Comparison of three quantitative phosphoproteomic strategies to study receptor tyrosine kinase signaling.
ABSTRACT: There are three quantitative phosphoproteomic strategies most commonly used to study receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling. These strategies quantify changes in: (1) all three forms of phosphosites (phosphoserine, phosphothreonine and phosphotyrosine) following enrichment of phosphopeptides by titanium dioxide or immobilized metal affinity chromatography; (2) phosphotyrosine sites following anti- phosphotyrosine antibody enrichment of phosphotyrosine peptides; or (3) phosphotyrosine proteins and their binding partners following anti-phosphotyrosine protein immunoprecipitation. However, it is not clear from literature which strategy is more effective. In this study, we assessed the utility of these three phosphoproteomic strategies in RTK signaling studies by using EphB receptor signaling as an example. We used all three strategies with stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to compare changes in phosphoproteomes upon EphB receptor activation. We used bioinformatic analysis to compare results from the three analyses. Our results show that the three strategies provide complementary information about RTK pathways.
Project description:Phosphorylation-mediated signaling transduction plays a crucial role in the regulation of plant defense mechanisms against environmental stresses. To address the high complexity and dynamic range of plant proteomes and phosphoproteomes, we present a universal sample preparation procedure that facilitates plant phosphoproteomic profiling. This advanced workflow significantly improves phosphopeptide identifications, enabling deep insight into plant phosphoproteomes. We then applied the workflow to study the phosphorylation events involved in tomato cold tolerance mechanisms. Phosphoproteomic changes of two tomato species (N135 Green Gage and Atacames) with distinct cold tolerance phenotypes were profiled under cold stress. In total, we identified more than 30,000 unique phosphopeptides from tomato leaves, representing about 5500 phosphoproteins, thereby creating the largest tomato phosphoproteomic resource to date. The data, along with the validation through in vitro kinase reactions, allowed us to identify kinases involved in cold tolerant signaling and discover distinctive kinase-substrate events in two tomato species in response to a cold environment. The activation of SnRK2s and their direct substrates may assist N135 Green Gage tomatoes in surviving long-term cold stress. Taken together, the streamlined approach and the resulting deep phosphoproteomic analyses revealed a global view of tomato cold-induced signaling mechanisms.
Project description:Developmental processes are governed by a diverse suite of signaling pathways employing reversible phosphorylation. Recent advances in large-scale phosphoproteomic methodologies have made possible the identification and quantification of hundreds to thousands of phosphorylation sites from primary tissues. Towards a global characterization of proteomic changes across brain development, we present the results of a large-scale quantitative mass spectrometry study comparing embryonic, newborn and adult murine brain. Using anti-phosphotyrosine immuno-affinity chromatography and strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography, coupled to immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), we identified and quantified over 1,750 phosphorylation sites and over 1,300 proteins between three developmental states. Bioinformatic analyses highlight functions associated with the identified proteins and phosphoproteins and their enrichment at distinct developmental stages. These results serve as a primary reference resource and reveal dynamic developmental profiles of proteins and phosphoproteins from the developing murine brain.
Project description:B-ephrin-EphB receptor signaling modulates NMDA receptors by inducing tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2 subunits. Ephrins and EphB RTKs are localized to postsynaptic compartments in the CA1, and therefore potentially interact in a non-canonical cis- configuration. However, it is not known whether cis- configured receptor-ligand signaling is utilized by this class of RTKs, and whether this might influence excitatory synapses. We found that ablation of ephrin-B3 results in an enhancement of the NMDA receptor component of synaptic transmission relative to the AMPA receptor component in CA1 synapses. Synaptic AMPA receptor expression is reduced in ephrin-B3 knockout mice, and there is a marked enhancement of tyrosine phosphorylation of the NR2B receptor subunit. In a reduced system co-expression of ephrin-B3 attenuated EphB2-mediated NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation. Moreover, phosphorylation of EphB2 was elevated in the hippocampus of ephrin-B3 knockout mice, suggesting that regulation of EphB2 activity is lost in these mice. Direct activation of EphB RTKs resulted in phosphorylation of NR2B and a potential signaling partner, the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Pyk2. Our data suggests that ephrin-B3 limits EphB RTK-mediated phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit through an inhibitory cis- interaction which is required for the correct function of glutamatergic CA1 synapses.
