Comparative proteogenomic analysis of the Leptospira interrogans virulence-attenuated strain IPAV against the pathogenic strain 56601.
ABSTRACT: The virulence-attenuated Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai strain IPAV was derived by prolonged laboratory passage from a highly virulent ancestral strain isolated in China. We studied the genetic variations of IPAV that render it avirulent via comparative analysis against the pathogenic L. interrogans serovar Lai strain 56601. The complete genome sequence of the IPAV strain was determined and used to compare with, and then rectify and reannotate the genome sequence of strain 56601. Aside from their highly similar genomic structure and gene order, a total of 33 insertions, 53 deletions and 301 single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) were detected throughout the genome of IPAV directly affecting 101 genes, either in their 5' upstream region or within their coding region. Among them, the majority of the 44 functional genes are involved in signal transduction, stress response, transmembrane transport and nitrogen metabolism. Comparative proteomic analysis based on quantitative liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS data revealed that among 1 627 selected pairs of orthologs, 174 genes in the IPAV strain were upregulated, with enrichment mainly in classes of energy production and lipid metabolism. In contrast, 228 genes in strain 56601 were upregulated, with the majority enriched in the categories of protein translation and DNA replication/repair. The combination of genomic and proteomic approaches illustrated that altered expression or mutations in critical genes, such as those encoding a Ser/Thr kinase, carbon-starvation protein CstA, glutamine synthetase, GTP-binding protein BipA, ribonucleotide-diphosphate reductase and phosphate transporter, and alterations in the translational profile of lipoproteins or outer membrane proteins are likely to account for the virulence attenuation in strain IPAV.
Project description:Many microorganisms, as well as plants and fungi, synthesize thiamin, but vertebrates do not produce it. Phosphomethyl pyrimidine kinase is an enzyme involved in an intermediary step of thiamin biosynthesis from purine molecules. This enzyme is absent in humans. Thus, it is a potential chemotherapeutic target for antileptospiral treatment. Structure of this enzyme from Leptospira interrogans serovar lai strain 56601 has not yet been elucidated. We used the structural template of phosphomethyl pyrimidine kinase from Thermus thermophilus HB8 for modeling the phosphomethyl pyrimidine kinase structure from Leptospira interrogans serovar lai strain 56601 . The model is deposited in Protein Data Bank (PDB ID: 2G53) at RCSB. Thus, we analyse and propose the usefulness of the modeled phosphomethyl pyrimidine kinase for the design of suitable inhibitors towards the treatment of leptospirosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Leptospira interrogans is an important mammalian pathogen. Transmission from an environmental source requires adaptation to a range of new environmental conditions in the organs and tissues of the infected host. Several studies have shown that a shift in culture temperature from 28 degrees C to 37 degrees C, similar to that encountered during infection of a host from an environmental source, is associated with differential synthesis of several proteins of the outer membrane, periplasm and cytoplasm. The whole genome of the Leptospira interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar lai type strain #56601 was sequenced in 2003 and microarrays were constructed to compare differential transcription of the whole genome at 37 degrees C and 28 degrees C. RESULTS: DNA microarray analyses were used to investigate the influence of temperature on global gene expression in L. interrogans grown to mid-exponential phase at 28 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Expression of 106 genes differed significantly at the two temperatures. The differentially expressed genes belonged to nine functional categories: Cell wall/membrane biogenesis genes, hemolysin genes, heat shock proteins genes, intracellular trafficking and secretion genes, two-component system and transcriptional regulator genes, information storage and processing genes, chemotaxis and flagellar genes, metabolism genes and genes with no known homologue. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays confirmed the microarray data. CONCLUSION: Microarray analyses demonstrated that L. interrogans responds globally to temperature alteration. The data delineate the spectrum of temperature-regulated gene expression in an important human pathogen and provide many new insights into its pathogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a world-widely distributed zoonosis. Humans become infected via exposure to pathogenic Leptospira spp. from contaminated water or soil. The availability of genomic sequences of Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai and serovar Copenhageni opened up opportunities to identify genetic diversity among different pathogenic strains of L. interrogans representing various kinds of serotypes (serogroups and serovars). RESULTS: Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis was used to compare the gene content of L. interrogans serovar Lai strain Lai with that of other 10 L. interrogans strains prevailed in China and one identified from Brazil using a microarray spotted with 3,528 protein coding sequences (CDSs) of strain Lai. The cutoff ratio of sample/reference (S/R) hybridization for detecting the absence of genes from one tested strain was set by comparing the ratio of S/R hybridization and the in silico sequence similarities of strain Lai and serovar Copenhageni strain Fiocruz L1-130. Among the 11 strains tested, 275 CDSs were found absent from at least one strain. The common backbone of the L. interrogans genome was estimated to contain about 2,917 CDSs. The genes encoding fundamental cellular functions such as translation, energy production and conversion were conserved. While strain-specific genes include those that encode proteins related to either cell surface structures or carbohydrate transport and metabolism. We also found two genomic islands (GIs) in strain Lai containing genes divergently absent in other strains. Because genes encoding proteins with potential pathogenic functions are located within GIs, these elements might contribute to the variations in disease manifestation. Differences in genes involved in O-antigen biosynthesis were also identified for strains belonging to different serogroups, which offers an opportunity for future development of genomic typing tools for serological classification. CONCLUSION: CGH analyses for pathogenic leptospiral strains prevailed in China against the L. interrogans serovar Lai strain Lai CDS-spotted microarrays revealed 2,917 common backbone CDSs and strain specific genes encoding proteins mainly related to cell surface structures and carbohydrated transport/metabolism. Of the 275 CDSs considered absent from at least one of the L. interrogans strains tested, most of them were clustered in the rfb gene cluster and two putative genomic islands (GI A and B) in strain Lai. The strain-specific genes detected via this work will provide a knowledge base for further investigating the pathogenesis of L interrogans and/or for the development of effective vaccines and/or diagnostic tools.
