Abundance and diversity of mucosa-associated hydrogenotrophic microbes in the healthy human colon.
ABSTRACT: Hydrogenotrophic microbiota have a significant impact on colonic health; however, little is known about their diversity and ecology in situ. Here, molecular-based methods and multivariate analyses were used to examine the abundance and diversity of mucosa-associated hydrogenotrophic microbes in 90 biopsies collected from right colon, left colon and rectum of 25 healthy subjects. Functional genes of all three hydrogenotrophic groups were detected in at least one colonic region of all subjects. Methanogenic archaea (MA) constituted approximately one half of the hydrogenotrophic microbiota in each colonic region. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were more abundant than acetogens in right colon, while acetogens were more abundant than SRB in left colon and rectum. MA genotypes exhibited low diversity, whereas SRB genotypes were diverse and generally similar across the three regions within subject but significantly variable among subjects. Multivariate cluster analysis defined subject-specific patterns for the diversity of SRB genotypes; however, neither subject- nor region-specific clusters were observed for the abundance of hydrogenotrophic functional genes. Sequence analyses of functional gene clones revealed that mucosa-associated SRB were phylogenetically related to Desulfovibrio piger, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Bilophila wadsworthia; whereas MA were related to Methanobrevibacter spp., Mb. smithii and the order Methanomicrobiales. Together these data demonstrate for the first time that the human colonic mucosa is persistently colonized by all three groups of hydrogenotrophic microbes, which exhibit segmental and interindividual variation in abundance and diversity.
Project description:The colonic mucus layer is comprised primarily of acidomucins, which provide viscous properties and can be broadly classified into sialomucins or sulfomucins based on the presence of terminating sialic acid or sulfate groups. Differences in acidomucin chemotypes have been observed in diseases such as colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease, and variation in sialo- and sulfomucin content may influence microbial colonization. For example, sulfate derived from sulfomucin degradation may promote the colonization of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which through sulfate respiration generate the genotoxic gas hydrogen sulfide. Here, paired biopsies from right colon, left colon, and rectum of 20 subjects undergoing routine screening colonoscopies were collected to enable parallel histochemical and microbiological studies. Goblet cell sialo- and sulfomucins in each biopsy were distinguished histochemically and quantified. Quantitative PCR and multivariate analyses were used to examine the abundance of hydrogenotrophic microbial groups and SRB genera relative to acidomucin profiles. Regional variation was observed in sialomucins and sulfomucins with the greatest abundance of each found in the rectum. Mucin composition did not appear to influence the abundance of SRB or other hydrogenotrophic microbiota but correlated with the composition of different SRB genera. A higher sulfomucin proportion correlated with higher quantities of Desulfobacter, Desulfobulbus and Desulfotomaculum, relative to the predominant Desulfovibrio genus. Thus, acidomucin composition may influence bacterial sulfate respiration in the human colon, which may in turn impact mucosal homeostasis. These results stress the need to consider mucus characteristics in the context of studies of the microbiome that target intestinal diseases.
