TGF-?1 signaling and Kruppel-like factor 10 regulate bone marrow-derived proangiogenic cell differentiation, function, and neovascularization.
ABSTRACT: Emerging evidence demonstrates that proangiogenic cells (PACs) originate from the BM and are capable of being recruited to sites of ischemic injury where they contribute to neovascularization. We previously determined that among hematopoietic progenitor stem cells, common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) and granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (GMPs) differentiate into PACs and possess robust angiogenic activity under ischemic conditions. Herein, we report that a TGF-?1-responsive Krüppel- like factor, KLF10, is strongly expressed in PACs derived from CMPs and GMPs, ? 60-fold higher than in progenitors lacking PAC markers. KLF10(-/-) mice present with marked defects in PAC differentiation, function, TGF-? responsiveness, and impaired blood flow recovery after hindlimb ischemia, an effect rescued by wild-type PACs, but not KLF10(-/-) PACs. Overexpression studies revealed that KLF10 could rescue PAC formation from TGF-?1(+/-) CMPs and GMPs. Mechanistically, KLF10 targets the VEGFR2 promoter in PACs which may underlie the observed effects. These findings may be clinically relevant because KLF10 expression was also found to be significantly reduced in PACs from patients with peripheral artery disease. Collectively, these observations identify TGF-?1 signaling and KLF10 as key regulators of functional PACs derived from CMPs and GMPs and may provide a therapeutic target during cardiovascular ischemic states.
Project description:Clinical studies using bone marrow-derived proangiogenic cells (PACs) have demonstrated modest improvements of function and/or perfusion of ischemic myocardium or skeletal muscle. Because the identities of these PACs and their functional ability to promote neovascularization remain poorly understood, it is possible that a subset of robust PACs exists but is obscured by the heterogeneous nature of this cell population. Herein, we found that common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) and granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs) preferentially differentiate into PACs compared with megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors, hematopoietic stem cells, and common lymphoid progenitors. In vivo hindlimb ischemia studies and Matrigel plug assays verified the enhanced neovascularization properties uniquely associated with PACs derived from CMPs and GMPs. Taken together, these observations identify CMPs and GMPs as key bone marrow progenitors for optimal PAC function in vitro and in vivo and provide a foundation for novel therapeutic approaches to modulate angiogenesis.
Project description:Growing evidence suggests that hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), precursors of mature immune cells, may play a direct role in immunosurveillance. Early myeloid progenitors are the major components of HSPCs and they often undergo extensive expansion in stress as a result of myeloid-biased hematopoiesis. Yet, the precise function of early myeloid progenitors remains unclear. Here we show that during tumor progression, mouse granulocyte/macrophage progenitors (GMPs) but not common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) are markedly expanded within the bone marrow and blood of mice. Interestingly, both GMPs and CMPs freshly isolated from either tumor-bearing or naïve animals are capable of inhibiting polyclonal stimuli- and alloantigen-induced T cell proliferation, with tumor host-derived cells having elevated activities. Strikingly, these early myeloid progenitor cells even display much stronger suppressive capacity than the classical myeloid-derived suppressive cells. Analysis of GMPs indicates that they express iNOS and can secrete high levels of NO. Further studies unusing iNOS specific inhibitors reveal that the immunosuppression of GMPs is, to a large extent, NO-dependent. GMPs can also efficiently induce regulatory T cell development. These studies demonstrate that early myeloid progenitors can act as immunosuppressive cells. This finding provides novel insights into the functional diversity and plasticity of early myeloid progenitor cells.
Project description:Granulocyte-monocyte progenitors (GMPs) and monocyte-dendritic cell progenitors (MDPs) produce monocytes during homeostasis and in response to increased demand during infection. Both progenitor populations are thought to derive from common myeloid progenitors (CMPs), and a hierarchical relationship (CMP-GMP-MDP-monocyte) is presumed to underlie monocyte differentiation. Here, however, we demonstrate that mouse MDPs arose from CMPs independently of GMPs, and that GMPs and MDPs produced monocytes via similar but distinct monocyte-committed progenitors. GMPs and MDPs yielded classical (Ly6Chi) monocytes with gene expression signatures that were defined by their origins and impacted their function. GMPs produced a subset of "neutrophil-like" monocytes, whereas MDPs gave rise to a subset of monocytes that yielded monocyte-derived dendritic cells. GMPs and MDPs were also independently mobilized to produce specific combinations of myeloid cell types following the injection of microbial components. Thus, the balance of GMP and MDP differentiation shapes the myeloid cell repertoire during homeostasis and following infection.
