A chemical reporter strategy to probe glycoprotein fucosylation.
ABSTRACT: Fucosylated glycoproteins are involved in many cell-cell recognition events and are markers of embryonic and malignant tissue. Here we report a method for rapid profiling of fucosylated glycoproteins from human cells using 6-azido fucose as a metabolic label.
Project description:Fucose (6-deoxy-L-galactose) is a monosaccharide that is found on glycoproteins and glycolipids in verte-brates, invertebrates, plants, and bacteria. Fucosylation, which comprises the transfer of a fucose residue to oligosaccharides and proteins, is regulated by many kinds of molecules, including fucosyltransferases, GDP-fucose synthetic enzymes, and GDP-fucose transporter(s). Dramatic changes in the expression of fucosylated oligosaccharides have been observed in cancer and inflammation. Thus, monoclonal antibodies and lectins recognizing cancer-associated fucosylated oligosaccharides have been clinically used as tumor markers for the last few decades. Recent advanced glycomic approaches allow us to identify novel fucosylation-related tumor markers. Moreover, a growing body of evidence supports the functional significance of fucosylation at various pathophysiological steps of carcinogenesis and tumor progression. This review highlights the biological and medical significance of fucosylation in gastrointestinal cancer.
Project description:Glycomics is emerging as a new field for the biology of complex glycoproteins and glycoconjugates. The lack of versatile glycan-labeling methods has presented a major obstacle to visualizing at the cellular level and studying glycoconjugates. To address this issue, we developed a fluorescent labeling technique based on the Cu(I)-catalyzed [3 + 2] cycloaddition, or click chemistry, which allows rapid, versatile, and specific covalent labeling of cellular glycans bearing azide groups. The method entails generating a fluorescent probe from a nonfluorescent precursor, 4-ethynyl-N-ethyl-1,8-naphthalimide, by clicking the fluorescent trigger, the alkyne at the 4 position, with an azido-modified sugar. Using this click-activated fluorescent probe, we demonstrate incorporation of an azido-containing fucose analog into glycoproteins via the fucose salvage pathway. Distinct fluorescent signals were observed by flow cytometry when cells treated with 6-azidofucose were labeled with the click-activated fluorogenic probe or biotinylated alkyne. The intracellular localization of fucosylated glycoconjugates was visualized by using fluorescence microscopy. This technique will allow dynamic imaging of cellular fucosylation and facilitate studies of fucosylated glycoproteins and glycolipids.
Project description:Core fucosylation of N-glycoproteins plays a crucial role in modulating the biological functions of glycoproteins. Yet, the synthesis of structurally well-defined, core-fucosylated glycoproteins remains a challenging task due to the complexity in multistep chemical synthesis or the inability of the biosynthetic ?1,6-fucosyltransferase (FUT8) to directly fucosylate full-size mature N-glycans in a chemoenzymatic approach. We report in this paper the design and generation of potential ?1,6-fucosynthase and fucoligase for direct core fucosylation of intact N-glycoproteins. We found that mutation at the nucleophilic residue (D200) did not provide a typical glycosynthase from this bacterial enzyme, but several mutants with mutation at the general acid/base residue E274 of the Lactobacillus casei ?1,6-fucosidase, including E274A, E274S, and E274G, acted as efficient glycoligases that could fucosylate a wide variety of complex N-glycopeptides and intact glycoproteins by using ?-fucosyl fluoride as a simple donor substrate. Studies on the substrate specificity revealed that the ?1,6-fucosidase mutants could introduce an ?1,6-fucose moiety specifically at the Asn-linked GlcNAc moiety not only to GlcNAc-peptide but also to high-mannose and complex-type N-glycans in the context of N-glycopeptides, N-glycoproteins, and intact antibodies. This discovery opens a new avenue to a wide variety of homogeneous, core-fucosylated N-glycopeptides and N-glycoproteins that are hitherto difficult to obtain for structural and functional studies.
Project description:The Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL) derived from orange peel fungus contains five fucose-binding sites that recognizes fucose bound in ?-1,2, ?-1,3, ?-1,4, and ?-1,6 linkages to N-acetylglucosamine and galactose. Recently, we have created several recombinant AAL (rAAL) proteins that had altered binding affinity to fucose linkages. In this report, we further characterize the binding specificity of one of the mutated lectins, N224Q lectin. This lectin was characterized by lectin Western blotting, surface plasmon resonance, and glycan microarray and shown to have increased binding to fucosylated glycan. Subsequently, we used this lectin to identify secreted fucosylated glycoproteins from a fetal hepatic cell line. Proteomic analysis revealed several glycoproteins secreted by the fetal cell line that were bound by N224Q lectin. These findings were confirmed by subsequent proteomic analysis of human serum from control patients or patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. These represent candidate oncofetal markers for liver cancer.
