Evaluation of 22 genetic variants with Crohn's disease risk in the Ashkenazi Jewish population: a case-control study.
ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease (CD) has the highest prevalence among individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) descent compared to non-Jewish Caucasian populations (NJ). We evaluated a set of well-established CD-susceptibility variants to determine if they can explain the increased CD risk in the AJ population.We recruited 369 AJ CD patients and 503 AJ controls, genotyped 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at or near 10 CD-associated genes, NOD2, IL23R, IRGM, ATG16L1, PTGER4, NKX2-3, IL12B, PTPN2, TNFSF15 and STAT3, and assessed their association with CD status. We generated genetic scores based on the risk allele count alone and the risk allele count weighed by the effect size, and evaluated their predictive value.Three NOD2 SNPs, two IL23R SNPs, and one SNP each at IRGM and PTGER4 were independently associated with CD risk. Carriage of 7 or more copies of these risk alleles or the weighted genetic risk score of 7 or greater correctly classified 92% (allelic count score) and 83% (weighted score) of the controls; however, only 29% and 47% of the cases were identified as having the disease, respectively. This cutoff was associated with a >4-fold increased disease risk (p < 10e-16).CD-associated genetic risks were similar to those reported in NJ population and are unlikely to explain the excess prevalence of the disease in AJ individuals. These results support the existence of novel, yet unidentified, genetic variants unique to this population. Understanding of ethnic and racial differences in disease susceptibility may help unravel the pathogenesis of CD leading to new personalized diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
Project description:We sought to investigate whether variants in genes involved in bacterial sensing and autophagy (NOD2, TLR5, IRGM, ATG16L1) and the interleukin-23 signaling pathway (IL12B, IL23R, STAT3) were associated with development of antimicrobial antibodies in patients with Crohn's disease (CD).A cohort of 616 CD patients from a tertiary referral hospital (Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto) was evaluated. DNA was tested for three CD-associated NOD2 variants (3020insC, G908R, R702W), variants in IRGM, ATG16L1, IL12B, IL23R, STAT3, and a TLR5-stop mutation. Serum was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA) IgG and IgA, anti-outer membrane porin C (anti-ompC), anti-Cbir1 flagellin, and anti-Pseudomonas fluorescens (anti-I2).NOD2 3020insC was associated with cumulative seroreactivity by quartile sum (P = 0.003) and number of positive antibodies (P = 0.02). NOD2 G908R was also associated with quartile sum (P = 0.05). Increased ASCA seropositivity was associated with NOD2 3020insC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9, P = 0.02) and G908R (OR = 1.8, P = 0.05), and ATG16L1 T300A (OR = 1.4, P = 0.01) variants; ASCA-positive patients had an increased cumulative number of NOD2 3020insC and ATG16L1 T300A variants (P = 0.007). TLR5-stop mutation abrogated development of anti-flagellin in a dominant-negative fashion (OR = 0.5, P = 0.009). The IRGM CD risk variant was associated with increased anti-flagellin seropositivity (OR = 1.5, P = 0.03). IL12B, IL23R, and STAT3 variants did not contribute to development of antimicrobial antibodies.Variants in innate immune genes involved in pattern recognition and autophagy but not the interleukin-23 signaling pathway influence antimicrobial seroreactivity in CD. In particular, the additive effect of NOD2 3020insC and ATG16L1 T300A suggests a role for autophagy in development of ASCA.
Project description:African Americans (AAs) are an admixed population of West African (WA) and European ancestry (EA). Crohn's disease (CD) susceptibility genes have not been established. We therefore evaluated the contribution of European admixture and major established risk genes to AA CD.Ninety-seven admixture informative markers were genotyped for ancestry estimates using STRUCTURE. Overall, 354 AA CD cases and 354 ethnicity-matched controls were genotyped for total 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ATG16L1, NOD2, IBD5, IL23R and IRGM by TaqMan or direct sequencing. Association was evaluated by logistic regression, adjusted for ancestry.Mean EA was similar among the CD cases and controls (20.9% and 20.4%, respectively, P = 0.58). No significant admixture differences were observed among 211 to 227 cases stratified by phenotypic subclassifications including onset, surgery, site, and behavior. CD was associated with NOD2 carrier (6.93% CD, 2.15% Controls, P = 0.007), ATG16L1 Thr300Ala (36.1% CD, 29.3% Controls, P = 0.003), SLC22A4 and SLC22A5 (IBD5 locus) functional SNPs (Leu503Phe [10.5% CD, 7.6% Controls, P = 0.05] and g-207c [41.3% CD, 35.7% Controls, P = 0.03], respectively), and IL23R rs2201841 (18.2% CD, 13.8% Controls, P = 0.03), but not IRGM variants, nor three African ancestral NOD2 nonsynonymous variants. IBD5 risk was recessive. An all-minor allele IBD5 haplotype from EA was associated (P = 0.05), whereas a more common haplotype isolating g-207c was not.Specific functional gene variations contribute significantly to AA CD risk. Established NOD2, SLC22A4-A5, and ATG16L1 variants show increased CD risk, with IBD5 recessive. Although CD is more common in whites, European admixture is similar among AA cases and controls.