Project description:Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) activate multiple downstream cytosolic tyrosine kinases following ligand stimulation. SRC family kinases (SFKs), which are recruited to activated RTKs through SH2 domain interactions with RTK autophosphorylation sites, are targets of many subfamilies of RTKs. To date, there has not been a systematic analysis of the downstream substrates of such receptor-activated SFKs. Here, we conducted quantitative mass spectrometry utilizing stable isotope labeling (SILAC) analysis to profile candidate SRC-substrates induced by the CSF-1R tyrosine kinase by comparing the phosphotyrosine-containing peptides from cells expressing either CSF-1R or a mutant form of this RTK that is unable to bind to SFKs. This analysis identified previously uncharacterized changes in tyrosine phosphorylation induced by CSF-1R in mammary epithelial cells as well as a set of candidate substrates dependent on SRC recruitment to CSF-1R. Many of these candidates may be direct SRC targets as the amino acids flanking the phosphorylation sites in these proteins are similar to known SRC kinase phosphorylation motifs. The putative SRC-dependent proteins include known SRC substrates as well as previously unrecognized SRC targets. The collection of substrates includes proteins involved in multiple cellular processes including cell-cell adhesion, endocytosis, and signal transduction. Analyses of phosphoproteomic data from breast and lung cancer patient samples identified a subset of the SRC-dependent phosphorylation sites as being strongly correlated with SRC activation, which represent candidate markers of SRC activation downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases in human tumors. In summary, our data reveal quantitative site-specific changes in tyrosine phosphorylation induced by CSF-1R activation in epithelial cells and identify many candidate SRC-dependent substrates phosphorylated downstream of an RTK.
Project description:Increasing evidence suggests that interference with growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling can affect DNA damage response (DDR) networks, with a consequent impact on cellular responses to DNA-damaging agents widely used in cancer treatment. In that respect, the MET RTK is deregulated in abundance and/or activity in a variety of human tumors. Using two proteomic techniques, we explored how disrupting MET signaling modulates global cellular phosphorylation response to ionizing radiation (IR). Following an immunoaffinity-based phosphoproteomic discovery survey, we selected candidate phosphorylation sites for extensive characterization by targeted proteomics focusing on phosphorylation sites in both signaling networks. Several substrates of the DDR were confirmed to be modulated by sequential MET inhibition and IR, or MET inhibition alone. Upon combined treatment, for two substrates, NUMA1 S395 and CHEK1 S345, the gain and loss of phosphorylation, respectively, were recapitulated using invivo tumor models by immunohistochemistry, with possible utility in future translational research. Overall, we have corroborated phosphorylation sites at the intersection between MET and the DDR signaling networks, and suggest that these represent a class of proteins at the interface between oncogene-driven proliferation and genomic stability.
Project description:Understanding the fundamental role of the stroma in normal development and cancer progression has been an emerging focus in recent years. The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling pathway has been reported playing critical roles in regulating the normal and cancer microenvironment, but the underlying mechanism is still not very clear. By applying the quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of Sprouty proteins (SPRYs), generic modulators of RTK signaling and deleted mouse mammary fibroblasts, we quantified a total of 11,215 unique phosphorylation sites. By contrast, 554 phosphorylation sites on 425 proteins had SPRY-responsive perturbations. Of these, 554 phosphosites, 362 sites on 277 proteins, were significantly increased, whereas 192 sites on 167 proteins were decreased. Among the regulated proteins, we identified 31 kinases, 7 phosphatases, and one phosphatase inhibitor that were not systematically characterized before. Furthermore, we reconstructed a phosphorylation network centered on RTK signaling regulated by SPRY. Collectively, this study uncovered a system-wide phosphorylation network regulated by SPRY, providing an additional insight into the complicated RTK signaling pathways involved in the mammary gland microenvironment.