Project description:Therapies based on circulating proangiogenic cells (PACs) have shown promise in ischemic disease models but require further optimization to reach the bedside. Ischemia-associated hypoxia robustly increases microRNA-210 (miR-210) expression in several cell types, including endothelial cells (ECs). In ECs, miR-210 represses EphrinA3 (EFNA3), inducing proangiogenic responses. This study provides new mechanistic evidences for a role of miR-210 in PACs. PACs were obtained from either adult peripheral blood or cord blood. miR-210 expression was modulated with either an inhibitory complementary oligonucleotide (anti-miR-210) or a miRNA mimic (pre-miR-210). Scramble and absence of transfection served as controls. As expected, hypoxia increased miR-210 in PACs. In vivo, migration toward and adhesion to the ischemic endothelium facilitate the proangiogenic actions of transplanted PACs. In vitro, PAC migration toward SDF-1α/CXCL12 was impaired by anti-miR-210 and enhanced by pre-miR-210. Moreover, pre-miR-210 increased PAC adhesion to ECs and supported angiogenic responses in co-cultured ECs. These responses were not associated with changes in extracellular miR-210 and were abrogated by lentivirus-mediated EFNA3 overexpression. Finally, ex-vivo pre-miR-210 transfection predisposed PACs to induce post-ischemic therapeutic neovascularization and blood flow recovery in an immunodeficient mouse limb ischemia model. In conclusion, miR-210 modulates PAC functions and improves their therapeutic potential in limb ischemia.
Project description:RATIONALE:Circulating proangiogenic cells (PACs) support postischemic neovascularization. Cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus impair PAC regenerative capacities via molecular mechanisms that are not fully known. We hypothesize a role for microRNAs (miRs). Circulating miRs are currently investigated as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. OBJECTIVE:The objectives were the following: (1) to profile miR expression in PACs from critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients; (2) to demonstrate that miR-15a and miR-16 regulate PAC functions; and (3) to characterize circulating miR-15a and miR-16 and to investigate their potential biomarker value. METHODS AND RESULTS:Twenty-eight miRs potentially able to modulate angiogenesis were measured in PACs from CLI patients with and without diabetes mellitus and controls. miR-15a and miR-16 were further analyzed. CLI-PACs expressed higher level of mature miR-15a and miR-16 and of the primary transcript pri-miR-15a/16-1. miR-15a/16 overexpression impaired healthy PAC survival and migration. Conversely, miR-15a/16 inhibition improved CLI-PAC-defective migration. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A and AKT-3 were validated as direct targets of the 2 miRs, and their protein levels were reduced in miR-15a/16-overexpressing healthy PACs and in CLI-PACs. Transplantation of healthy PACs ex vivo-engineered with anti-miR-15a/16 improved postischemic blood flow recovery and muscular arteriole density in immunodeficient mice. miR-15a and miR-16 were present in human blood, including conjugated to argonaute-2 and in exosomes. Both miRs were increased in the serum of CLI patients and positively correlated with amputation after restenosis at 12 months postrevascularization of CLI type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Serum miR-15a additionally correlated with restenosis at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:Ex vivo miR-15a/16 inhibition enhances PAC therapeutic potential, and circulating miR-15a and miR-16 deserves further investigation as a prognostic biomarker in CLI patients undergoing revascularization.
Project description:Homing of proangiogenic cells (PACs) is guided by chemoattractants and requires proteases to disrupt the extracellular matrix. The possibility that PAC recruitment involves an interaction between proteases and chemotactic factor receptors remains largely unexplored.To determine the role of human tissue kallikrein (hK1) in PAC invasion and its dependency on kinin receptor signaling.Human mononuclear cells (MNCs) and culture-selected PACs express and release mature hK1 protein. HK1 gene (KLK1) silencing reduced PACs migratory, invasive, and proangiogenic activities. KLK1-knockout mouse bone marrow-derived MNCs showed similar impairments and were unable to support reparative angiogenesis in a mouse model of peripheral ischemia. Conversely, adenovirus-mediated KLK1 (Ad.KLK1) gene transfer enhanced PAC-associated functions, whereas the catalytically inactive variant R53H-KLK1 was ineffective. HK1-induced effects are mediated by a kinin B(2) receptor (B(2)R)-dependent mechanism involving inducible nitric oxide synthase and metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2). Lower hK1 protein levels were observed in PACs from type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, whereas KLK1 mRNA levels were similar to those of healthy subjects, suggesting a post-transcriptional defect. Furthermore, B(2)R is normally expressed on T2D-PACs but remains uncoupled from downstream signaling. Importantly, whereas Ad.KLK1 alone could not restore T2D-PAC invasion capacity, combined KLK1 and B(2)R expression rescued the diabetic phenotype.This study reveals new interactive components of the PACs invasive machinery, acting via protease- and kinin receptor-dependent mechanisms.