Project description:Abstract Leptospirosis is one of the most important zoonoses. Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai is a pathogenic spirochete that is responsible for leptospirosis. Extracellular proteins play an important role in the pathogenicity of this bacterium. In this study, L. interrogans serovar Lai was grown in protein-free medium; the supernatant was collected and subsequently analyzed as the extracellular proteome. A total of 66 proteins with more than two unique peptides were detected by MS/MS, and 33 of these were predicted to be extracellular proteins by a combination of bioinformatics analyses, including Psortb, cello, SoSuiGramN and SignalP. Comparisons of the transcriptional levels of these 33 genes between in vivo and in vitro conditions revealed that 15 genes were upregulated and two genes were downregulated in vivo compared to in vitro. A BLAST search for the components of secretion system at the genomic and proteomic levels revealed the presence of the complete type I secretion system and type II secretion system in this strain. Moreover, this strain also exhibits complete Sec translocase and Tat translocase systems. The extracellular proteome analysis of L. interrogans will supplement the previously generated whole proteome data and provide more information for studying the functions of specific proteins in the infection process and for selecting candidate molecules for vaccines or diagnostic tools for leptospirosis.
Project description:DNA microarray analysis was used to compare the differential gene expression profiles between Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai type strain 56601 and its corresponding attenuated strain IPAV. A 22-kb genomic island covering a cluster of 34 genes (i.e., genes LA0186 to LA0219) was actively expressed in both strains but concomitantly upregulated in strain 56601 in contrast to that of IPAV. Reverse transcription-PCR assays proved that the gene cluster comprised five transcripts. Gene annotation of this cluster revealed characteristics of a putative prophage-like remnant with at least 8 of 34 sequences encoding prophage-like proteins, of which the LA0195 protein is probably a putative prophage CI-like regulator. The transcription initiation activities of putative promoter-regulatory sequences of transcripts I, II, and III, all proximal to the LA0195 gene, were further analyzed in the Escherichia coli promoter probe vector pKK232-8 by assaying the reporter chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activities. The strong promoter activities of both transcripts I and II indicated by the E. coli CAT assay were well correlated with the in vitro sequence-specific binding of the recombinant LA0195 protein to the corresponding promoter probes detected by the electrophoresis mobility shift assay. On the other hand, the promoter activity of transcript III was very low in E. coli and failed to show active binding to the LA0195 protein in vitro. These results suggested that the LA0195 protein is likely involved in the transcription of transcripts I and II. However, the identical complete DNA sequences of this prophage remnant from these two strains strongly suggests that possible regulatory factors or signal transduction systems residing outside of this region within the genome may be responsible for the differential expression profiling in these two strains.
Project description:Select species of the bacterial genus Leptospira are causative agents of leptospirosis, an emerging global zoonosis affecting nearly one million people worldwide annually. We examined two Leptospira pathogens, Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai str. 56601 and Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo-bovis str. L550, as well as the free-living leptospiral saprophyte, Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc str. 'Patoc 1 (Ames)'. The transport proteins of these leptospires were identified and compared using bioinformatics to gain an appreciation for which proteins may be related to pathogenesis and saprophytism. L. biflexa possesses a disproportionately high number of secondary carriers for metabolite uptake and environmental adaptability as well as an increased number of inorganic cation transporters providing ionic homeostasis and effective osmoregulation in a rapidly changing environment. L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii possess far fewer transporters, but those that they have are remarkably similar, with near-equivalent representation in most transporter families. These two Leptospira pathogens also possess intact sphingomyelinases, holins, and virulence-related outer membrane porins. These virulence-related factors, in conjunction with decreased transporter substrate versatility, indicate that pathogenicity was accompanied by progressively narrowing ecological niches and the emergence of a limited set of proteins responsible for host invasion. The variability of host tropism and mortality rates by infectious leptospires suggests that small differences in individual sets of proteins play important physiological and pathological roles.