Project description:The sugar fucose is expressed on mammalian cell membranes as part of glycoconjugates and mediates essential physiological processes. The aberrant expression of fucosylated glycans has been linked to pathologies such as cancer, inflammation, infection, and genetic disorders. Tools to modulate fucose expression on living cells are needed to elucidate the biological role of fucose sugars and the development of potential therapeutics. Herein, we report a class of fucosylation inhibitors directly targeting de novo GDP-fucose biosynthesis via competitive GMDS inhibition. We demonstrate that cell permeable fluorinated rhamnose 1-phosphate derivatives (Fucotrim I & II) are metabolic prodrugs that are metabolized to their respective GDP-mannose derivatives and efficiently inhibit cellular fucosylation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Fucose is utilized for the modification of different molecules involved in blood group determination, immunological reactions, and signal transduction pathways. We have recently reported that enhanced activity of the fucosyltransferase 3 and/or 6 promoted TGF-ß-mediated epithelial mesenchymal transition and was associated with increased metastatic potential of colorectal cancer (CRC), suggesting that fucose is required by CRC cells. With this in mind, we examined requirement of L-fucose in CRC cells and developed fucose-bound nanoparticles as vehicles for delivery of anticancer drugs specific to CRC.<h4>Methods</h4>In this study, we first examined the expression of fucosylated proteins in 50 cases of CRC by immunochistochemical staining with biotinylated Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL). Then we carried out an L-fucose uptake assay using three CRC cell lines. Finally, we developed fucose-bound nanoparticles as vehicles for the delivery of an anticancer drug, SN38, and examined tumor growth inhibition in mouse xenograft model (n = 6 mice per group). All statistical tests were two-sided.<h4>Results</h4>We found a statistically significant relationship between vascular invasion, clinical stage, and intensity score of AAL staining (P≤ .02). L-fucose uptake assay revealed that L-fucose incorporation, as well as fucosylated protein release, was high in cells rich in fucosylated proteins. L-fucose-bound liposomes effectively delivered Cy5.5 into CRC cells. The excess of L-fucose decreased the efficiency of Cy5.5 uptake through L-fucose-bound liposomes, suggesting an L-fucose receptor dependency. Intravenously injected, L-fucose-bound liposomes carrying SN38 were successfully delivered to CRC cells, mediating efficient tumor growth inhibition (relative tumor growth ratio: no treatment group [NT], 8.29 ± 3.09; SN38-treated group [SN38], 3.53 ± 1.47; liposome-carrying, SN38-treated group [F0], 3.1 ± 1.39; L-fucose-bound, liposome-carrying, SN38-treated group [F50], 0.94 ± 0.89; F50 vs NT,P= .003; F50 vs SN38,P= .02, F50 vs F0,P= .04), as well as prolonging survival of mouse xenograft models (log-rank test,P< .001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Thus, fucose-bound liposomes carrying anticancer drugs provide a new strategy for the treatment of CRC patients.
Project description:Metabolic chemical reporters (MCRs) of glycosylation are analogues of monosaccharides that contain bioorthogonal functionalities and enable the direct visualization and identification of glycoproteins from living cells. Each MCR was initially thought to report on specific types of glycosylation. We and others have demonstrated that several MCRs are metabolically transformed and enter multiple glycosylation pathways. Therefore, the development of selective MCRs remains a key unmet goal. We demonstrate here that 6-azido-6-deoxy-N-acetyl-glucosamine (6AzGlcNAc) is a specific MCR for O-GlcNAcylated proteins. Biochemical analysis and comparative proteomics with 6AzGlcNAc, N-azidoacetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAz), and N-azidoacetyl-galactosamine (GalNAz) revealed that 6AzGlcNAc exclusively labels intracellular proteins, while GlcNAz and GalNAz are incorporated into a combination of intracellular and extracellular/lumenal glycoproteins. Notably, 6AzGlcNAc cannot be biosynthetically transformed into the corresponding UDP sugar-donor by the canonical salvage-pathway that requires phosphorylation at the 6-hydroxyl. In vitro experiments showed that 6AzGlcNAc can bypass this roadblock through direct phosphorylation of its 1-hydroxyl by the enzyme phosphoacetylglucosamine mutase (AGM1). Taken together, 6AzGlcNAc enables the specific analysis of O-GlcNAcylated proteins, and these results suggest that specific MCRs for other types of glycosylation can be developed. Additionally, our data demonstrate that cells are equipped with a somewhat unappreciated metabolic flexibility with important implications for the biosynthesis of natural and unnatural carbohydrates.
