Diversity and abundance of single-stranded DNA viruses in human feces.
ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the abundance and diversity of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses in fecal samples from five healthy individuals through a combination of serial filtration and CsCl gradient ultracentrifugation. Virus abundance ranged from 10? to 10? per gram of feces, and virus-to-bacterium ratios were much lower (less than 0.1) than those observed in aquatic environments (5 to 10). Viral DNA was extracted and randomly amplified using phi29 polymerase and analyzed through high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing. Among 400,133 sequences, an average of 86.2% viromes were previously uncharacterized in public databases. Among previously known viruses, double-stranded DNA podophages (52 to 74%), siphophages (11 to 30%), myophages (1 to 4%), and ssDNA microphages (3 to 9%) were major constituents of human fecal viromes. A phylogenetic analysis of 24 large contigs of microphages based on conserved capsid protein sequences revealed five distinct newly discovered evolutionary microphage groups that were distantly related to previously known microphages. Moreover, putative capsid protein sequences of five contigs were closely related to prophage-like sequences in the genomes of three Bacteroides and three Prevotella strains, suggesting that Bacteroides and Prevotella are the sources of infecting microphages in their hosts.
Project description:In this study, we analyzed viral metagenomes (viromes) in the sedimentary habitats of three geographically and geologically distinct (hado)pelagic environments in the northwest Pacific; the Izu-Ogasawara Trench (water depth?=?9,760 m) (OG), the Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench (10,325 m) (MA), and the forearc basin off the Shimokita Peninsula (1,181 m) (SH). Virus abundance ranged from 10(6) to 10(11) viruses/cm(3) of sediments (down to 30 cm below the seafloor [cmbsf]). We recovered viral DNA assemblages (viromes) from the (hado)pelagic sediment samples and obtained a total of 37,458, 39,882, and 70,882 sequence reads by 454 GS FLX Titanium pyrosequencing from the virome libraries of the OG, MA, and SH (hado)pelagic sediments, respectively. Only 24-30% of the sequence reads from each virome library exhibited significant similarities to the sequences deposited in the public nr protein database (E-value <10(-3) in BLAST). Among the sequences identified as potential viral genes based on the BLAST search, 95-99% of the sequence reads in each library were related to genes from single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viral families, including Microviridae, Circoviridae, and Geminiviridae. A relatively high abundance of sequences related to the genetic markers (major capsid protein [VP1] and replication protein [Rep]) of two ssDNA viral groups were also detected in these libraries, thereby revealing a high genotypic diversity of their viruses (833 genotypes for VP1 and 2,551 genotypes for Rep). A majority of the viral genes predicted from each library were classified into three ssDNA viral protein categories: Rep, VP1, and minor capsid protein. The deep-sea sedimentary viromes were distinct from the viromes obtained from the oceanic and fresh waters and marine eukaryotes, and thus, deep-sea sediments harbor novel viromes, including previously unidentified ssDNA viruses.
Project description:Airborne viruses are expected to be ubiquitous in the atmosphere but they still remain poorly understood. This study investigated the temporal and spatial dynamics of airborne viruses and their genotypic characteristics in air samples collected from three distinct land use types (a residential district [RD], a forest [FR], and an industrial complex [IC]) and from rainwater samples freshly precipitated at the RD site (RD-rain). Viral abundance exhibited a seasonal fluctuation in the range between 1.7 × 10(6) and 4.0 × 10(7) viruses m(-3), which increased from autumn to winter and decreased toward spring, but no significant spatial differences were observed. Temporal variations in viral abundance were inversely correlated with seasonal changes in temperature and absolute humidity. Metagenomic analysis of air viromes amplified by rolling-circle phi29 polymerase-based random hexamer priming indicated the dominance of plant-associated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) geminivirus-related viruses, followed by animal-infecting circovirus-related sequences, with low numbers of nanoviruses and microphages-related genomes. Particularly, the majority of the geminivirus-related viruses were closely related to ssDNA mycoviruses that infect plant-pathogenic fungi. Phylogenetic analysis based on the replication initiator protein sequence indicated that the airborne ssDNA viruses were distantly related to known ssDNA viruses, suggesting that a high diversity of viruses were newly discovered. This research is the first to report the seasonality of airborne viruses and their genetic diversity, which enhances our understanding of viral ecology in temperate regions.
Project description:A new group of viruses carrying naturally chimeric single-stranded (ss) DNA genomes that encompass genes derived from eukaryotic ssRNA and ssDNA viruses has been recently identified by metagenomic studies. The host range, genomic diversity, and abundance of these chimeric viruses, referred to as cruciviruses, remain largely unknown. In this article, we assembled and analyzed thirty-seven new crucivirus genomes from twelve peat viromes, representing twenty-four distinct genome organizations, and nearly tripling the number of available genomes for this group. All genomes possess the two characteristic genes encoding for the conserved capsid protein (CP) and a replication protein. Additional ORFs were conserved only in nearly identical genomes with no detectable similarity to known genes. Two cruciviruses possess putative introns in their replication-associated genes. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the replication proteins revealed intra-gene chimerism in at least eight chimeric genomes. This highlights the large extent of horizontal gene transfer and recombination events in the evolution of ssDNA viruses, as previously suggested. Read mapping analysis revealed that members of the 'Cruciviridae' group are particularly prevalent in peat viromes. Sequences matching the CP ranged from 0.6 up to 10.9 percent in the twelve peat viromes. In contrast, from sixty-nine available viromes derived from other environments, only twenty-four contained cruciviruses, which on average accounted for merely 0.2 percent of sequences. Overall, this study provides new genome information and insights into the diversity of chimeric viruses, a necessary first step in progressing toward an accurate quantification and host range identification of these new viruses.
