Characterization and comparative genomic analysis of a novel bacteriophage, SFP10, simultaneously inhibiting both Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7.
ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 are major food-borne pathogens causing serious illness. Phage SFP10, which revealed effective infection of both S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7, was isolated and characterized. SFP10 contains a 158-kb double-stranded DNA genome belonging to the Vi01 phage-like family Myoviridae. In vitro adsorption assays showed that the adsorption constant rates to both Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 were 2.50 × 10?? ml/min and 1.91 × 10?? ml/min, respectively. One-step growth analysis revealed that SFP10 has a shorter latent period (25 min) and a larger burst size (>200 PFU) than ordinary Myoviridae phages, suggesting effective host infection and lytic activity. However, differential development of resistance to SFP10 in S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 was observed; bacteriophage-insensitive mutant (BIM) frequencies of 1.19 × 10?² CFU/ml for S. Typhimurium and 4.58 × 10?? CFU/ml for E. coli O157:H7 were found, indicating that SFP10 should be active and stable for control of E. coli O157:H7 with minimal emergence of SFP10-resistant pathogens but may not be for S. Typhimurium. Specific mutation of rfaL in S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 revealed the O antigen as an SFP10 receptor for both bacteria. Genome sequence analysis of SFP10 and its comparative analysis with homologous Salmonella Vi01 and Shigella phiSboM-AG3 phages revealed that their tail fiber and tail spike genes share low sequence identity, implying that the genes are major host specificity determinants. This is the first report identifying specific infection and inhibition of Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 by a single bacteriophage.
Project description:Det7 is a Myoviridae bacteriophage that gains entry into its Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium host cells by adsorbing to O-antigen polysaccharide. We report here the complete 157,498-bp sequence of its genome. Det7, together with its Vi01-like relatives, are distantly related to phage T4.
Project description:We report here a new virulent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S Typhimurium) bacteriophage, GG32, which was isolated from the Guem River in the Republic of Korea. The strain can infect both S Typhimurium and Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 and may be a good candidate for a bio-control agent.
Project description:Salmonella bacteriophage SPN3US was isolated from a chicken fecal sample. It is a virulent phage belonging to the Myoviridae family and showing effective inhibition of Salmonella enterica and a few Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains. Here we announce the completely sequenced first genome of a Salmonella phage using flagella as receptors. It is the largest genome among Salmonella phages sequenced to date, and major findings from its annotation are described.
Project description:Bacterial flagella have many established roles beyond swimming motility. Despite clear evidence of flagella-dependent adherence, the specificity of the ligands and mechanisms of binding are still debated. In this study, the molecular basis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium flagella binding to epithelial cell cultures was investigated. Flagella interactions with host cell surfaces were intimate and crossed cellular boundaries as demarcated by actin and membrane labelling. Scanning electron microscopy revealed flagella disappearing into cellular surfaces and transmission electron microscopy of S. Typhiumurium indicated host membrane deformation and disruption in proximity to flagella. Motor mutants of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium caused reduced haemolysis compared to wild-type, indicating that membrane disruption was in part due to flagella rotation. Flagella from E. coli O157 (H7), EPEC O127 (H6) and S. Typhimurium (P1 and P2 flagella) were shown to bind to purified intracellular components of the actin cytoskeleton and directly increase in vitro actin polymerization rates. We propose that flagella interactions with host cell membranes and cytoskeletal components may help prime intimate attachment and invasion for E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium, respectively.
Project description:This study examined persistence and decay of bacterial pathogens, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and emerging real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) genetic markers for rapid detection of fecal pollution in manure-amended agricultural soils. Known concentrations of transformed green fluorescent protein-expressing Escherichia coli O157:H7/pZs and red fluorescent protein-expressing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium/pDs were added to laboratory-scale manure-amended soil microcosms with moisture contents of 60% or 80% field capacity and incubated at temperatures of -20°C, 10°C, or 25°C for 120 days. A two-stage first-order decay model was used to determine stage 1 and stage 2 first-order decay rate coefficients and transition times for each organism and qPCR genetic marker in each treatment. Genetic markers for FIB (Enterococcus spp., E. coli, and Bacteroidales) exhibited decay rate coefficients similar to that of E. coli O157:H7/pZs but not of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium/pDs and persisted at detectable levels longer than both pathogens. Concentrations of these two bacterial pathogens, their counterpart qPCR genetic markers (stx1 and ttrRSBCA, respectively), and FIB genetic markers were also correlated (r = 0.528 to 0.745). This suggests that these qPCR genetic markers may be reliable conservative surrogates for monitoring fecal pollution from manure-amended land. Host-associated qPCR genetic markers for microbial source tracking decayed rapidly to nondetectable concentrations, long before FIB, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium/pDs, and E. coli O157:H7/pZs. Although good indicators of point source or recent nonpoint source fecal contamination events, these host-associated qPCR genetic markers may not be reliable indicators of nonpoint source fecal contamination events that occur weeks following manure application on land.
Project description:Recent genomic analyses of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933 revealed two loci encoding urease gene homologues (ureDABCEFG), which are absent in nonpathogenic E. coli strain K-12. This report demonstrates that the cloned EDL933 ure gene cluster is capable of synthesizing urease in an E. coli DH5alpha background. However, when the gene fragment is transformed back into the native EDL933 background, the enzymatic activity of the cloned determinants is undetectable. We speculate that an unidentified trans-acting factor in enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is responsible for this regulation of ure expression. In addition, Fur-like recognition sites are present in three independent O157:H7 isolates upstream of ureD and ureA. Enzymatic assays confirmed a difference in urease expression of cloned EHEC ure clusters in E. coli MC3100Deltafur. Likewise, interruption of fur in O157:H7 isolate IN1 significantly diminished urease activity. We propose that, similar to the function of Fur in regulating the acid response of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, it modulates urease expression in EHEC, perhaps contributing to the acid tolerance of the organism.
