petals subjected to dehydration. This nuclear morphology has apparently not been described previously, for any organism.
Project description:In some species pollination may result in rapid changes in perianth colour and form (petal senescence and abscission, flower closure), rendering the flowers less attractive to pollinators. It has been suggested that this effect is mediated by ethylene. Flowers from about 200 species and 50 families were exposed to ethylene (3 ppm for 24 h at 20 degrees C). The effects on petal senescence and abscission have been described previously. Flower closure and perianth colour changes were generally ethylene-sensitive, but responses showed no consistency within families. Several flowers known to respond to pollination by rapid cessation of attractiveness were also exposed to ethylene: this produced the same effect as pollination, both on flower colour and form. Species that respond to pollination by changing flower form or colour were found exclusively in families in which the species are generally ethylene-sensitive (with regard to changes in perianth form and colour). However, several families are generally ethylene-sensitive but contain no species reported to respond to pollination.
Project description:Small molecules (xenobiotics) that inhibit cell-wall-localised enzymes are valuable for elucidating the enzymes' biological roles. We applied a high-throughput fluorescent dot-blot screen to search for inhibitors of Petroselinum xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity in vitro. Of 4216 xenobiotics tested, with cellulose-bound xyloglucan as donor-substrate, 18 inhibited XET activity and 18 promoted it (especially anthraquinones and flavonoids). No compounds promoted XET in quantitative assays with (cellulose-free) soluble xyloglucan as substrate, suggesting that promotion was dependent on enzyme-cellulose interactions. With cellulose-free xyloglucan as substrate, we found 22 XET-inhibitors - especially compounds that generate singlet oxygen ((1)O2) e.g., riboflavin (IC50 29 ?M), retinoic acid, eosin (IC50 27 ?M) and erythrosin (IC50 36 ?M). The riboflavin effect was light-dependent, supporting (1)O2 involvement. Other inhibitors included tannins, sulphydryl reagents and triphenylmethanes. Some inhibitors (vulpinic acid and brilliant blue G) were relatively specific to XET, affecting only two or three, respectively, of nine other wall-enzyme activities tested; others [e.g. (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and riboflavin] were non-specific. In vivo, out of eight XET-inhibitors bioassayed, erythrosin (1 ?M) inhibited cell expansion in Rosa and Zea cell-suspension cultures, and 40 ?M mycophenolic acid and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate inhibited Zea culture growth. Our work showcases a general high-throughput strategy for discovering wall-enzyme inhibitors, some being plant growth inhibitors potentially valuable as physiological tools or herbicide leads.
Project description:Dehydration is a major factor resulting in huge loss from cut flowers during transportation. In the present study, dehydration inhibited petal cell expansion and resulted in irregular flowers in cut roses, mimicking ethylene-treated flowers. Among the five floral organs, dehydration substantially elevated ethylene production in the sepals, whilst rehydration caused rapid and elevated ethylene levels in the gynoecia and sepals. Among the five ethylene biosynthetic enzyme genes (RhACS1-5), expression of RhACS1 and RhACS2 was induced by dehydration and rehydration in the two floral organs. Silencing both RhACS1 and RhACS2 significantly suppressed dehydration- and rehydration-induced ethylene in the sepals and gynoecia. This weakened the inhibitory effect of dehydration on petal cell expansion. ?-glucuronidase activity driven by both the RhACS1 and RhACS2 promoters was dramatically induced in the sepals, pistil, and stamens, but not in the petals of transgenic Arabidopsis. This further supports the organ-specific induction of these two genes. Among the five rose ethylene receptor genes (RhETR1-5), expression of RhETR3 was predominantly induced by dehydration and rehydration in the petals. RhETR3 silencing clearly aggravated the inhibitory effect of dehydration on petal cell expansion. However, no significant difference in the effect between RhETR3-silenced flowers and RhETR-genes-silenced flowers was observed. Furthermore, RhETR-genes silencing extensively altered the expression of 21 cell expansion-related downstream genes in response to ethylene. These results suggest that induction of ethylene biosynthesis by dehydration proceeds in an organ-specific manner, indicating that ethylene can function as a mediator in dehydration-caused inhibition of cell expansion in rose petals.
Project description:Aluminium (Al) toxicity and drought are two major limiting factors for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production on tropical acid soils. Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)-induced osmotic stress (OS) simulating drought stress reduces Al accumulation in the entire root tips of common bean by alteration of cell-wall (CW) porosity, which might be regulated by two genes encoding xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase, PvXTH9 and PvXTHb The aim of this research was to understand the spatial and temporal regulation of both XTH genes in PEG-mediated Al accumulation in the root tips.In this study the spatial and temporal expression patterns of Al-inhibited root elongation, Al accumulation, XTH gene expression and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) enzyme action in the root tips were analysed under PEG-induced OS by a combination of physiological and molecular approaches such as quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and in situ fluorescence detection of XET in root tips.The results showed that Al accumulation, expression of XTH genes and XET action were distinctly reduced in the apical 0-2, 2-7 and 7-12?mm zones under OS, implying a potential regulatory role of XTH genes and XET enzyme in CW Al accumulation in these zones.The results provide novel insights into the physiological and molecular mechanisms of CW structure modification as a response of plant roots to OS, which will contribute to mitigate Al and drought stresses, severely limiting crop yields on acid soils.