Project description:Microviridae, a family of bacteria-infecting ssDNA viruses, is one of the still poorly characterized bacteriophage groups, even though it includes phage PhiX174, one of the main models in virology for genomic and capsid structure studies. Recent studies suggest that they are diverse and well represented in marine and freshwater virioplankton as well as in human microbiomes. However, their diversity, abundance, and ecological role are completely unknown in soil ecosystems. Here we present the comparative analysis of 17 completely assembled Microviridae genomes from 12 viromes of a Sphagnum-dominated peatland. Phylogenetic analysis of the conserved major capsid protein sequences revealed the affiliation to Gokushovirinae and Pichovirinae as well as to two newly defined subfamilies, the Aravirinae and Stokavirinae. Additionally, two new distinct prophages were identified in the genomes of Parabacteroides merdae and Parabacteroides distasonis representing a potential new subfamily of Microviridae. The differentiation of the subfamilies was confirmed by gene order and similarity analysis. Relative abundance analysis using the affiliation of the major capsid protein (VP1) revealed that Gokushovirinae, followed by Aravirinae, are the most abundant Microviridae in 11 out of 12 peat viromes. Sequences matching the Gokushovirinae and Aravirinae VP1 matching sequences, respectively, accounted for up to 4.19 and 0.65% of the total number of sequences in the corresponding virome, respectively. In this study we provide new genome information of Microviridae and pave the way toward quantitative estimations of Microviridae subfamilies.
Project description:Viral communities of two different salt pans located in the Namib Desert, Hosabes and Eisfeld, were investigated using a combination of multiple displacement amplification of metaviromic DNA and deep sequencing, and provided comprehensive sequence data on both ssDNA and dsDNA viral community structures. Read and contig annotations through online pipelines showed that the salt pans harbored largely unknown viral communities. Through network analysis, we were able to assign a large portion of the unknown reads to a diverse group of ssDNA viruses. Contigs belonging to the subfamily Gokushovirinae were common in both environmental datasets. Analysis of haloarchaeal virus contigs revealed the presence of three contigs distantly related with His1, indicating a possible new lineage of salterproviruses in the Hosabes playa. Based on viral richness and read mapping analyses, the salt pan metaviromes were novel and most closely related to each other while showing a low degree of overlap with other environmental viromes.
Project description:Proteus mirabilis often complicates the care of catheterized patients through the formation of crystalline biofilms which block urine flow. Bacteriophage therapy has been highlighted as a promising approach to control this problem, but relatively few phages infecting P. mirabilis have been characterized. Here we characterize five phages capable of infecting P. mirabilis, including those shown to reduce biofilm formation, and provide insights regarding the wider ecological and evolutionary relationships of these phages. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging of phages vB_PmiP_RS1pmA, vB_PmiP_RS1pmB, vB_PmiP_RS3pmA, and vB_PmiP_RS8pmA showed that all share morphologies characteristic of the Podoviridae family. The genome sequences of vB_PmiP_RS1pmA, vB_PmiP_RS1pmB, and vB_PmiP_RS3pmA showed these are species of the same phage differing only by point mutations, and are closely related to vB_PmiP_RS8pmA. Podophages characterized in this study were also found to share similarity in genome architecture and composition to other previously described P. mirabilis podophages (PM16 and PM75). In contrast, vB_PimP_RS51pmB showed morphology characteristic of the Myoviridae family, with no notable similarity to other phage genomes examined. Ecogenomic profiling of all phages revealed no association with human urinary tract viromes, but sequences similar to vB_PimP_RS51pmB were found within human gut, and human oral microbiomes. Investigation of wider host-phage evolutionary relationships through tetranucleotide profiling of phage genomes and bacterial chromosomes, indicated vB_PimP_RS51pmB has a relatively recent association with Morganella morganii and other non-Proteus members of the Morganellaceae family. Subsequent host range assays confirmed vB_PimP_RS51pmB can infect M. morganii.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Metagenomics, based on culture-independent sequencing, is a well-fitted approach to provide insights into the composition, structure and dynamics of environmental viral communities. Following recent advances in sequencing technologies, new challenges arise for existing bioinformatic tools dedicated to viral metagenome (i.e. virome) analysis as (i) the number of viromes is rapidly growing and (ii) large genomic fragments can now be obtained by assembling the huge amount of sequence data generated for each metagenome. RESULTS: To face these challenges, a new version of Metavir was developed. First, all Metavir tools have been adapted to support comparative analysis of viromes in order to improve the analysis of multiple datasets. In addition to the sequence comparison previously provided, viromes can now be compared through their k-mer frequencies, their taxonomic compositions, recruitment plots and phylogenetic trees containing sequences from different datasets. Second, a new section has been specifically designed to handle assembled viromes made of thousands of large genomic fragments (i.e. contigs). This section includes an annotation pipeline for uploaded viral contigs (gene prediction, similarity search against reference viral genomes and protein domains) and an extensive comparison between contigs and reference genomes. Contigs and their annotations can be explored on the website through specifically developed dynamic genomic maps and interactive networks. CONCLUSIONS: The new features of Metavir 2 allow users to explore and analyze viromes composed of raw reads or assembled fragments through a set of adapted tools and a user-friendly interface.