Project description:Protein phosphorylation regulates a wide range of cellular processes. Here, we report the proteome-wide mapping of in vivo phosphorylation sites in Arabidopsis by using complementary phosphopeptide enrichment techniques coupled with high-accuracy mass spectrometry. Using unfractionated whole cell lysates of Arabidopsis, we identified 2597 phosphopeptides with 2172 high-confidence, unique phosphorylation sites from 1346 proteins. The distribution of phosphoserine, phosphothreonine, and phosphotyrosine sites was 85.0, 10.7, and 4.3%. Although typical tyrosine-specific protein kinases are absent in Arabidopsis, the proportion of phosphotyrosines among the phospho-residues in Arabidopsis is similar to that in humans, where over 90 tyrosine-specific protein kinases have been identified. In addition, the tyrosine phosphoproteome shows features distinct from those of the serine and threonine phosphoproteomes. Taken together, we highlight the extent and contribution of tyrosine phosphorylation in plants.
Project description:Signal transduction pathways are typically controlled by protein-protein interactions, which are mediated by specific modular domains. One hypothetical use of such interaction domains is to generate new signaling pathways and networks during eukaryotic evolution, through the joining of distinct binding modules in novel combinations. In this manner, new polypeptides may be formed that make innovative connections among preexisting proteins. Adaptor proteins are specialized signaling molecules composed exclusively of interaction domains, that frequently link activated cell surface receptors to their intracellular targets. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) recruit adaptors, such as Grb2 and ShcA, that activate signaling pathways involved in growth and survival, whereas death receptors bind adaptors, such as Fadd, that promote apoptosis. To test the ability of interaction domains to create new signaling pathways, we have fused the phosphotyrosine recognition domains of Grb2 (Scr homology 2 domain) or ShcA (phosphotyrosine-binding domain) to the death effector domain of Fadd. We find that these chimeric adaptors can reroute mitogenic or transforming RTK signals to induce caspase activation and cell death. These hybrid adaptors can be used to selectively kill oncogenic cells in which RTK activity is deregulated.
Project description:Eph-related receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) have been implicated in several biological functions including synaptic plasticity, axon guidance, and morphogenesis, yet the details of the signal transduction pathways that produce these specific biological functions after ligand-receptor interaction remain unclear. We used Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC) in combination with LC-MS/MS to characterize cellular signaling following stimulation by ephrinB1-Fc of NG-108 cells that overexpress EphB2 receptors. Because tyrosine phosphorylation functions as a key regulatory event in RTK signaling, we used anti-phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitation (pY IP) of cell lysates to isolate potential participants in the EphB2 pathway. Our SILAC experiments identified 127 unique proteins, 40 of which demonstrated increased abundance in pY IPs from ephrinB1-Fc stimulated cells as compared with unstimulated cells. Six proteins demonstrated decreased abundance, and 81 did not change significantly in relative abundance. Western blotting analysis of five proteins after pY IP verified their SILAC results. On the basis of previously published work and use of PathwayAssist software, we proposed an interaction network downstream of EphB2 for the proteins with changed ratios.
Project description:Phosphotyrosine (pTyr) signaling has evolved into a key cell-to-cell communication system. Activated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) initiate several pTyr-dependent signaling networks by creating the docking sites required for the assembly of protein complexes. However, the mechanisms leading to network disassembly and its consequence on signal transduction remain essentially unknown. We show that activated RTKs terminate downstream signaling via the direct phosphorylation of an evolutionarily conserved Tyr present in most SRC homology (SH) 3 domains, which are often part of key hub proteins for RTK-dependent signaling. We demonstrate that the direct EPHA4 RTK phosphorylation of adaptor protein NCK SH3s at these sites results in the collapse of signaling networks and abrogates their function. We also reveal that this negative regulation mechanism is shared by other RTKs. Our findings uncover a conserved mechanism through which RTKs rapidly and reversibly terminate downstream signaling while remaining in a catalytically active state on the plasma membrane.