Project description:Genomic subtractive hybridization was performed between Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 and DT104 to search for novel Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104-specific sequences. The subtraction resulted mainly in the isolation of DNA fragments with sequence similarity to phages. Two fragments identified were associated with possible virulence factors. One fragment was identical to irsA of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028, which is suggested to be involved in macrophage survival. The other fragment was homologous to HldD, an Escherichia coli O157:H7 lipopolysaccharide assembly-related protein. Five selected DNA fragments-irsA, the HldD homologue, and three fragments with sequence similarity to prophages-were tested for their presence in 17 Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104 isolates and 27 non-DT104 isolates by PCR. All five selected DNA fragments were Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104 specific among the serovar Typhimurium isolates tested. These DNA fragments can be useful for better detection and typing of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104.
Project description:Autoinducer molecules are utilized by gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria to regulate density-dependent gene expression by a mechanism known as quorum sensing. PCR and DNA sequencing results showed that Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli possessed luxS, which is responsible for autoinducer-2 (AI-2) production. Using a Vibrio harveyi luminescence assay, the production of AI-2 was observed in milk, chicken broth, and brucella broth by C. coli, C. jejuni, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 under different conditions.
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4>Although enteric human pathogens are usually studied in the context of their animal hosts, a significant portion of their life cycle occurs on plants. Plant disease alters the phyllosphere, leading to enhanced growth of human pathogens; however, the impact of human pathogens on phytopathogen biology and plant health is largely unknown. To characterize the interaction between human pathogens and phytobacterial pathogens in the phyllosphere, we examined the interactions between Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Salmonella enterica or Escherichia coli O157:H7 with regard to bacterial populations, soft rot progression, and changes in local pH. The presence of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum enhanced the growth of both S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 on leaves. However, in a microaerophilic environment, S. enterica reduced P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum populations and soft rot progression by moderating local environmental pH. Reduced soft rot was not due to S. enterica proteolytic activity. Limitations on P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum growth, disease progression, and pH elevation were not observed on leaves coinoculated with E. coli O157:H7 or when leaves were coinoculated with S. enterica in an aerobic environment. S. enterica also severely undermined the relationship between the phytobacterial population and disease progression of a P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum budB mutant defective in the 2,3-butanediol pathway for acid neutralization. Our results show that S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 interact differently with the enteric phytobacterial pathogen P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. S. enterica inhibition of soft rot progression may conceal a rapidly growing human pathogen population. Whereas soft rotted produce can alert consumers to the possibility of food-borne pathogens, healthy-looking produce may entice consumption of contaminated vegetables.<h4>Importance</h4>Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 may use plants to move between animal and human hosts. Their populations are higher on plants cocolonized with the common bacterial soft rot pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, turning edible plants into a risk factor for human disease. We inoculated leaves with P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and S. enterica or E. coli O157:H7 to study the interactions between these bacteria. While P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum enhanced the growth of both S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7, these human pathogens affected P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum fundamentally differently. S. enterica reduced P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum growth and acidified the environment, leading to less soft rot on leaves; E. coli O157:H7 had no such effects. As soft rot signals a food safety risk, the reduction of soft rot symptoms in the presence of S. enterica may lead consumers to eat healthy-looking but S. enterica-contaminated produce.
Project description:Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica are leading causes of foodborne outbreaks linked to fresh produce. Both species can enter the "viable but nonculturable" (VBNC) state that precludes detection using conventional culture-based or molecular methods. In this study, we assessed propidium monoazide-quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) assays and novel methods combining PMA and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for the detection and quantification of VBNC E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica in fresh produce. The performance of PMA-LAMP assays targeting the wzy gene of E. coli O157:H7 and the agfA gene of S. enterica and the performance of PMA-qPCR assays were compared in pure culture and spiked tomato, lettuce, and spinach. No cross-reaction was observed in the specificity tests. The values representing the limit of detection (LOD) seen with PMA-LAMP were 9.0 CFU/reaction for E. coli O157:H7 and 4.6 CFU/reaction for S. enterica in pure culture and were 5.13?×?103 or 5.13?×?104 CFU/g for VBNC E. coli O157:H7 and 1.05?×?104 or 1.05?×?105 CFU/g for VBNC S. enterica in fresh produce, representing results comparable to those obtained by PMA-qPCR. Standard curves showed correlation coefficients ranging from 0.925 to 0.996, indicating a good quantitative capacity of PMA-LAMP for determining populations of both bacterial species in the VBNC state. The PMA-LAMP assay was completed with considerable economy of time (30?min versus 1 h) and achieved sensitivity and quantitative capacity comparable to those seen with a PMA-qPCR assay. PMA-LAMP is a rapid, sensitive, and robust method for the detection and quantification of VBNC E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica in fresh produce.IMPORTANCE VBNC pathogenic bacteria pose a potential risk to the food industry because they do not multiply on routine microbiological media and thus can evade detection in conventional plating assays. Both E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica have been reported to enter the VBNC state under a range of environmental stress conditions and to resuscitate under favorable conditions and are a potential cause of human infections. PMA-LAMP methods developed in this study provide a rapid, sensitive, and specific way to determine levels of VBNC E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica in fresh produce, which potentially decreases the risks related to the consumption of fresh produce contaminated by enteric pathogens in this state. PMA-LAMP can be further applied in the field study to enhance our understanding of the fate of VBNC pathogens in the preharvest and postharvest stages of fresh produce.