Project description:Core fucosylation is the attachment of an α-1,6-fucose moiety to the innermost N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) in N-glycans in mammalian systems. It plays a pivotal role in modulating the structural and biological functions of glycoproteins including therapeutic antibodies. Yet, few α-l-fucosidases appear to be capable of removing core fucose from intact glycoproteins. This paper describes a comparative study of the substrate specificity and relative activity of the human α-l-fucosidase (FucA1) and two bacterial α-l-fucosidases, the AlfC from Lactobacillus casei and the BfFuc from Bacteroides fragilis. This study was enabled by the synthesis of an array of structurally well-defined core-fucosylated substrates, including core-fucosylated N-glycopeptides and a few antibody glycoforms. It was found that AlfC and BfFuc could not remove core fucose from intact full-length N-glycopeptides or N-glycoproteins but could hydrolyze only the truncated Fucα1,6GlcNAc-peptide substrates. In contrast, the human α-l-fucosidase (FucA1) showed low activity on truncated Fucα1,6GlcNAc substrates but was able to remove core fucose from intact and full-length core-fucosylated N-glycopeptides and N-glycoproteins. In addition, it was found that FucA1 was the only α-l-fucosidase that showed low but apparent activity to remove core fucose from intact IgG antibodies. The ability of FucA1 to defucosylate intact monoclonal antibodies reveals an opportunity to evolve the human α-l-fucosidase for direct enzymatic defucosylation of therapeutic antibodies to improve their antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.
Project description:PURPOSE:Inefficient homing of adoptively transferred cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to tumors is a major limitation to the efficacy of adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) for cancer. However, through fucosylation, a process whereby fucosyltransferases (FT) add fucose groups to cell surface glycoproteins, this challenge may be overcome. Endogenously fucosylated CTLs and ex vivo fucosylated cord blood stem cells and regulatory T cells were shown to preferentially home to inflamed tissues and marrow. Here, we show a novel approach to enhance CTL homing to leukemic marrow and tumor tissue. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:Using the enzyme FT-VII, we fucosylated CTLs that target the HLA-A2-restricted leukemia antigens CG1 and PR1, the HER2-derived breast cancer antigen E75, and the melanoma antigen gp-100. We performed in vitro homing assays to study the effects of fucosylation on CTL homing and target killing. We used in vivo mouse models to demonstrate the effects of ex vivo fucosylation on CTL antitumor activities against leukemia, breast cancer, and melanoma. RESULTS:Our data show that fucosylation increases in vitro homing and cytotoxicity of antigen-specific CTLs. Furthermore, fucosylation enhances in vivo CTL homing to leukemic bone marrow, breast cancer, and melanoma tissue in NOD/SCID gamma (NSG) and immunocompetent mice, ultimately boosting the antitumor activity of the antigen-specific CTLs. Importantly, our work demonstrates that fucosylation does not interfere with CTL specificity. CONCLUSIONS:Together, our data establish ex vivo CTL fucosylation as a novel approach to improving the efficacy of ACT, which may be of great value for the future of ACT for cancer.
Project description:1. Confluent human skin fibroblasts maintained in a chemically defined medium incorporate l-[1-(3)H]fucose in a linear manner with time into non-diffusible macromolecules for up to 48h. Chromatographic analysis demonstrated that virtually all the macromolecule-associated (3)H was present as [(3)H]fucose. 2. Equilibrium CsCl-density-gradient centrifugation established that [(3)H]fucose-labelled macromolecules released into the medium were predominantly glycoproteins. Confirmation of this finding was provided by molecular-size analyses of the [(3)H]fucose-labelled material before and after trypsin digestion. 3. The [(3)H]fucose-labelled glycoproteins released into fibroblast culture medium were analysed by gel-filtration chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. These techniques demonstrated that the major fucosylated glycoprotein had an apparent mol.wt. of 230000-250000; several minor labelled species were also detected. 4. Dual-labelling experiments with [(3)H]fucose and (14)C-labelled amino acids indicated that the major fucosylated glycoprotein was synthesized de novo by cultured fibroblasts. The non-collagenous nature of this glycoprotein was established by three independent methods. 5. Gel-filtration analysis before and after reduction with dithiothreitol showed that the major glycoprotein occurs as a disulphide-bonded dimer when analysed under denaturing conditions. Further experiments demonstrated that this glycoprotein was the predominant labelled species released into the medium when fibroblasts were incubated with [(35)S]cysteine. 6. The relationship between the major fucosylated glycoprotein and a glycoprotein, or group of glycoproteins, variously known as fibronectin, LETS protein, cell-surface protein etc., is discussed.