Project description:We describe a new PCR-based method for distinguishing human and cow fecal contamination in coastal waters without culturing indicator organisms, and we show that the method can be used to track bacterial marker sequences in complex environments. We identified two human-specific genetic markers and five cow-specific genetic markers in fecal samples by amplifying 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragments from members of the genus Bifidobacterium and the Bacteroides-Prevotella group and performing length heterogeneity PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses. Host-specific patterns suggested that there are species composition differences in the Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides-Prevotella populations of human and cow feces. The patterns were highly reproducible among different hosts belonging to the same species. Additionally, all host-specific genetic markers were detected in water samples collected from areas frequently contaminated with fecal pollution. Ease of detection and longer survival in water made Bacteroides-Prevotella indicators better than Bifidobacterium indicators. Fecal 16S rDNA sequences corresponding to our Bacteroides-Prevotella markers comprised closely related gene clusters, none of which exactly matched previously published Bacteroides or Prevotella sequences. Our method detected host-specific markers in water at pollutant concentrations of 2.8 x 10(-5) to 2.8 x 10(-7) g (dry weight) of feces/liter and 6.8 x 10(-7) g (dry weight) of sewage/liter. Although our aim was to identify nonpoint sources of fecal contamination, the method described here should be widely applicable for monitoring spatial and temporal fluctuations in specific bacterial groups in natural environments.
Project description:The sequence assembly of the human gut virome encounters several difficulties. A high proportion of human and bacterial matches is detected in purified viral samples. Viral DNA extraction results in a low DNA concentration, which does not reach the minimal limit required for sequencing library preparation. Therefore, the viromes are usually enriched by whole genome amplification (WGA), which is, however, prone to the development of chimeras and amplification bias. In addition, as there is a very wide diversity of gut viral species, very extensive sequencing efforts must be made for the assembling of whole viral genomes. We present an approach to improve human gut virome assembly by employing a more precise preparation of a viral sample before sequencing. Particles present in a virome previously filtered through 0.2 ?m pores were further divided into groups in accordance with their size and DNA content by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). One selected viral fraction was sequenced excluding the WGA step, so that unbiased sequences with high reliability were obtained. The DNA extracted from the 314 viral particles of the selected fraction was assembled into 34 contigs longer than 1,000 bp. This represents an increase to the number of assembled long contigs per sequenced Gb in comparison with other studies where non-fractioned viromes are sequenced. Seven of these contigs contained open reading frames (ORFs) with explicit matches to proteins related to bacteriophages. The remaining contigs also possessed uncharacterized ORFs with bacteriophage-related domains. When the particles that are present in the filtered viromes are sorted into smaller groups by FACS, large pieces of viral genomes can be recovered easily. This approach has several advantages over the conventional sequencing of non-fractioned viromes: non-viral contamination is reduced and the sequencing efforts required for viral assembly are minimized.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to examine host distribution patterns among fecal bacteria in the order Bacteroidales, with the goal of using endemic sequences as markers for fecal source identification in aquatic environments. We analyzed Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene sequences from the feces of eight hosts: human, bovine, pig, horse, dog, cat, gull, and elk. Recovered sequences did not match database sequences, indicating high levels of uncultivated diversity. The analysis revealed both endemic and cosmopolitan distributions among the eight hosts. Ruminant, pig, and horse sequences tended to form host- or host group-specific clusters in a phylogenetic tree, while human, dog, cat, and gull sequences clustered together almost exclusively. Many of the human, dog, cat, and gull sequences fell within a large branch containing cultivated species from the genus Bacteroides. Most of the cultivated Bacteroides species had very close matches with multiple hosts and thus may not be useful targets for fecal source identification. A large branch containing cultivated members of the genus Prevotella included cloned sequences that were not closely related to cultivated Prevotella species. Most ruminant sequences formed clusters separate from the branches containing Bacteroides and Prevotella species. Host-specific sequences were identified for pigs and horses and were used to design PCR primers to identify pig and horse sources of fecal pollution in water. The primers successfully amplified fecal DNAs from their target hosts and did not amplify fecal DNAs from other species. Fecal bacteria endemic to the host species may result from evolution in different types of digestive systems.