Project description:Crohn's disease (CD) is a complex disorder resulting from the interaction of intestinal microbiota with the host immune system in genetically susceptible individuals. The largest meta-analysis of genome-wide association to date identified 71 CD-susceptibility loci in individuals of European ancestry. An important epidemiological feature of CD is that it is 2-4 times more prevalent among individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) descent compared to non-Jewish Europeans (NJ). To explore genetic variation associated with CD in AJs, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) by combining raw genotype data across 10 AJ cohorts consisting of 907 cases and 2,345 controls in the discovery stage, followed up by a replication study in 971 cases and 2,124 controls. We confirmed genome-wide significant associations of 9 known CD loci in AJs and replicated 3 additional loci with strong signal (p<5×10??). Novel signals detected among AJs were mapped to chromosomes 5q21.1 (rs7705924, combined p?=?2×10??; combined odds ratio OR?=?1.48), 2p15 (rs6545946, p?=?7×10??; OR?=?1.16), 8q21.11 (rs12677663, p?=?2×10??; OR?=?1.15), 10q26.3 (rs10734105, p?=?3×10??; OR?=?1.27), and 11q12.1 (rs11229030, p?=?8×10??; OR?=?1.15), implicating biologically plausible candidate genes, including RPL7, CPAMD8, PRG2, and PRG3. In all, the 16 replicated and newly discovered loci, in addition to the three coding NOD2 variants, accounted for 11.2% of the total genetic variance for CD risk in the AJ population. This study demonstrates the complementary value of genetic studies in the Ashkenazim.
Project description:Orofacial granulomatosis (OFG) is a rare, inflammatory disorder of the mouth, in which some patients also have intestinal Crohn's disease (CD). The etiology remains largely unknown, although there is a high prevalence of atopy, and oral granulomas are also seen in other immune disorders particularly CD and sarcoidosis. We investigated whether genetic variants associated with an increased risk of CD, sarcoidosis, or atopy were also associated with susceptibility to OFG.Patients were stratified clinically as isolated oral manifestations (OFG only) or concurrent intestinal CD (OFG+CD). We genotyped 201 patients and 1023 healthy controls for risk variants in NOD2, IRGM, IL23R, ATG16L1 (CD), BTNL2 (sarcoidosis), and FLG (atopy). The coding regions of the NOD2 gene were screened for rare, potentially pathogenic variants in OFG.A combined analysis of 3 CD-risk variants in NOD2 showed no association with any OFG subgroup. NOD2 p.L1007insC was associated with OFG+CD (P = 0.023) and IL23R p.R381Q with all OFG (P = 0.031). The sarcoidosis risk variant rs2076530 in BTNL2 was associated with all OFG (P = 0.013). We identified 7 rare missense NOD2 alleles in 8 individuals with OFG, 4 OFG-only patients and 4 patients with OFG+CD. There was a significant enrichment of NOD2 variants in the OFG+CD group compared to the OFG-only group (P = 0.008, common variants; P = 0.04, all common and rare variants).Our findings suggest that genetic variants in NOD2 are only associated with OFG in patients with concurrent intestinal disease. A genome-wide association scan is needed to fully define the genetic architecture of OFG.
