Structurally Diverse Nitric Oxide-Releasing Poly(propylene Imine) Dendrimers.
ABSTRACT: Structurally diverse secondary amine-functionalized poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers capable of tunable nitric oxide (NO) release were synthesized in a straightforward, one-step manner using ring-opening or conjugate-addition reactions with propylene oxide (PO), styrene oxide (SO), acrylonitrile (ACN), poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (average Mn = 480) (PEG) or 1,2-epoxy-9-decene (ED). N-Diazeniumdiolate nitric oxide donors were formed on the resulting secondary amine-functionalized G2-G5 PPI dendrimers by reaction with NO gas in basic solution. The NO storage and release kinetics for the resulting dendritic scaffolds were diverse (0.9-3.8 ?mol NO/mg totals and 0.3 to 4.9 h half lives), illustrating the importance of the exterior chemical modification (e.g., steric environments, hydrophobicity, etc.) on diazeniumdiolate stability/decomposition. Tunable NO release was demonstrated by combining two donor systems on the exterior of one macromolecular scaffold. Additionally, a mathematical model was developed that allows for the simulation of dual NO release kinetics using the NO release data from the two single NO donor systems. The approaches described herein extend the range and scope of NO-releasing macromolecular scaffolds by unlocking a series of materials for use as dopants in biomedical polymers or stand-alone therapeutics depending on the exterior modification.
Project description:The antibacterial activity of a series of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers was evaluated against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus . A direct comparison of the bactericidal efficacy between NO-releasing and control PPI dendrimers (i.e., non-NO-releasing) revealed both enhanced biocidal action of NO-releasing dendrimers and reduced toxicity against mammalian fibroblast cells. Antibacterial activity for the NO donor-functionalized PPI dendrimers was shown to be a function of both dendrimer size (molecular weight) and exterior functionality. In addition to minimal toxicity against fibroblasts, NO-releasing PPI dendrimers modified with styrene oxide exhibited the greatest biocidal activity (?99.999% killing) against all bacterial strains tested. The N-diazeniumdiolate NO donor-functionalized PPI dendrimers presented in this study hold promise as effective NO-based therapeutics for combating bacterial infections.
Project description:A series of amphiphilic nitric oxide (NO)-releasing poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers with different exterior functionalities were synthesized by a ring-opening reaction between primary amines on the dendrimer and propylene oxide (PO), 1,2-epoxy-9-decene (ED), or a ratio of the two, followed by reaction with NO at 10 atm to produce N-diazeniumdiolate-modified scaffolds with a total storage of ~1 ?mol/mg. The hydrophobicity of the exterior functionality was tuned by varying the ratio of PO and ED grafted onto the dendrimers. The bactericidal efficacy of these NO-releasing vehicles against established Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms was then evaluated as a function of dendrimer exterior hydrophobicity (i.e., ratio of PO/ED), size (i.e., generation), and NO release. Both the size and exterior functionalization of dendrimer proved important to a number of parameters including dendrimer-bacteria association, NO delivery efficiency, bacteria membrane disruption, migration within the biofilm, and toxicity to mammalian cells. Although enhanced bactericidal efficacy was observed for the hydrophobic chains (e.g., ED), toxicity to L929 mouse fibroblast cells was also noted at concentrations necessary to reduce bacterial viability by 5-logs (99.999% killing). The optimal PO to ED ratios for biofilm eradication with minimal toxicity against L929 mouse fibroblast cells were 7:3 and 5:5. The study presented herein demonstrated the importance of both dendrimer size and exterior properties in determining efficacy against established biofilms without compromising biocompatibility to mammalian cells.
Project description:Hyperbranched polyamidoamines (h-PAMAM) were prepared using a one-pot reaction to have similar molecular weight to third generation PAMAM (G3-PAMAM) dendrimers, and then functionalized with N-diazeniumdiolate nitric oxide (NO) donors. A wide range of NO storage capacities (?1-2.50 ?mol mg-1) and NO-release kinetics (t1/2 ?30-80 min) were achieved by changing the extent of propylene oxide (PO) modification. The therapeutic potential of these materials was evaluated by studying their antibacterial activities and toxicity against common dental pathogens and human gingival fibroblast cells, respectively. Our results indicate that the combination of NO release and PO modification is necessary to yield h-PAMAM materials with efficient bactericidal action without eliciting unwarranted cytotoxicity. Of importance, NO-releasing PO-modified h-PAMAM polymers exhibited comparable biological properties (i.e., antibacterial action and cytotoxicity) to defect-free G3-PAMAM dendrimers, but at a substantially lower synthetic burden.
Project description:A series of secondary amine-modified cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives was synthesized with diverse exterior terminal groups (i.e., hydroxyl, methyl, methoxyl, and primary amine). Subsequent reaction with nitric oxide (NO) gas under alkaline conditions yielded N-diazeniumdiolate-modified CD derivatives. Adjustable NO payloads (0.6-2.4 ?mol/mg) and release half-lives (0.7-4.2 h) were achieved by regulating both the amount of secondary amine precursors and the functional groups around the NO donors. The bactericidal action of these NO-releasing cyclodextrin derivatives was evaluated against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative pathogen, with antibacterial activity proving dependent on both the NO payload and exterior modification. Materials containing a high density of NO donors or primary amines exhibited the greatest ability to eradicate P. aeruginosa. Of the materials prepared, only the primary amine-terminated heptasubstituted CD derivatives exhibited toxicity against mammalian L929 mouse fibroblast cells. The NO donor-modified CD was also capable of delivering promethazine, a hydrophobic drug, thus demonstrating potential as a dual-drug-releasing therapeutic.
