Cutting edge: persistence of increased mast cell numbers in tissues links dermatitis to enhanced airway disease in a mouse model of atopy.
ABSTRACT: The development of chronic allergic dermatitis in early life has been associated with increased onset and severity of allergic asthma later in life. However, the mechanisms linking these two diseases are poorly understood. In this study, we report that the development of oxazolone-induced chronic allergic dermatitis, in a mouse model, caused enhanced OVA-induced allergic asthma after the resolution of the former disease. Our findings show that oxazolone-induced dermatitis caused a marked increase in tissue mast cells, which persisted long after the resolution of this disease. Subsequent OVA sensitization and airway challenge of mice that had recovered from dermatitis resulted in increased allergic airway hyperreactivity. The findings demonstrate that the accumulation of mast cells during dermatitis has the detrimental effect of increasing allergic airway hypersensitivity. Importantly, our findings also show that exposure to a given allergen can modify the immune response to an unrelated allergen.
Project description:The epithelial lining of the airway tract and allergen-specific IgE are considered essential controllers of inflammatory responses to allergens. The human low affinity IgE receptor, CD23 (Fc?RII), is capable of transporting IgE or IgE-allergen complexes across the polarized human airway epithelial cell (AEC) monolayer in vitro. However, it remains unknown whether the CD23-dependent IgE transfer pathway in AECs initiates and facilitates allergic inflammation in vivo, and whether inhibition of this pathway attenuates allergic inflammation. To this end, we show that in wild-type (WT) mice, epithelial CD23 transcytosed both IgE and ovalbumin (OVA)-IgE complexes across the airway epithelial barrier, whereas neither type of transcytosis was observed in CD23 knockout (KO) mice. In chimeric mice, OVA sensitization and aerosol challenge of WT/WT (bone-marrow transfer from the WT to WT) or CD23KO/WT (CD23KO to WT) chimeric mice, which express CD23 on radioresistant airway structural cells (mainly epithelial cells) resulted in airway eosinophilia, including collagen deposition and a significant increase in goblet cells, and increased airway hyperreactivity. In contrast, the absence of CD23 expression on airway structural or epithelial cells, but not on hematopoietic cells, in WT/CD23KO (the WT to CD23KO) chimeric mice significantly reduced OVA-driven allergic airway inflammation. In addition, inhalation of the CD23-blocking B3B4 antibody in sensitized WT mice before or during airway challenge suppressed the salient features of asthma, including bronchial hyperreactivity. Taken together, these results identify a previously unproven mechanism in which epithelial CD23 plays a central role in the development of allergic inflammation. Further, our study suggests that functional inhibition of CD23 in the airway is a potential therapeutic approach to inhibit the development of asthma.
Project description:Nuclear antigens are known to trigger off innate and adaptive immune responses. Recent studies have found that the complex of nucleic acids and core histones that are derived from damaged cells may regulate allergic responses. However, no fundamental study has been performed concerning the role of linker histone H1 in mast cell-mediated type I hyperreactivity. In this study, we explored the impact of histone H1 on mast cell-mediated allergic responses both in vitro and in vivo. In the course of a bona-fide experimental allergen sensitization model upon co-injection with alum adjuvant, ovalbumin (OVA), but not PBS, induced elevated levels of circulating histone H1. Intranasal challenge with histone H1 to OVA/alum- (but not PBS/alum)-sensitized mice induced significantly severer symptoms of allergic rhinitis than those in mice sensitized and challenged with OVA. A monoclonal antibody against histone H1 not only suppressed mast cell degranulation, but also ameliorated OVA-induced nasal hyperreactivity and IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Our present data suggest that nuclear histone H1 represents an alarmin-like endogenous mediator acting on mast cells, and that its blockage has a therapeutic potential for mast cell-mediated type I hyperreactivity.