Project description:IBD5, IL23R, and ATG16L1 genetic variations are established Crohn's disease (CD) risks alleles. We evaluated these in a population-based case-control study within a cohort to determine their penetrance, population attributable risk, independence, and relationship to other established CD risk factors, including NOD2.DNA from 213 CD, 118 [corrected] ulcerative colitis, and 315 [corrected] healthy control subjects from the population based University of Manitoba IBD Research Registry were genotyped for IBD5 and IL23R single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs),and for the Thr 300Ala ATG16L1 SNP. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for these and nongenetic risk factors.We introduce multidimensionality reduction (MDR) to explore gene– gene interactions.ATG16L1, IBD5, and IL23R SNPs were significantly associated with CD. Multivariate analysis showed independent CD association for carriers of ATG16L1 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-3.24), IBD5-IGR2230 (OR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.30-3.59), and IL23R-rs10889677 (OR = 2.13, 95% CI 1.39-3.28) while retaining association for NOD2 mutation carriers (OR = 4.45, 95% CI 2.68-7.38), IBD family history (OR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.42-5.31), tobacco (OR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.35-3.14), and Jewish ethnicity (OR = 20.1, 95% CI 2.16-186.8). IL23R minor variants for Arg381Gln and Intron 6 rs7517848 showed independent, CD protection and 3' untranslated variant rs108896778 showed risk. MDR analysis suggested an interaction between IBD5, ATG16L1, and IL23R risk alleles. Penetrance values for ATG16L1 and IBD5 were 0.27% for heterozygotes, and 0.35% and 0.44%, respectively, for homozygotes. IL23R rs108896778 penetrance was 0.37%.A population-based analysis of CD risk factors is useful for characterizing the epidemiology of multiple CD genetic and nongenetic risk factors. Gene-gene interactions are likely, but require further evaluation in large population-based cohorts.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies identified the autophagy gene IRGM to be strongly associated with Crohn's disease (CD) but its impact in ulcerative colitis (UC), its phenotypic effects and potential epistatic interactions with other IBD susceptibility genes are less clear which we therefore analyzed in this study.Genomic DNA from 2060 individuals including 817 CD patients, 283 UC patients, and 961 healthy, unrelated controls (all of Caucasian origin) was analyzed for six IRGM single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs13371189, rs10065172 = p.Leu105Leu, rs4958847, rs1000113, rs11747270, rs931058). In all patients, a detailed genotype-phenotype analysis and testing for epistasis with the three major CD susceptibility genes NOD2, IL23R and ATG16L1 were performed. Our analysis revealed an association of the IRGM SNPs rs13371189 (p = 0.02, OR 1.31 [95% CI 1.05-1.65]), rs10065172 = p.Leu105Leu (p = 0.016, OR 1.33 [95% CI 1.06-1.66]) and rs1000113 (p = 0.047, OR 1.27 [95% CI 1.01-1.61]) with CD susceptibility. There was linkage disequilibrium between these three IRGM SNPs. In UC, several IRGM haplotypes were weakly associated with UC susceptibility (p<0.05). Genotype-phenotype analysis revealed no significant associations with a specific IBD phenotype or ileal CD involvement. There was evidence for weak gene-gene-interaction between several SNPs of the autophagy genes IRGM and ATG16L1 (p<0.05), which, however, did not remain significant after Bonferroni correction.Our results confirm IRGM as susceptibility gene for CD in the German population, supporting a role for the autophagy genes IRGM and ATG16L1 in the pathogenesis of CD.
Project description:Genetic susceptibility is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). We investigated multiple CD susceptibility genes in an Australian paediatric onset CD cohort. Newly diagnosed paediatric onset CD patients (n?=?72) and controls (n?=?98) were genotyped for 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18 genetic loci. Gene-gene interaction analysis, gene-disease phenotype analysis and genetic risk profiling were performed for all SNPs and all genes. Of the 34 SNPs analysed, four polymorphisms on three genes (NOD2, IL23R, and region 3p21) were significantly associated with CD status (p<0.05). All three CD specific paediatric polymorphisms on PSMG1 and TNFRSF6B showed a trend of association with p<0.1. An additive gene-gene interaction involving TLR4, PSMG1, TNFRSF6B and IRGM was identified with CD. Genes involved in microbial processing (TLR4, PSMG1, NOD2) were significantly associated either at the individual level or in gene-gene interactive roles. Colonic disease was significantly associated with disease SNP rs7517847 (IL23R) (p<0.05) and colonic and ileal/colonic disease was significantly associated with disease SNP rs125221868 (IBD5) and SLC22A4 & SLC22A4/5 variants (p<0.05). We were able to demonstrate genetic association of several genes to CD in a paediatric onset cohort. Several of the observed associations have not been reported previously in association with paediatric CD patients. Our findings demonstrate that CD genetic susceptibility in paediatric patients presents as a complex interaction between numerous genes.