Project description:Reduced susceptibility to sporadic colorectal cancer in native Africans (NA) is correlated with low consumption of animal products and greater microbial production of colonic methane. In this context, two hydrogenotrophic microbial groups are of interest, methanogenic Archaea (MA) utilizing H2 to produce methane and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) generating hydrogen sulfide, which has been linked with chronic inflammatory disorders of the colon. In the present study, stool samples from NA, consuming a diet high in resistant starch and low in animal products, and from African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA), both consuming a typical Western diet, were examined for genetic diversity and structure of Archaea, MA and SRB communities. In general, a greater proportion of NA than AA and EA harboured the full range of targeted hydrogenotrophic groups. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rRNA genes and specific functional genes, combined with multivariate statistical analyses, revealed that NA harboured more diverse and different Archaea and MA populations than AA and EA. Also, NA harboured significantly distinct SRB populations compared with AA and EA. Taken together, these data are consistent with diet selecting for distinct hydrogenotrophic microbiota.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Hydrogen cross-feeding microbes form a functionally important subset of the human colonic microbiota. The three major hydrogenotrophic functional groups of the colon: sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), methanogens and reductive acetogens, have been linked to wide ranging impacts on host physiology, health and wellbeing.<h4>Results</h4>An existing mathematical model for microbial community growth and metabolism was combined with models for each of the three hydrogenotrophic functional groups. The model was further developed for application to the colonic environment via inclusion of responsive pH, host metabolite absorption and the inclusion of host mucins. Predictions of the model, using two existing metabolic parameter sets, were compared to experimental faecal culture datasets. Model accuracy varied between experiments and measured variables and was most successful in predicting the growth of high relative abundance functional groups, such as the Bacteroides, and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. Two versions of the colonic model were developed: one representing the colon with sequential compartments and one utilising a continuous spatial representation. When applied to the colonic environment, the model predicted pH dynamics within the ranges measured in vivo and SCFA ratios comparable to those in the literature. The continuous version of the model simulated relative abundances of microbial functional groups comparable to measured values, but predictions were sensitive to the metabolic parameter values used for each functional group. Sulphate availability was found to strongly influence hydrogenotroph activity in the continuous version of the model, correlating positively with SRB and sulphide concentration and negatively with methanogen concentration, but had no effect in the compartmentalised model version.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Although the model predictions compared well to only some experimental measurements, the important features of the colon environment included make it a novel and useful contribution to modelling the colonic microbiota.
Project description:Delivery mode (natural vs. cesarean) and feeding type (breast vs. formula feeding) are relevant factors for neonatal gut colonization. Biomolecular methods have shown that the ecological structure of infant microbiota is more complex than previously proposed, suggesting a relevant presence of unculturable bacteria. It has also been postulated that among unculturable bacteria, hydrogenotrophic populations might play a key role in infant health. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), acetogens, and methanogenic archaea use hydrogenotrophic pathways within the human colon. However, to date, few studies have reported detection of hydrogenotrophic microorganisms in newborns, possibly because of limitations on available group-specific, culture-independent quantification procedures. In the present work, we analyzed 16 fecal samples of healthy babies aged 1-6?months by means of quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting the 16S rRNA or metabolic functional genes and by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). qPCR data showed quantifiable levels of methanogens, SRB, and acetogens in all samples, indicating that the relative abundances of these microbial groups were not affected by delivery mode (natural vs. caesarian). DGGE revealed a high prevalence of the Blautia genus within the acetogenic bacteria despite strong interindividual variability. Our preliminary results suggest that hydrogenotrophic microorganisms, which have been a neglected group to date, should be included in future ecological and metabolic studies evaluating the infant intestinal microbiota.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To improve understanding of the preclinical stage of colonic inflammation by exploring the existence of a link between early inflammatory changes in the colonic mucosa and the systemic redox balance.<h4>Methods</h4>Clinical characteristics, a fasting blood draw, and mucosal biopsies from the right, left, and sigmoid-rectum colonic tracts collected from 28 healthy individuals (14/14 males/females) who underwent colonoscopy. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) positive cells infiltrating colonic mucosa specimens were assessed by immunohistochemistry, and patients divided into high or low MPO expressing cells/optical field groups (MPO<sup>high</sup> or MPO<sup>low</sup>, respectively).The systemic oxidative balance has been studied through derived-Reactive Oxygen Metabolites (d-ROMs), Biological Antioxidant Potential (BAP), and Lipoperoxide-cholesterol Oxidizing (LP-CHOLOX) tests on serum.<h4>Results</h4>MPO<sup>high</sup> patients demonstrated an increased systemic oxidative stress compared to MPO<sup>low</sup> individuals (P?=?0.035), especially when MPO is referred to the left-sided colonic mucosa (P?=?0.007). MPO<sup>low</sup> subjects in the sigmoid-rectum showed a significant higher antioxidant capacity in the serum (P?<?0.02). Sex-specific differences in MPO expression (male and female: 4.6?±?3.2 and 2.6?±?1.5 MPO-positive cells/optical field, respectively, P?=?0.044), and a decreasing gradient in MPO expression moving from the cecum to the rectum (ascendant, descendant, and sigmoid-rectum: 3.7?±?2.8, 3.1?±?1.7, and 1.4?±?0.5, respectively, P?=?0.012) were also found and discussed.<h4>Discussion</h4>The study is the first demonstrating a connection between systemic redox balance and MPO expression in the colonic mucosa, according to the colonic tract and patient gender. Further research evaluating the MPO expression in the human colon and its relationship with pathological conditions could benefit from these results.