Project description:Children who are exposed to environmental respiratory insults often develop asthma that persists into adulthood. In this study, we used a neonatal mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway inflammation to understand the long-term effects of early childhood insults on airway structure and function. We showed that OVA sensitization and challenge in early life led to a 2-fold increase in airway smooth muscle (ASM) innervation (P<0.05) and persistent airway hyperreactivity (AHR). In contrast, OVA exposure in adult life elicited short-term AHR without affecting innervation levels. We found that postnatal ASM innervation required neurotrophin (NT)-4 signaling through the TrkB receptor and that early-life OVA exposure significantly elevated NT4 levels and TrkB signaling by 5- and 2-fold, respectively, to increase innervation. Notably, blockade of NT4/TrkB signaling in OVA-exposed pups prevented both acute and persistent AHR without affecting baseline airway function or inflammation. Furthermore, biophysical assays using lung slices and isolated cells demonstrated that NT4 was necessary for hyperreactivity of ASM induced by early-life OVA exposure. Together, our findings show that the NT4/TrkB-dependent increase in innervation plays a critical role in the alteration of the ASM phenotype during postnatal growth, thereby linking early-life allergen exposure to persistent airway dysfunction.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Specific hyper-responsiveness towards an allergen and non-specific airway hyperreactivity both impair quality of life in patients with respiratory allergic diseases. We aimed to investigate cellular responses following specific and non-specific airway challenges locally and systemically in i) sensitized BALB/c mice challenged with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5, and in ii) grass pollen sensitized allergic rhinitis subjects undergoing specific airway challenge in the Vienna Challenge Chamber (VCC). METHODS AND RESULTS: BALB/c mice (n = 20) were intraperitoneally immunized with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5 and afterwards aerosol challenged with either the specific allergen Phl p 5 (n = 10) or the non-specific antigen ovalbumin (OVA) (n = 10). A protocol for inducing allergic asthma as well as allergic rhinitis, according to the united airway concept, was used. Both groups of exposed mice showed significantly reduced physical activity after airway challenge. Specific airway challenge further resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia, enhanced mucous secretion, intrapulmonary leukocyte infiltration and lymphoid follicle formation, associated with significant expression of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in splenocytes and also partially in lung tissue. Concerning circulating blood cell dynamics, we observed a significant drop of erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in both mouse groups, challenged with allergen or OVA. A significant decrease in circulating erythrocytes and hematocrit levels after airway challenges with grass pollen allergen was also found in grass pollen sensitized human rhinitis subjects (n = 42) at the VCC. The effects on peripheral leukocyte counts in mice and humans however were opposed, possibly due to the different primary inflammation sites. CONCLUSION: Our data revealed that, besides significant leukocyte dynamics, particularly erythrocytes are involved in acute hypersensitivity reactions to respiratory allergens. A rapid recruitment of erythrocytes to the lungs to compensate for hypoxia is a possible explanation for these findings.
Project description:Atopic diseases have been increasing in prevalence, yet the initial inciting events that lead to atopy are not understood. Paramyxoviral infections have been suggested to play a role; however, much of these data are correlative.To determine whether exposure to a nonviral antigen during a paramyxoviral infection is sufficient to drive IgE production against the bystander antigen and whether clinical disease against this antigen would result.Wild-type C57BL6 mice or mice deficient in Fc?RI? (Fc?RI?(-/-)) or IgE (IgE(-/-)) were inoculated with Sendai virus (SeV) or UV-inactivated SeV (UV-SeV) and subsequently exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) intranasally. Mice were further challenged 3 times with intranasal OVA on days 20 to 22 after inoculation with SeV, and airway hyperreactivity and mucous cell metaplasia were determined.Exposure to OVA during SeV infection led to significant OVA specific IgE production (median, 548 vs 0 ng/mL; P = .03; SeV vs UV-SeV). This induction of OVA specific IgE production depended on Fc?RI because Fc?RI?(-/-) mice produced significantly less IgE (112 ng/mL; P = .03; vs wild-type mice). Furthermore, in wild-type mice OVA exposure and challenge significantly enhanced SeV-induced airway hyperreactivity and mucous cell metaplasia, but this failed to occur in either Fc?RI?(-/-) or IgE(-/-) mice.A single exposure to a bystander allergen during a paramyxoviral infection is sufficient to drive allergen specific IgE production in a partial Fc?RI-dependent mechanism. These data begin to provide mechanistic insight into how viral infections might drive development of atopic disease.
Project description:The downstream of kinase (DOK)-1 is involved in the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) pathway in mast cells, but the role of DOK-1 in the pathogenesis of asthma has not been defined. In this study, we have demonstrated a novel regulatory role of DOK-1 in airway inflammation and physiologic responses in a murine model of asthma using lentiviral vector containing DOK-1 cDNA or DOK-1-specific ShRNA. The OVA-induced inflammatory cells, airway hyperresponsiveness, Th2 cytokine expression, and mucus response were significantly reduced in DOK-1 overexpressing mice compared to OVA-challenged control mice. The transgenic introduction of DOK-1 significantly stimulated the activation and expression of STAT-4 and T-bet, while impressively inhibiting the activation and expression of STAT-6 and GATA-3 in airway epithelial cells. On the other hand, DOK-1 knockdown mice enhanced STAT-6 expression and its nuclear translocation compared to OVA-challenged control mice. When viewed in combination, our studies demonstrate DOK-1 regulates allergen-induced Th2 immune responses by selective stimulation and inhibition of STAT-4 and STAT-6 signaling pathways, respectively. These studies provide a novel insight on the regulatory role of DOK-1 in allergen-induced Th2 inflammation and airway responses, which has therapeutic potential for asthma and other allergic diseases.
Project description:Mast cells are well recognized as key cells in allergic reactions, such as asthma and allergic airway diseases. However, the effects of mast cells and TNF-? on T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine-dependent asthma are not clearly understood. Therefore, an aim of this study was to investigate the role of mast cells on Th2 cytokine-dependent airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. We used genetically mast cell-deficient WBB6F1/J-Kitw/Kitw-v (W/Wv), congenic normal WBB6F1/J-Kit+/Kit+ (+/+), and mast cell-reconstituted W/Wv mouse models of allergic asthma to investigate the role of mast cells in Th2 cytokine-dependent asthma induced by ovalbumin (OVA). And we investigated whether the intratracheal injection of TNF-? directly induce the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in W/Wv mice. This study, with OVA-sensitized and OVA-challenged mice, revealed the following typical histopathologic features of allergic diseases: increased inflammatory cells of the airway, airway hyperresponsiveness, and increased levels of TNF-?, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and vascular cellular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. However, the histopathologic features and levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 proteins in W/Wv mice after OVA challenges were significantly inhibited. Moreover, mast cell-reconstituted W/Wv mice showed restoration of histopathologic features and recovery of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 protein levels that were similar to those found in +/+ mice. Intratracheal administration of TNF-? resulted in increased ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 protein levels in W/Wv mice. These results suggest that mast cells play a key role in a Th2 cytokine-dependent asthma model through production of adhesion molecules, including ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, by liberation of TNF-?.