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent studies reported a role for more than 70 genes or loci in the susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD). However, the impact of these associations in clinical practice remains to be defined. The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between genotypes and phenotypes for the main 53 CD-associated polymorphisms. METHOD: A cohort of 798 CD patients with a median follow up of 7 years was recruited by tertiary adult and paediatric gastroenterological centres. A detailed phenotypic description of the disease was recorded, including clinical presentation, response to treatments and complications. The participants were genotyped for 53 CD-associated variants previously reported in the literature and correlations with clinical sub-phenotypes were searched for. A replication cohort consisting of 722 CD patients was used to further explore the putative associations. RESULTS: The NOD2 rare variants were associated with an earlier age at diagnosis (p?=?0.0001) and an ileal involvement (OR?=?2.25[1.49-3.41] and 2.77 [1.71-4.50] for rs2066844 and rs2066847, respectively). Colonic lesions were positively associated with the risk alleles of IL23R rs11209026 (OR?=?2.25 [1.13-4.51]) and 6q21 rs7746082 (OR?=?1.60 [1.10-2.34] and negatively associated with the risk alleles of IRGM rs13361189 (OR?=?0.29 [0.11-0.74]) and DEFB1 rs11362 (OR?=?0.50 [0.30-0.80]). The ATG16L1 and IRGM variants were associated with a non-inflammatory behaviour (OR?=?1.75 [1.22-2.53] and OR?=?1.50 [1.04-2.16] respectively). However, these associations lost significance after multiple testing corrections. The protective effect of the IRGM risk allele on colonic lesions was the only association replicated in the second cohort (p?=?0.03). CONCLUSIONS: It is not recommended to genotype the studied polymorphisms in routine practice.
Project description:AIM:To investigate the frequency of NOD2, IL23R and ATG16L1 genetic variants in a case-control panel for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) from Lithuania. METHODS:One hundred and eighty unrelated IBD patients [57 Crohn's disease (CD) and 123 ulcerative colitis (UC)] and 186 healthy controls were genotyped for the following known genetic susceptibility variants: NOD2 - Arg702Trp (rs2066844), Gly908Arg (rs2066845) and Leu1007insC (rs2066847), as well as IL23R - Arg381Gln (rs11209026) and ATG16L1 - Thr300Ala (rs2241880). RESULTS:The effect that carriership of at least one NOD2 risk allele predisposes to CD was replicated in the Lithuanian population (41.1% CD vs 16.9% controls, P = 2 x 10(-4), OR = 3.48, 95% CI: 1.81-6.72). In the allelic single marker analysis, Leu1007insC was strongly associated with CD (21.4% CD vs 4.7% controls, P = 3.687 x 10(-8), OR = 5.54, 95% CI: 2.85-10.75). Neither the other two NOD2 variants, nor the known variants in IL23R and ATG16L1 were found to be risk factors for CD, UC or IBD. However, our relatively small study population was underpowered to demonstrate such weak to moderate disease associations. CONCLUSION:The results support a strong association between CD susceptibility and the Leu1007insC variant in NOD2 in the Lithuanian study population.
Project description:The -174G>C (rs1800795) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter of the interleukin-6 (IL6) gene and the 1730G>A (rs4986938) SNP in the estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) may influence the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated these SNPs in 380 unrelated US Caucasian PD cases and 522 controls, including 452 individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) origin (260 PD, 192 controls). The G allele of the -174G>C SNP was more common in AJ PD cases (p=0.033) as well as in Non-Jewish (NJ) men with PD (p=0.022). The GG genotype increased the risk of PD by over two fold in NJ men (OR=2.11, 95%CI: 1.14-3.89, p=0.017), and approached significance in the total AJ group with PD (OR=1.42, 95%CI: 0.97-2.06, p=0.067). The A allele of the ESR2 1730G>A SNP was associated with a decreased risk for PD in AJ women, and in this group, having the AA genotype decreased the risk of PD by half (OR=0.45, 95%CI: 0.22-0.92, p=0.029). Our data supports a role for the IL6 -174G>C G allele in AJ individuals overall. In NJ Caucasians, this role appears to be gender mediated. In both groups, the effect is independent from ESR2 1730G>A. A separate association for the ESR2 1730G>A SNP was found exclusively in women of AJ descent. Other polymorphisms in tight linkage disequilibrium with the SNP differentially influencing expression, ethnic differences in allele distribution, and gender differences in genetic load related to PD, may underlie our findings. Larger studies in diverse populations, including analysis of surrounding regions are recommended.