Project description:Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key cytoprotective transcription factor, regulates also proangiogenic mediators, interleukin-8 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). However, hitherto its role in blood vessel formation was modestly examined. Particularly, although Nrf2 was shown to affect hematopoietic stem cells, it was not tested in bone marrow-derived proangiogenic cells (PACs). Here we investigated angiogenic properties of Nrf2 in PACs, endothelial cells, and inflammation-related revascularization.Treatment of endothelial cells with angiogenic cytokines increased nuclear localization of Nrf2 and induced expression of HO-1. Nrf2 activation stimulated a tube network formation, while its inhibition decreased angiogenic response of human endothelial cells, the latter effect reversed by overexpression of HO-1. Moreover, lack of Nrf2 attenuated survival, proliferation, migration, and angiogenic potential of murine PACs and affected angiogenic transcriptome in vitro. Additionally, angiogenic capacity of PAC Nrf2(-/-) in in vivo Matrigel assay and PAC mobilization in response to hind limb ischemia of Nrf2(-/-) mice were impaired. Despite that, restoration of blood flow in Nrf2-deficient ischemic muscles was better and accompanied by increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Accordingly, the anti-inflammatory agent etodolac tended to diminish blood flow in the Nrf2(-/-) mice.Identification of a novel role of Nrf2 in angiogenic signaling of endothelial cells and PACs.Nrf2 contributes to angiogenic potential of both endothelial cells and PACs; however, its deficiency increases muscle blood flow under tissue ischemia. This might suggest a proangiogenic role of inflammation in the absence of Nrf2 in vivo, concomitantly undermining the role of PACs in such conditions.
Project description:Proangiogenic cells (PACs) display surface markers and secrete angiogenic factors similar to those used by myelomonocytic cells, but, unlike myelomonocytic cells, PACs enhance neovascularization activity in experimental ischemic diseases. This study was performed to reveal the differential neovascularization activities of PACs compared with those of myelomonocytic cells. We cultured PACs and CD14(+)-derived macrophages (Macs) for 7 days. Most of the surface markers and cytokines in the two cell types were alike; the exceptions were KDR, ?8 integrin, interleukin-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Unlike Macs, PACs significantly enhanced mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transmigration. PACs and Macs increased neovascularization activity in an in vitro co-culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and MSCs and in an in vivo cotransplantation in Matrigel. However, the use of Macs resulted in inappropriately dilated and leaky vessels, whereas the use of PACs did not. We induced critical hindlimb ischemia in nude mice, and then transplanted PACs, Macs or vehicle into the mice. We obtained laser Doppler perfusion images weekly. At 2 weeks, mice treated with PACs showed significantly enhanced perfusion recovery in contrast to those treated with Macs. After day 7, when cells were depleted using a suicidal gene, viral thymidine kinase, to induce apoptosis of the cells in vivo by ganciclovir administration, we found that the improved perfusion was significantly abrogated in the PAC-treated group, whereas perfusion was not changed in the Mac-treated group. PACs caused an increase in healthy new vessels in in vitro and in vivo models of angiogenesis and enhanced long-term functional neovascularization activity in the hindlimb ischemia model, whereas Macs did not. Nevertheless, the angiogenic potential and long-term functional results for a specific cell type should be validated to confirm effectiveness and safety of the cell type for use in therapeutic angiogenesis procedures.
Project description:Langerhans cells (LCs) are antigen-presenting cells (APCs) residing in the epidermis that play a major role in skin immunity. Our earlier studies showed that when skin is inflamed LCs are replaced by bone marrow-derived progenitor cells, while during steady-state conditions LCs are able to self-renew in the skin. Identification of the LC progenitors in bone marrow would represent a critical step toward identifying the factors that regulate LC generation as well as their trafficking to the skin. To determine LC lineage origin, we reconstituted lethally irradiated CD45.2 mice with rigorously purified lymphoid and myeloid progenitors from CD45.1 congenic mice. Twenty-four hours later, we exposed the mice to UV light to deplete resident LCs and induce their replacement by progenitors. Reconstitution with common myeloid progenitors (CMPs), common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs), granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs), or early thymic progenitors led to LC generation within 2 to 3 weeks. CMPs were at least 20 times more efficient at generating LCs than CLPs. LCs from both lineages were derived almost entirely from fetal liver kinase-2+ (Flk-2+) progenitors, displayed typical dendritic-cell (DC) morphology, and showed long-term persistence in the skin. These results indicate that LCs are derived mainly from myeloid progenitors and are dependent on Flt3-ligand for their development.
Project description:Granulocyte-monocyte progenitors (GMPs) and monocyte-dendritic cell progenitors (MDPs) produce monocytes during homeostasis and in response to increased demand during infection. Both progenitor populations are thought to derive from common myeloid progenitors (CMPs), and a hierarchical relationship (CMP-GMP-MDP-monocyte) is presumed to underlie monocyte differentiation. Here, however, we demonstrate that mouse MDPs arose from CMPs independently of GMPs, and that GMPs and MDPs produced monocytes via similar, but distinct, monocyte-committed progenitors. GMPs and MDPs yielded classical (Ly6Chi) monocytes with gene expression signatures that were defined by their origins and impacted their function. GMPs produced a subset of “neutrophil-like” monocytes, whereas MDPs gave rise to a subset of monocytes that yielded monocyte-derived dendritic cells. GMPs and MDPs were also independently mobilized to produce specific combinations of myeloid cell types following the injection of microbial components. Thus, the balance of GMP and MDP differentiation shapes the myeloid cell repertoire during homeostasis and following infection. Overall design: RNA-Seq of monocyte from mice