Project description:We applied constrained ordination numerical ecology methods to data produced with a human intestinal tract-specific phylogenetic microarray (the Aus-HIT Chip) to examine the microbial diversity associated with matched biopsy tissue samples taken from the caecum, transverse colon, sigmoid colon and rectum of 10 healthy patients. Consistent with previous studies, the profiles revealed a marked intersubject variability; however, the numerical ecology methods of analysis allowed the subtraction of the subject effect from the data and revealed, for the first time, evidence of a longitudinal gradient for specific microbes along the colorectum. In particular, probes targeting Streptococcus and Enterococcus spp. produced strongest signals with caecal and transverse colon samples, with a gradual decline through to the rectum. Conversely, the analyses suggest that several members of the Enterobacteriaceae increase in relative abundance towards the rectum. These collective differences were substantiated by the multivariate analysis of quantitative PCR data. We were also able to identify differences in the microarray profiles, especially for the streptococci and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, on the basis of gender. The results derived by these multivariate analyses are biologically intuitive and suggest that the biogeography of the colonic mucosa can be monitored for changes through cross-sectional and/or inception cohort studies.
Project description:Soluble dietary fibers (SDF) are fermented more than insoluble dietary fibers (IDF), but their effect on colonic bacterial community structure and function remains unclear. Thus, bacterial community composition and function in the colon of BALB/c mice (n = 7) fed with a high level (approximately 20%) of typical SDF, oat-derived ?-glucan (G), microcrystalline cellulose (M) as IDF, or their mixture (GM), were compared. Mice in group G showed a lowest average feed intake (p < 0.05) but no change on the average body weight gain (p > 0.05) compared to other groups, which may be associated with the highest concentration of colonic propionate (p < 0.05) in these mice. The bacterial ?-diversity of group G was significantly lower than other groups (p < 0.01). In group G, the relative abundance of bacteria belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly increased, whereas bacteria from the phylum Firmicutes were significantly decreased (p < 0.01). The core bacteria for different treatments showed distinct differences. Bacteroides, Dehalobacterium, and Prevotella, including known acetogens and carbohydrate fermenting organisms, were significantly increased in relative abundance in group G. In contrast, Adlercreutzia, Odoribacter, and Coprococcus were significantly more abundant in group M, whereas Oscillospira, Desulfovibrio, and Ruminoccaceae, typical hydrogenotrophs equipped with multiple carbohydrate active enzymes, were remarkably enriched in group GM (p < 0.05). The relative abundance of bacteria from the three classes of Proteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria (including Enterobacteriaceae) and Deltaproteobacteria, were significantly more abundant in group G, indicating a higher ratio of conditional pathogenic bacteria in mice fed dietary ?-glucan in current study. The predicted colonic microbial function showed an enrichment of "Energy metabolism" and "Carbohydrate metabolism" pathways in mice from group G and M, suggesting that the altered bacterial community in the colon of mice with the two dietary fibers probably resulted in a more efficient degradation of dietary polysaccharides. Our result suggests that the influence of dietary ?-glucan (SDF) on colonic bacterial community of mice was more extensively than MCC (IDF). Co-supplementation of the two fibers may help to increase the bacterial diversity and reduce the conditional pathogens in the colon of mice.