Project description:Select species of the bacterial genus Leptospira are causative agents of leptospirosis, an emerging global zoonosis affecting nearly one million people worldwide annually. We examined two Leptospira pathogens, Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai str. 56601 and Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo-bovis str. L550, as well as the free-living leptospiral saprophyte, Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc str. 'Patoc 1 (Ames)'. The transport proteins of these leptospires were identified and compared using bioinformatics to gain an appreciation for which proteins may be related to pathogenesis and saprophytism. L. biflexa possesses a disproportionately high number of secondary carriers for metabolite uptake and environmental adaptability as well as an increased number of inorganic cation transporters providing ionic homeostasis and effective osmoregulation in a rapidly changing environment. L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii possess far fewer transporters, but those that they all have are remarkably similar, with near-equivalent representation in most transporter families. These two Leptospira pathogens also possess intact sphingomyelinases, holins, and virulence-related outer membrane porins. These virulence-related factors, in conjunction with decreased transporter substrate versatility, indicate that pathogenicity arose in Leptospira correlating to progressively narrowing ecological niches and the emergence of a limited set of proteins responsible for host invasion. The variability of host tropism and mortality rates by infectious leptospires suggests that small differences in individual sets of proteins play important physiological and pathological roles.
Project description:Doxycycline (Dox), a semisynthetic antibiotic, has been reported to exert multiple immunomodulatory effects. Treatment with Dox has a satisfactory curative effect against leptospirosis. In addition to its antibacterial action, we supposed that Dox also modulated immune response in controlling leptospira infection. Using J774A.1 mouse macrophages, the effects of Dox on protein and mRNA levels of IL-1? and TNF-? were investigated after infection with live or sonicated Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai strain Lai (56601). Specifically, the level of IL-1? but not TNF-? was sharply decreased when treated with Dox in leptospira-infected macrophages. Western blot analysis showed that Dox suppressed the activation of leptospira-induced MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathways. Using NLRP3-deficient and NLRC4-deficient mice, the data showed that the expression of leptospira-induced IL-1? was mainly dependent on the presence of NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages. Meanwhile, Dox suppressed leptospira-induced NLRP3 inflammasome priming with the upregulation of the Na/K-ATPase Pump ?1 subunit. The inhibition effect of Dox on IL-1? was also conspicuous in cells with lipopolysaccharide and ATP stimulation. These results were confirmed in vivo, as peritoneal fluids of mice and organs of hamsters expressed less IL-1? after treatment of leptospiral infection with Dox. Our results indicated that Dox also modulated immune response to attenuate leptospira-induced IL-1? by suppressing p38, JNK, p65, and NLRP3 inflammasome priming.
Project description:An examination of the two Leptospira interrogans genomes sequenced so far reveals few genetic differences, including an extra DNA region, 54 kb in length, in L. interrogans serovar Lai. This locus contains 103 predicted coding sequences that are absent from the genome of L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni, of which only 20% had significant BLASTP hits in GenBank. By analyzing the L. interrogans serovar Lai genome by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we also found that this 54-kb DNA fragment exists as a circular plasmid. This was confirmed by amplification of a DNA fragment corresponding to that of the predicted fragment if this region excised from the chromosome and its left and right ends joined together. In addition, cloning of the putative rep gene of this DNA region was responsible for autonomous replication in Leptospira spp., therefore generating a new Escherichia coli-Leptospira sp. shuttle vector. Taken together, our results show that this genomic island can excise from the chromosome and form a replicative plasmid. Analysis of the distribution of this genomic island revealed that highly related sequences exist in other L. interrogans virulent strains. This genomic island, containing a high proportion of novel genes, may have an important role in spreading genes, including virulence factors, among bacterial populations.
Project description:Leptospira interrogans sensu stricto is responsible for the most frequent and severe cases of human leptospirosis. The epidemiology and clinical features of leptospirosis are usually associated with the serovars and serogroups of Leptospira. Because of the difficulties associated with serological identification of Leptospira strains, we evaluated a novel PCR-based method for typing L. interrogans serovars. Based upon the genome sequence of L. interrogans serovar Lai type strain 5660, 44 loci were analyzed by PCR for their variability in size due to the presence of variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR). Seven VNTR loci were found to be powerful markers for serovar identification, epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies of L. interrogans. This rapid and easy method should greatly contribute to a better knowledge of the epidemiology of Leptospira.