Project description:The fabrication of electrospun composite polyurethane fibers capable of dual-action antibacterial dendrimer release is reported. Generation 4 (G4) poly(amidoamine) dendrimers were functionalized with octyl alkyl chain or quaternary ammonium (QA) moieties followed by modification of the resulting secondary amines with N-diazeniumdiolate nitric oxide (NO) donors to produce dual-action antibacterial dendrimers. Control and NO-releasing dendrimers were doped into polyurethane solutions prior to electrospinning of the polymer to yield well-defined dendrimer-doped composite polyurethane fibers. The fiber mats were semi-porous (?30% porosity) and exhibited high water uptake (>100% relative to fiber mass). Dendrimer- and NO-release characteristics (rates and totals) were dependent on the dendrimer modification and polyurethane composition, with total dendrimer- and NO-release amounts ranging from 10 - 80 ?g/mg and 0.027 - 0.072 ?mol NO/mg, respectively. The antibacterial action of the fibers was evaluated against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains. Nitric oxide-releasing fibers demonstrated broad-spectrum bactericidal action at short (2 h) and long (24 h) timescales.
Project description:The preparation and characterization of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing silica particles formed following the synthesis of N-diazeniumdiolate-modified aminoalkoxysilanes are reported. Briefly, an aminoalkoxysilane solution was prepared by dissolving an appropriate amount of aminoalkoxysilane in a mixture of ethanol, methanol, and sodium methoxide (NaOMe) base. The silane solution was reacted with NO (5 atm) to form N-diazeniumdiolate NO donor moieties on the amino-alkoxysilanes. Tetraethoxy- or tetramethoxysilane (TEOS or TMOS) was then mixed with different ratios of N-diazeniumdiolate-modified aminoalkoxysilane (10 - 75 mol%, balance TEOS or TMOS). Finally, the silane mixture was added into ethanol in the presence of an ammonia catalyst to form NO donor silica nanoparticles via a sol-gel process. This synthetic approach allows for the preparation of NO delivery silica scaffolds with remarkably improved NO storage and release properties, surpassing all macromolecular NO donor systems reported to date with respect to NO payload (11.26?mol·mg-1), maximum NO release amount (357000 ppb·mg-1), NO release half-life (253 min), and NO release duration (101 h). The N-diazeniumdiolate-modified silane monomers and the resulting silica nanoparticles were characterized by 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, chemiluminescence, atomic force microscopy (AFM), gas adsorption-desorption isotherms, and elemental analysis.
Project description:We report an indirect method for synthesis of previously inaccessible diazeniumdiolated carbamates. Synthesis involves use of previously reported triisopropylsilyloxymethylated isopropylamine diazeniumdiolate (TOM-ylated IPA/NO). These novel diazeniumdiolated carbamate prodrugs upon activation release nitric oxide (NO) similar to their secondary amine counterparts. They are also efficient sources of intracellular NO. These prodrugs may have potential applications as therapeutic NO-donors.
Project description:Nitric oxide-releasing mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were prepared using an aminosilane-template surfactant ion exchange reaction. Initially, bare silica particles were synthesized under basic conditions in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). These particles were functionalized with nitric oxide (NO) donor precursors (i.e., secondary amines) via the addition of aminosilane directly to the particle sol and a commensurate ion exchange reaction between the cationic aminosilanes and CTAB. N-Diazeniumdiolate NO donors were formed at the secondary amines to yield NO-releasing MSNs. Tuning of the ion exchange-based MSN modification approach allowed for the preparation of monodisperse particles ranging from 30 to 1100 nm. Regardless of size, the MSNs stored appreciable levels of NO (0.4-1.5 ?mol mg(-1)) with tunable NO release durations (1-33 h) dependent on the aminosilane modification. Independent control of NO release properties and particle size was achieved, demonstrating the flexibility of this novel MSN synthesis over conventional co-condensation and surface grafting strategies.
Project description:Electrospun polyurethane fibers doped with nitric oxide (NO)-releasing silica particles are presented as novel macromolecular scaffolds with prolonged NO-release and high porosity. Fiber diameter (119-614 nm) and mechanical strength (1.7-34.5 MPa of modulus) were varied by altering polyurethane type and concentration, as well as the NO-releasing particle composition, size, and concentration. The resulting NO-releasing electrospun nanofibers exhibited ~83% porosity with flexible plastic or elastomeric behavior. The use of N-diazeniumdiolate- or S-nitrosothiol-modified particles yielded scaffolds exhibiting a wide range of NO release totals and durations (7.5 nmol mg(-1)-0.12 ?mol mg(-1) and 7 h to 2 weeks, respectively). The application of NO-releasing porous materials as coatings for subcutaneous implants may improve tissue biocompatibility by mitigating the foreign body response and promoting cell integration.
Project description:The energetics, stoichiometry, and structure of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer-phospholipid interactions were measured with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Dendrimers of sixth-generation and smaller interacted with the lipids at an average stoichiometry and enthalpy proportional to the number of primary amines per dendrimers (4.5 ± 0.1 lipids/primary amine and 6.3 ± 0.3 kJ/mol of primary amines, respectively). Larger dendrimers, however, demonstrated a decreased number of bound lipids and heat release per primary amine, presumably due to the steric restriction of dendrimer deformation on the lipid bilayer. For example, eighth-generation PAMAM dendrimers bound to 44% fewer lipids per primary amine and released 63% less heat per primary amine as compared to the smaller dendrimers. These differences in binding stoichiometry support generation-dependent models for dendrimer-lipid complexation, which are consistent with previously observed generation-dependent differences in dendrimer-induced membrane disruption. Dendrimers of seventh-generation and larger bound to lipids with an average stoichiometry consistent with each dendrimer having been wrapped by a bilayer of lipids, whereas smaller dendrimers did not.