Project description:ABSTRACTS: BACKGROUND: The carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer has been accepted by a model for a cascade of genetic alterations, named the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. In order to elucidate the carcinogenesis of the colorectal cancer more clearly, the genetic abnormalies of the non-neoplastic mucosal epithelium of the colon and rectum should be investigated. It has been speculated that colonic Paneth cell metaplasia (PaM) is one of the pre-neoplastic mucosa of colonic cancer. Therefore, we studied the propria mucosa of the right colon with PaM from the standpoints of the frequency of the K-ras codon 12 mutations (K-ras), which is initial genetic abnormality in colorectal cancer, and the loss of heterozygosity of microsatellite markers (LOH-MS), which has a relationship to development of colorectal cancer. METHODS: Fifty-two regions with PaM histopathologically from 12 surgically resected right colon specimens were studied. DNA extraction of the colonic mucosa with PaM was obtained using a microdissection method, and the frequency of the K-ras of PaM was investigated by enriched polymerase chain reaction-enzyme linked mini-sequence assay, and the frequency of the LOH-MS (D2S123, D17S250 and D5S346) of PaM was examined by high resolution fluorescenced labeled PCR primers. RESULTS: K-ras mutation was detected in fifteen regions among 52 PaM (28.9%). All mutations were a single mutation and GGT changed to AGT in eleven and GAT in four. LOH-MS were detected in twenty-one regions among 52 PaM (40.4%) (D2S123: 35.4%, 17/48 regions, D17S250: 13.7%, 7/51 regions, and D5S346: 0%, 0/52 regions). No K-ras mutations and LOH-MS were detected in the controls (Colorectal mucosa with no PaM). CONCLUSIONS: Colonic mucosa with Paneth cell metaplasia may be one of the pre-neoplastic mucosa in the development of the colonic epithelial neoplasia.
Project description:Simultaneous production of sulfide and methane by anaerobic sewer biofilms has recently been observed, suggesting that sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanogenic archaea (MA), microorganisms known to compete for the same substrates, can coexist in this environment. This study investigated the community structures and activities of SRB and MA in anaerobic sewer biofilms (average thickness of 800 ?m) using a combination of microelectrode measurements, molecular techniques, and mathematical modeling. It was seen that sulfide was mainly produced in the outer layer of the biofilm, between the depths of 0 and 300 ?m, which is in good agreement with the distribution of SRB population as revealed by cryosection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). SRB had a higher relative abundance of 20% on the surface layer, which decreased gradually to below 3% at a depth of 400 ?m. In contrast, MA mainly inhabited the inner layer of the biofilm. Their relative abundances increased from 10% to 75% at depths of 200 ?m and 700 ?m, respectively, from the biofilm surface layer. High-throughput pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons showed that SRB in the biofilm were mainly affiliated with five genera, Desulfobulbus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfovibrio, Desulfatiferula, and Desulforegula, while about 90% of the MA population belonged to the genus Methanosaeta. The spatial organizations of SRB and MA revealed by pyrosequencing were consistent with the FISH results. A biofilm model was constructed to simulate the SRB and MA distributions in the anaerobic sewer biofilm. The good fit between model predictions and the experimental data indicate that the coexistence and spatial structure of SRB and MA in the biofilm resulted from the microbial types and their metabolic transformations and interactions with substrates.
Project description:We applied numerical ecology methods to data produced with a human intestinal tract-specific phylogenetic microarray (the Aus-HIT Chip) to examine the biogeography of mucosa-associated bacteria along the human colon. The microbial DNA associated with matched biopsy tissue samples taken from the cecum, transverse colon, sigmoid colon and rectum of 10 healthy patients was examined. Consistent with previous studies, the profiles revealed a marked inter-subject variability; however, the numerical ecology methods of analysis allowed the subtraction of the subject effect from the data and revealed, for the first time, evidence of a longitudinal gradient for specific microbes along the colorectum: with Streptococcus, Comamonadaceae, Enterococcus and Lactobacillus in greatest abundance at the cecum, with a gradual decline in their relative abundance through to the rectum. Conversely, the analyses suggest that members of the Enterobacteriaceae increase in relative abundance towards the rectum. These differences were validated by quantitative PCR. We were also able to identify significant differences in the profiles, especially for the Streptococci, on the basis of gender. The results derived by these multivariate analyses are biologically intuitive, and suggestive that the biogeography of the colonic mucosa can be monitored for changes via cross-sectional and/or inception cohort studies. 10 patients, 5 males and 5 females. Four different locations along the colorectum.