Project description:Asthma is an inflammatory disorder caused by airway exposures to allergens and chemical irritants. Studies focusing on immune, smooth muscle, and airway epithelial function revealed many aspects of the disease mechanism of asthma. However, the limited efficacies of immune-directed therapies suggest the involvement of additional mechanisms in asthmatic airway inflammation. TRPA1 is an irritant-sensing ion channel expressed in airway chemosensory nerves. TRPA1-activating stimuli such as cigarette smoke, chlorine, aldehydes, and scents are among the most prevalent triggers of asthma. Endogenous TRPA1 agonists, including reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation products, are potent drivers of allergen-induced airway inflammation in asthma. Here, we examined the role of TRPA1 in allergic asthma in the murine ovalbumin model. Strikingly, genetic ablation of TRPA1 inhibited allergen-induced leukocyte infiltration in the airways, reduced cytokine and mucus production, and almost completely abolished airway hyperreactivity to contractile stimuli. This phenotype is recapitulated by treatment of wild-type mice with HC-030031, a TRPA1 antagonist. HC-030031, when administered during airway allergen challenge, inhibited eosinophil infiltration and prevented the development of airway hyperreactivity. Trpa1(-/-) mice displayed deficiencies in chemically and allergen-induced neuropeptide release in the airways, providing a potential explanation for the impaired inflammatory response. Our data suggest that TRPA1 is a key integrator of interactions between the immune and nervous systems in the airways, driving asthmatic airway inflammation following inhaled allergen challenge. TRPA1 may represent a promising pharmacological target for the treatment of asthma and other allergic inflammatory conditions.
Project description:When bound to mast cell FcepsilonRI, IgE serves as antigen receptor for allergic reactions, permitting specific identification of the allergen. Although the core of the classic antigen-binding site is heavy chain complementarity determining region 3 (CDR-H3), recent studies suggest that allergens might also bind IgE in a superantigen-like fashion outside the classic antigen-binding site.We sought to evaluate the contribution of the classic CDR-H3-centric antigen-binding site to the development of an allergic phenotype.Using a murine model of experimental asthma, we characterized a gene-targeted mouse strain expressing an altered range of CDR-H3s (DeltaD-iD mice) in response to the hydrophobic allergen ovalbumin (OVA). Mutant and wild-type (wt) mice were sensitized intraperitoneally with OVA; non-sensitized mice served as controls.We found the composition of the classic CDR-H3-centric antigen-binding site to be critical for the development of characteristic aspects of allergic asthma. (i) Compared with wt animals, DeltaD-iD mice showed a significantly less pronounced OVA-induced rise in allergen-specific IgE levels and hence in total serum IgE levels. (ii) In addition, DeltaD-iD mice demonstrated a significant reduction in eosinophilic airway inflammation, as well as in interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5 and IL-13 levels in BAL fluids.Allergic sensitization and airway inflammation depend on the composition of the predominant CDR-H3 repertoire, suggesting that the classic CDR-H3-centric antigen-binding site plays a crucial role in creating the immunological interface between allergen and IgE. Our results further emphasize a central role of IgE, not only in mediating but also in regulating the allergic immune response.
Project description:Effects of a Kampo (Japanese herbal) medicine "shoseiryuto (SST, xiao-qing-long-tang in Chinese)", which has been used for the treatment of allergic bronchial asthma clinically, were examined on ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized allergic airway inflammation model (i.e., bronchial asthma) in a mouse. When SST was orally administered at 0.5?g?kg(-1)?day(-1) from day 1 to 6 after OVA inhalation, SST reduced the inflammation in lung tissue, the number of eosinophils and the OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody titer in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids at 7 days after the OVA inhalation. SST also reduced the airway hyperreactivity at 6 days after the OVA inhalation. Proteomic analysis with the agarose two-dimensional electrophoresis showed that the expression of spectrin ?2 was reduced in the lung tissue of OVA-sensitized mice and SST recovered the expression. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses of lung tissue also confirmed this result. When prednisolone was orally administered at 3?mg?kg(-1)?day(-1) from day 1 to 6 after OVA inhalation, the inflammation in lung tissue, the number of eosinophils in BAL fluids and airway hyperreactivity were reduced in the OVA-sensitized mice. However, prednisolone did not reduce the OVA-specific IgE antibody titer in BAL fluids and did not recover the expression of spectrin ?2 in lung tissue. These results suggest that at least a part of action mechanism of SST against OVA-sensitized allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model is different from that of prednisolone.